Dictionary of computing


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Dictionary of computing

  2. 2. Dictionary Titles in the SeriesSpecialist Dictionaries:Dictionary of Accounting 0 7475 6991 6Dictionary of Banking and Finance 0 7475 6685 2Dictionary of Business 0 7475 9680 0Dictionary of Economics 0 7475 6632 1Dictionary of Environment and Ecology 0 7475 7201 1Dictionary of Hotels, Tourism and Catering Management 1 9016 5999 2Dictionary of Human Resources and Personnel Management 0 7475 6623 2Dictionary of ICT 0 7475 6990 8Dictionary of Marketing 0 7475 6621 6Dictionary of Medical Terms 0 7475 6987 8Dictionary of Military Terms 1 9038 5620 5Dictionary of Nursing 0 7475 6634 8Dictionary of Science and Technology 0 7475 6620 8English Language:Easier English Basic Dictionary 0 7475 6644 5Easier English Basic Synonyms 0 7475 6979 7English Study Dictionary 1 9016 5963 1Easier English Student Dictionary 0 7475 6624 0English Thesaurus for Students 1 9016 5931 3Check your English Vocabulary Workbooks:Business 0 7475 6626 7Computing 1 9016 5928 3English for Academic Purposes 0 7475 6691 7PET 0 7475 6627 5FCE + 0 7475 6981 9IELTS 0 7475 6982 7TOEFL® 0 7475 6984 3 Visit our website for full details of all our books http://www.bloomsbury.com/reference
  4. 4. www.bloomsbury.com Originally published by Peter Collin Publishing Fifth edition published 2004 Fourth edition published 2002 Third edition published 1998 Second edition published 1994 First published in Great Britain 1988 Bloomsbury Publishing Plc 38 Soho Square, London W1D 3HB © Copyright S.M.H. Collin, 1988, 1994, 1998, 2002 This edition © copyright Bloomsbury Publishing Plc 2004 All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced in any form or by any means without the permission of the publishers. British Library Cataloguing-in-Publication Data A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library eISBN-13: 978-1-4081-0225-1 Text processing and computer typesetting by Bloomsbury Printed and bound in Italy by Legoprint Text Production and Proofreading Lesley Brown, Stephen Curtis, Howard Sargeant, Megan Thomson, Katy McAdam, Joel Adams, Daisy Jackson, Charlotte ReganAll papers used by Bloomsbury Publishing are natural, recyclable products made from woodgrown in well-managed forests. The manufacturing processes conform to the environmental regulations of the country of origin.
  5. 5. PrefaceThis dictionary provides the user with a comprehensive range of the vocabularyused in the field of computing. It covers all aspects of computing, includinghardware, software, peripherals, networks and programming, as well as manyapplications in which computers are used, such as the Internet or desktoppublishing. It also describes the latest developments in networks, the Internet,communications, programming, multimedia, processor design and storagetechnology.Each headword is explained in clear, straightforward English. Examples are givento show how the words and phrases can be used in context. General commentsabout particular items of interest, complex ideas or hardware or softwareapplications are given in separate boxes. Quotations from magazines and journalsare given to show how the words are used in real text.The dictionary includes a number of product names and company names. Thetrademarked names that are included are those that are judged to be of de factoimportance to users or important in the development of computer technology.
  6. 6. PronunciationThe following symbols have been used to show the pronunciation of the mainwords in the dictionary.Stress has been indicated by a main stress mark ( ) and a secondary stress mark( ). Note that these are only guides, as the stress of the word changes according toits position in the sentence. Vowels Consonants back b buck ɑ harm d dead ɒ stop ð other a type d jump aυ how f fare aə hire gold aυə hour h head ɔ course j yellow ɔ annoy k cab e head l leave eə fair m mix e make n nil eυ o ŋ sing word p print i keep r rest i happy s save ə about ʃ shop  fit t take ə near tʃ change u annual θ theft u pool v value υ book w work υə tour x loch shut measure z zone
  7. 7. Computing.fm Page 1 Friday, December 19, 2003 7:16 PM A A1 /e/ symbol the hexadecimal equivalent A aberration / bə reʃ(ə)n/ noun 1. dis- aberration of the decimal number 10 tortion of a light beam or image caused by A2 /e/ abbr ampere A defects in the optical system 2. distortion A: used in some operating systems to de- A: of a television picture caused by a corrupt note the first disk drive on the system signal or incorrect adjustment Å abbr angstrom ablation /ə bleʃ(ə)n/ noun a method of Å ablation abandon /ə b ndən/ verb to clear a abandon writing data to an optical storage device in document, file or work from a computer’s which a laser burns a hole or pit, represent- memory without saving it ć Once you ing digital bits of data, into the thin metal have abandoned your spreadsheet, you surface of the storage device cannot retrieve it again. COMMENT: A laser burns a hole or pit (which represents digital bits of data) into the thin abb. add. abbr abbreviated addressing abb. add. metal surface of the storage device. abbreviated address /ə bri vietid ə abbreviated address abnormal end / b nɔ m(ə)l abnormal end end/ dres/ noun (in a network) a user name noun same as abend that has fewer characters than the full abnormal termination / b nɔ m(ə)l abnormal termination name, making it easier to remember or type in or faster to decode t m neʃ(ə)n/ noun same as abend abort /ə bɔ t/ verb to end a process in the abort abbreviated addressing /ə abbreviated addressing bri vietid ə dresŋ/ noun the use of ab- event of a malfunction occurs by switching breviated addresses. Abbr abb. add. the computer off manually or by an inter- abbreviated installation abbreviated installation /ə nal feature ć The program was aborted by bri vietid nstə leʃ(ə)n/ noun the in- pressing the red button. aborted connection /ə bɔ td kə aborted connection stalling of new hardware or software with- out restoring the previous backup settings nekʃ(ə)n/ noun a connection to a net- of the operating system work or online service that has not been abbreviation /ə bri vi eʃ(ə)n/ noun a abbreviation shut down correctly abort sequence /ə bɔ t si kwəns/ abort sequence short form of a word, command or instruc- tion ć Within the text, the abbreviation noun a unique sequence of bits that indi- proc is used instead of processor. cates that the transmission will be termi- ABD abbr Apple Desktop Bus ABD nated because of a fault, error or power abend / bend/ noun an unexpected abend failure About… /ə baυt/ a menu selection in the About… stoppage of a program that is being run, caused by a fault, error or power failure ć SAA CUA front end that tells you who de- An interrupt from a faulty printer caused veloped the program and gives copyright an abend. Also called abnormal end, ab- information above-the-fold /ə b v ðə fəυld/ ad- above-the-fold normal termination abend code / bend kəυd/ noun a spe- abend code jective referring to the part of a webpage cial number, generated by the operating that is seen by all users who call up the system, that identifies the type of error that page, because they do not have to scroll has caused a particular problem down to read it. Compare below-the-fold abend recovery program / bend r ABR / e bi ɑ / noun a service provided abend recovery program ABR k v(ə)ri prəυ r m/ noun a piece of by an ATM network that tries to provide software that will reload a program or sys- the bandwidth requested by a customer, tem software and restart it at the point at though it cannot guarantee to do so. Full which an abend occurred form available bit rate
  8. 8. Computing.fm Page 2 Friday, December 19, 2003 7:16 PMAB roll 2AB roll / e bi rəυl/ noun (in a multi- pletely describes the operation to be per-AB rollmedia application) a sequence of two vid- formed, requiring no other dataeo or music segments that are synchro- absolute loader / bsəlu t ləυdə/ absolute loadernised so that one fades as the second starts noun a program that loads a section ofABS / e bi es/ noun a programming in- code into main memoryABSstruction that returns the magnitude of a absolute maximum rating absolute maximum ratingnumber without the number’s sign ć The / bsəlu t m ksməm retŋ/ noun acommand ABS(-13) will return the answer statement of the maximum values or limits13. Full form absolute function of a systemabsolute address / bsəlu t ə dres/ absolute positioning / bsəlu t pəabsolute address absolute positioningnoun 1. a computer storage address that zʃ(ə)nŋ/ noun the position of an objectdirectly, without any modification, access- in relation to a point of origines a location or device ć Program execu- absolute priority / bsəlu t pra absolute prioritytion is slightly faster if you code only with ɒrti/ noun (in the OS/2 operating sys-absolute addresses. Compare indexed tem) the priority of a process that cannotaddress 2. a computer storage address be changed by the operating systemthat can only access one location ̈ also absolute absolute program program / bsəlu tcalled actual address, machine ad- prəυ r m/ noun a computer programdress written in absolute codeabsolute addressing / bsəlu t ə absolute time / bsəlu t tam/ nounabsolute addressing absolute time dresŋ/ noun the locating of a data word (in CD-audio) the length of time that anstored in memory by the use of its absolute audio disc has been playingaddress absolute value / bsəlu t v lju / absolute valueabsolute assembler / bsəlu t əabsolute assembler noun the size or value of a number, regard- semblə/ noun a type of assembly lan- less of its sign ć The absolute value of –guage program designed to produce code 62.34 is 62.34.that uses only absolute addresses and val- absorb /əb zɔ b/ verb to take in light, absorbues liquid or a signalabsolute cell reference / bsəlu tabsolute cell reference absorptance /əb zɔ ptəns/ noun a absorptancesel ref(ə)rəns/ noun a spreadsheet refer- measure of how completely an object orence that always refers to the same cell, substance absorbs radiant energy. Oppo-even when copied to another location site reflectanceabsolute code / bsəlu t kəυd/ nounabsolute code absorption /əb zɔ pʃən/ noun the pow- absorptionbinary code that directly operates the cen- er loss of a signal when travelling throughtral processing unit, using only absolute a medium, due to its absorptanceaddresses and values. Also called actual abstract data type / bstr kt detə abstract data typecode, basic code tap/ noun a general data type that canabsolute coordinates / bsəlu tabsolute coordinates store any kind of informationkəυ ɔ dnətz/ plural noun coordinates A-bus /e b s/ noun the main internal A-busthat describe the distance of a point from bus in a microprocessorthe intersection of axes ac abbr academic organisation (NOTE: acabsolute device / bsəlu t d vas/absolute device used in email and website addresses)noun an input device such as a tablet or AC abbr alternating current ACmouse that returns the coordinates of apointer within specified axes ACAP / e si e pi / noun an email sys- ACAP tem developed to work with the IMAP4absolute error / bsəlu t erə/ nounabsolute error email protocol to provide extra featuresthe value or magnitude of an error, ignor- such as management of an address book.ing its sign Full form application configuration ac-absolute expression / bsəlu t kabsolute expression cess protocol (NOTE: It was originally spreʃ(ə)n/ noun (in assembly language) termed IMSP (Interactive Mail Supportthe value of an expression that is not af- Protocol).)fected by program relocation ACC / e si si / noun the most important ACCabsolute function / bsəlu tabsolute function internal CPU storage register, containing f ŋkʃən/ noun full form of ABS the data word that is to be processed ćabsolute instruction / bsəlu t n Store the two bytes of data in registers Aabsolute instruction str kʃən/ noun an instruction that com- and B and execute the add instruction –
  9. 9. Computing.fm Page 3 Friday, December 19, 2003 7:16 PM 3 accession number the answer will be in the ACC. Full form She accessed the employee’s file stored on accumulator the computer. accelerated graphics port /ək access arm / kses ɑ m/ noun a me- accelerated graphics port access arm seləretd r fks pɔ t/ noun full chanical device in a disk drive used to po- form of AGP sition the read/write head over the correct acceleration time /ək selə reʃ(ə)n acceleration time track on a disk ć The access arm moves to tam/ noun 1. the time taken for a disk the parking region during transport. access authority / kses ɔ θɒrəti/ access authority drive to spin a disk at the correct speed, from rest ć Allow for acceleration time in noun permission to carry out a particular the access time. 2. the total time between operation on data an access instruction’s issue to a peripheral access-barred / kses bɑ d/ adjec- access-barred and the transfer of the data tive prevented from accessing particular accelerator board /ək selə retə data accelerator board bɔ d/, accelerator card /ək selə retə access category / kses k tə (ə)ri/ access category kɑ d/ noun a circuit board that carries a noun a category that defines which files or faster or more advanced version of the data a user can access and which he or she same processor that runs your computer. cannot Adding an accelerator board to your com- access channel control / kses access channel control puter makes it run faster. tʃ n(ə)l kən trəυl/ noun (in a Token- accelerator key /ək selə retə ki / Ring network) the set of protocols that accelerator key noun a key that, when pressed together manage the data transfer between a station with another, carries out a function that and a medium access control would otherwise have to be selected from access charge / kses tʃɑ d / noun a access charge a menu using a mouse ć Instead of select- cost due when logging onto a system or ing the File menu then the Save option, use viewing special pages on a bulletin board the accelerator keys Alt and S to do the access code / kses kəυd/ noun a se- access code same thing and save the file. ries of characters or symbols that must be accept /ək sept/ verb to establish a ses- entered to identify a user before access to accept sion or connection with another comput- a computer is permitted ing device access control / kses kən trəυl/ access control acceptable use policy /ək noun a security device such as a password acceptable use policy septəb(ə)l ju z pɒlsi/ noun a set of that only allows selected users to use a rules that describe what a user can write or computer system or read files do on the Internet without offending other access control byte / kses kən access control byte users. Abbr AUP trəυl bat/ noun (in a Token-Ring net- acceptance sampling /ək septəns work) a byte following a start marker in the acceptance sampling sɑ mplŋ/ noun the testing of a small ran- token that indicates if the station can ac- dom part of a batch to see if the whole cess the network batch is up to standard access controller / kses kən access controller acceptance test /ək septəns test/ acceptance test trəυlə/ noun (in CD-i) an electronic de- noun a test to check that a piece of equip- vice that transfers image data to the video ment will perform as required or will reach controller required standards access control list / kses kən trəυl access control list acceptance testing /ək septəns acceptance testing lst/ noun full form of ACL testŋ/ noun the performing of an accept- access counter / kses kaυntə/ access counter ance test noun ‘ counter access head / kses hed/ noun the access head access / kses/ noun 1. the fact of be- access ing able to reach or use something ć to part of a disk drive that moves to the cor- have access to the computer room 2. the rect part of the disk’s surface and reads in- fact of being allowed to use a computer formation stored on the disk access hole / kses həυl/ noun an access hole and read or alter files stored in it. This is usually controlled by a security device opening in both sides of a floppy disk’s such as a password. ˽ to deny access to casing allowing the read-write head to be refuse access to a circuit or system for rea- positioned over the disk’s surface sons of workload or security í verb to call accession number /ək seʃ(ə)n accession number up data which is stored in a computer ć n mbə/ noun a number in a record that
  10. 10. Computing.fm Page 4 Friday, December 19, 2003 7:16 PMaccess level 4shows in which order each record was en- cording changes to an access path in casetered of malfunctionaccess level / kses lev(ə)l/ noun aaccess level access period / kses pəriəd/ noun access periodpredefined access category (NOTE: The a period of time during which a user canlowest access level might allow the user access datato only view data, the highest access lev- access permission / kses pə access permissionel allows a user to do anything.) mʃ(ə)n/ noun a description of all the ac-access line / kses lan/ noun a per-access line cess rights for a particular usermanently connected communications line access point / kses pɔnt/ noun a access pointbetween a terminal and a computer test point on a circuit board or in software,access log / kses lɒ / noun a file onaccess log allowing an engineer to check signals ora website server computer that contains a datarecord of every visitor to the website, access privilege / kses prvld / access privilegeshowing when a person visited and which noun the status granted to a user that al-pages he or she viewed ć The access log is lows him or her to see, read or alter filesinvaluable – we produce graphs of the access provider / kses prə vadə/ access providerpages that are most popular using an ac- noun same as ISPcess log analyser program. access rights / kses rats/ plural access rightsaccess mechanism / ksesaccess mechanism noun the rights of a particular user to ac- mekənz(ə)m/ noun a mechanical device cess a particular file or data objectthat moves an access arm over the surface access time / kses tam/ noun 1. the access timeof a disk total time that a storage device takes be-access method / kses meθəd/access method tween the moment the data is requestednoun 1. a means used for the internal and the return of the data ć The accesstransfer of data between memory and dis- time of this dynamic RAM chip is aroundplay or peripheral devices. Differences in 200nS – we have faster versions if yourthe methods used are often the cause of system clock is running faster. 2. the lengthcompatibility problems. 2. a set of rules of time required to find a file or program,that allows a device to send data onto a net- either in main memory or a secondarywork. Token passing and CSMA/CD are memory sourcetwo methods commonly used in a local access unit / kses ju nt/ noun (in a access unitarea network. Token-Ring network) a wiring concentra-access method routines / ksesaccess method routines tor meθəd ru ti nz/ plural noun software accidental / ks dent(ə)l/ adjective accidentalroutines that move data between main which happens by accident ć Always keepstorage and an output device backup copies in case of accidental dam-access name / kses nem/ noun aaccess name age to the master file.unique name that identifies an object in a accordion fold /ə kɔ diən fəυld/, ac- accordion folddatabase cordion fanfold noun method of foldingaccess number / kses n mbə/access number continuous paper, one sheet in one direc-noun the telephone number that a compu- tion, the next sheet in the opposite direc-ter dials up in order to be connected to an tion, allowing the paper to be fed into aInternet service provider or other network printer continuously with no action on theprovider part of the user. Also called fanfoldaccessor / ksesə/ noun a person whoaccessor account /ə kaυnt/ noun (in a network accountaccesses data or online system) a record of a user’saccessory /ək sesəri/ noun an extra,accessory name, password and rights to access a net-add-on device, e.g. a mouse or printer, that work or online system ć If you are a newis attached to or used with a computer ć user, you will have to ask the supervisor toThe printer comes with several accesso- create an account for you. í verb to keepries including a soundproof hood. (NOTE: track of how much time and resourcesThe plural is accessories.) each user of a network or online systemaccess path / kses pɑ θ/ noun a de-access path usesscription of the location of a stored file accounting package noun a piece of accounting packagewithin the directory structure of a disk software that automates a business’s ac-access path journalling / ksesaccess path journalling counting functions ć We now type in each pɑ θ d nəlŋ/ noun the process of re- transaction into the new accounting pack-
  11. 11. Computing.fm Page 5 Friday, December 19, 2003 7:16 PM 5 acoustic delay line age rather than write it into a ledger. Also ACIA / e si a e/ noun a circuit that al- ACIA called accounts package lows a computer to transmit and receive account name /ə kaυnt nem/ noun account name serial data using asynchronous access. Full the unique name of a user on a network or form asynchronous communications online system ć John Smith’s account interface adapter name is JSMITH. ACK / e si ke/ noun a signal that is ACK accounts package /ə kaυnts accounts package sent from a receiver to indicate that a trans- p kd / noun same as accounting mitted message has been received and that package it is ready for the next one ć The printer accumulate /ə kju mjυlet/ verb to accumulate generates an ACK signal when it has re- gather several things together over a peri- ceived data. Full form acknowledge od of time ć We have gradually accumu- Ackerman’s function / kəmənz Ackerman’s function lated a large databank of names and ad- f ŋkʃən/ noun a recursive function used dresses. (NOTE: accumulates – accumu- to test the ability of a compiler to cope lating – accumulated) with recursion accumulator /ə kju mjυletə/, accu- accumulator acknowledge /ək nɒld / noun full acknowledge mulator register noun full form of ACC form of ACK í verb 1. to tell a sender that accumulator address /ə accumulator address a message or letter has been received 2. to kju mjυletə ə dres/ noun an address send a signal from a receiver to show that accessed by an instruction held in the ACC a transmitted message has been received accumulator shift instruction /ə accumulator shift instruction (NOTE: acknowledges – acknowledging – kju mjυletə ʃft n str kʃən/ noun a acknowledged) command to shift the contents of an ACC acknowledge character /ək nɒld acknowledge character left or right by one bit k rktə/ noun a special code sent by a re- accuracy / kjυrəsi/ noun 1. the extent accuracy ceiver to indicate to the transmitter that the to which something is correct or true 2. the message has been correctly received extent to which a person avoids errors 3. acknowledged mail /ək nɒld d acknowledged mail the total number of bits used to define a number in a computer (NOTE: The more mel/ noun a function that signals to the bits allocated the greater the accuracy of sender when an electronic mail message the definition.) has been read by the recipient ACL / e si el/ noun a security system ACL accuracy accuracy control character control character / kjυrəsi kən trəυl k rktə/ noun a that has a list of user names and passwords code that indicates whether data is accu- that is checked by the operating system to rate or whether the data should be disre- find out if a particular user is allowed to garded by a particular device access or use a resource or feature of the ACD / e si di / noun a specialised tele- ACD shared computer or network. Full form ac- phone system that can handle lots of in- cess control list coming calls and direct them to a particu- acoustic /ə ku stk/ adjective referring acoustic lar operator according to programmed in- to sound structions in a database. Full form acoustic coupler /ə ku stk k plə/ acoustic coupler automatic call distribution noun a device that connects to a telephone ACDI abbr asynchronous communica- ACDI handset, converting binary computer data tions device interface into sound signals to allow it to be trans- ACF abbr advanced communications ACF mitted down a telephone line function COMMENT: The acoustic coupler also converts ACH / e si etʃ/ noun an automated ACH back from sound signals to digital signals network that links banks together and ena- when receiving messages. It is basically the same as a modem but uses a handset on bles them to handle payments made from which a loudspeaker is placed to send the sig- one bank to another through electronic nals rather than direct connection to the points of sale and withdrawals from cash- phone line. It is portable and clips over both points. Full form automated clearing ends of a normal telephone handset. It can be used even in a public phone booth. The house acoustic coupler has generally been replaced achromatic colour / ekrəυm tk achromatic colour by a direct cable link from the computer’s mo- k lə/ noun a grey colour within the range dem to the standard telephone socket. acoustic delay line /ə ku stk d le acoustic delay line between black and white displayed by a graphics adapter lan/ noun an outdated data storage meth-
  12. 12. Computing.fm Page 6 Friday, December 19, 2003 7:16 PMacoustic feedback 6od that delays data in the form of sound ActionMedia / kʃən mi diə/ a trade ActionMediapulses as they travel across a medium name for a digital video system developedacoustic feedback /ə ku stk by Intel that uses its i750 video processoracoustic feedback fi db k/ noun ‘ feedback chip to allow a computer to record, playacoustic hood /ə ku stk hυd/ noun aacoustic hood back and manipulate digital video action message / kʃən mesd / action messagesoundproof cover put over a line printer tocut down its noise noun a message displayed to inform theacousticacoustic memory memory /ə ku stk user that an action or input is required mem(ə)ri/ noun same as acoustic store action-object / kʃən əb d ekt/ noun action-objectacoustic panel /ə ku stk p n(ə)l/acoustic panel (in a SAA CUA front end ) an object tonoun a soundproof panel placed behind a which a user specifies an action should bedevice to reduce noise applied activate / kt vet/ verb 1. to start a activateacoustic store /ə ku stk stɔ / nounacoustic storean outdated form of regenerative memory process or to make a device start working ć Pressing CR activates the printer. 2. (inthat uses an acoustic delay line. Also an authoring tool or programming lan-called acoustic memory guage) to make a button or menu option orACPI / e si pi a/ noun a software sys-ACPI field on a screen layout available to a usertem that allows the operating system to ć If the button or field is not activated, it isconfigure compatible hardware automati- normally displayed greyed out and doescally. Full form advanced configuration not respond if a user selects it. (NOTE: ac-and power interface tivates – activating – activated)acquisition / kw zʃ(ə)n/ noun theacquisition active / ktv/ adjective busy, working activeaccepting, capturing or collecting of infor- or being usedmation active application / ktv active application plAcrobat ‘ Adobe Acrobat keʃ(ə)n/ noun (in a multitasking operat-AcrobatACS / e si es/ noun a computer linkedACS ing system) an application currently beingto a network that controls several dial-up used by a usermodems and allows remote users to con- active area / ktv eəriə/ noun 1. (in active areanect to the server using a modem link and a spreadsheet program) the area that con-gain access to the network. Full form tains data bounded by the top left handasynchronous communication server corner and the bottom right hand cell 2. (inaction / kʃən/ noun (in a SAA CUA a graphical window) an area that will startactionfront end ) a user event, e.g. pressing a spe- or select a function if the user moves thecial key, that moves the cursor to the action pointer into it with a mousebar at the top of the screen active cell / ktv sel/ noun the spread- active cellaction bar / kʃən bɑ / noun a top line sheet cell that is currently selected with aaction barof the screen that displays the menu names cursor or pointeraction bar pull-down / kʃən bɑ active code page / ktv kəυdaction bar pull-down active code pagepυl/ noun (in a SAA CUA front end ) a fea- ped / noun a code page currently in useture whereby the full menu is displayed by the systembelow the menu name when a user moves active database / ktv detəbes/ active databasethe cursor to a particular menu name on noun a database file currently being ac-the action bar cessed by a database management pro-action code / kʃən kəυd/ noun (in a gramaction codeSAA CUA front end ) a single letter associ- active device / ktv d vas/ noun an active deviceated with a particular menu option to electronic component that requires electri-speed up selection. When the letter action cal power to operate and provides gain orcode is pressed, the menu option is select- a logical functioned. Active Active Document Document / ktvaction cycle / kʃən sak(ə)l/ noun dɒkjυmənt/ noun a standard Windowsaction cyclethe series of steps required to carry out a application that is accessed from within aprocess or operation on data, e.g. reading, web browser and controlled by specialprocessing, output and storage commands in the webpageaction list / kʃən lst/ noun (in a SAA active file / ktv fal/ noun a file thataction list active fileCUA front end ) a list of choices is currently being worked on
  13. 13. Computing.fm Page 7 Friday, December 19, 2003 7:16 PM 7 actual data transfer rate active gateway / ktv active gateway etwe/ active storage / ktv stɔ rd / noun active storage noun (in a network) a gateway that ex- a main storage, fast access RAM whose lo- changes routing information cations can be directly and immediately active high / ktv ha/ noun an elec- active high addressed by the CPU tronic signal that is valid when it is high or active streaming format / ktv active streaming format logical one or at five volts stri mŋ fɔ m t/ noun full form of ASF active hub / ktv h b/ noun a hub active video / ktv vdiəυ s n(ə)l/, active hub active video that selectively directs packets of data ac- active video signal noun a part of a vid- cording to their address or content eo signal that contains picture information active line / ktv lan/ noun a line in ActiveVRML / ktv vi ɑ em el/ active line ActiveVRML a communications link or port that is being noun ‘ VRML used to transfer data or carry control sig- active window / ktv wndəυ/ noun active window nals 1. an area of the display screen where the active link / ktv lŋk/ noun a link active link operator is currently working 2. (in a GUI currently being used to transfer informa- or SAA CUA front end ) the window that is tion currently the focus of cursor movements active low / ktv ləυ/ noun an elec- and screen displays. ı window active low tronic signal that is valid when it is low or ActiveX / ktv eks/ a trade name for a ActiveX logical zero or at zero volts programming language and program defi- active menu / ktv menju / noun a active menu nition used to create small applications de- menu selection currently displayed below signed to enhance the functionality of a a menu bar webpage. ı Java, VBScript active node / ktv nəυd/ noun a active node COMMENT: ActiveX applications, called ap- node on a network connected to or availa- plets, are often used to add database or mul- timedia effects to a website that cannot be ble to connect to another node supported with basic HTML commands. active pixel region / ktv pks(ə)l active pixel region When a user visits the web page that uses the ri d ən/ noun an area of a computer ActiveX applet, the program is automatically downloaded by the user’s browser and run on screen that can display graphic image in- the user’s computer. formation activities / k tvtiz/ plural noun jobs activities active printer / ktv prntə/ noun a active printer or tasks which are being performed on a printer that is currently connected to the computer computer’s printer port activity level / k tvəti lev(ə)l/ noun activity level active program / ktv prəυ r m/ active program the maximum number of jobs that can run noun (in a multitasking system) a pro- in a multitasking system gram that is currently in control of the activity light / k tvti lat/ noun activity light processor small light or LED on the front of a disk active record / ktv rekɔ d/ noun a active record drive or computer that indicates when the record that is being updated or accessed disk drive is reading or writing data to disk active region / ktv ri d (ə)n/ noun active region activity loading / k tvti ləυdŋ/ activity loading an area on a screen that will start an action noun a method of organising disk contents or has been defined as a hotspot so that the most often accessed files or pro- Active Server Page / ktv s və Active Server Page grams can be loaded quickly ped / noun a webpage that is created activity ratio / k tvti reʃiəυ/ noun activity ratio only when accessed by a visitor, allowing the website to display up-to-date informa- the number of files currently in use com- tion or information from a database ć The pared to the total stored activity trail / k tvti trel/ noun a activity trail database search results page is imple- mented as an Active Server Page. Abbr record of activities carried out actual address / ktʃuəl ə dres/ actual address ASP active star / ktv stɑ / noun a net- active star noun same as absolute address actual code / ktʃuəl kəυd/ noun actual code work consisting of a central point with nodes branching out, in which a central same as absolute code processor controls and routes all messages actual data transfer rate / ktʃuəl actual data transfer rate between devices detə tr nsf ret/ noun the average active state / ktv stet/ noun an number of data bits transferred in a period active state electronic state in which an action occurs of time
  14. 14. Computing.fm Page 8 Friday, December 19, 2003 7:16 PMactual instruction 8actual instruction / ktʃuəl n adaptive packet assembly /əactual instruction adaptive packet assembly str kʃən/ noun the resulting instruction d ptv p kt ə sembli/ noun a methodexecuted after the modification of an orig- used by the MNP error correcting protocolinal instruction to adjust the size of data packets accordingactuator / ktʃυetə/ noun a mechani- to the quality of the telephone line. Theactuatorcal device that can be controlled by an ex- better the line, the bigger the packet size.ternal signal, e.g. the read/write head in a adaptive routing /ə d ptv ru tŋ/ adaptive routingdisk drive noun the ability of a system to change itsACU / e si ju / noun a device that al- communications routes in response to var-ACUlows a computer to call stations or dial tel- ious events or situations such as line fail-ephone numbers automatically. Full form ure (NOTE: The messages are normallyautomatic calling unit sent along the most cost-effective pathad abbr Andorra (NOTE: used in emailad unless there is a problem with that route,and website addresses) in which case they are automatically re-A/D abbr analog to digitalA/D routed.) adaptive system /ə d ptv sstəm/ adaptive systemADA / e di e/ noun a high-level pro-ADAgramming language that is used mainly in noun a system that is able to alter its re-military, industrial and scientific fields of sponses and processes according to inputscomputing or situations adaptor /ə d ptə/ noun another spell- adaptoradapt /ə d pt/ verb to change, adjust oradaptmodify something so that it fits ć Can this ing of adapter ADB abbr Apple Desktop Bus ADB™computer be adapted to take 5.25 inchdisks? ADC / e di si / noun an electronic de- ADCadaptation / d p teʃ(ə)n/ noun the vice that converts an analog input signal toadaptationability of a device to adjust its sensitivity a digital form, which can be processed byrange according to various situations a computer. Full form analog to digitaladapter /ə d ptə/, adaptornoun a de-adapter converter add / d/ verb 1. to put figures together to addvice that allows two or more incompatibledevices to be connected together make a total 2. to put things together toadapter card /ə d ptə kɑ d/ noun aadapter card form a larger group ć The software housecard that plugs into an expansion bus in a has added a new management package toPC and adds a new function to the compu- its range of products. addend / dend/ noun the number add- addendter or allows it to communicate with anoth-er device (NOTE: A sound card is a type of ed to the augend in an additionadapter card that plugs into an expan- adder / də/ noun a device or routine addersion connector and allows sound to be that provides the sum of two or more in-played back or recorded.) puts, either digital or analogadapter plug /ə d ptə pl / noun aadapter plug COMMENT: A parallel adder takes one clock cy-plug that allows plugs with different num- cle to add two words, a serial adder takes abers or shapes of pins to be fitted into the time equal to the number of bits in a word to add.same socket adder-subtractor / də səb tr ktə/ adder-subtractoradaptive channel allocation /əadaptive channel allocation noun a device that can either add or sub- d ptv tʃ n(ə)l lə keʃ(ə)n/ noun tractprovision of communications channels ac- add file / d fal/ noun a file in which add filecording to demand rather than a fixed allo-cation new records are stored prior to updatingadaptive compression /ə d ptvadaptive compression the main database add-in / d n/ noun, adjective some- add-inkəm preʃ(ə)n/ noun a data compressionsystem that continuously monitors the data thing that is added to something else í ad-it is compressing and adjusts its own algo- jective that is added to something else addition /ə dʃ(ə)n/ noun an arithmetic additionrithm to provide the most efficient com-pression operation that produces the sum of an ad-adaptive differential pulse codeadaptive differential pulse code modulation dend and augendmodulation /ə d ptv dfə renʃ(ə)l additional /ə dʃ(ə)nəl/ adjective which additional p ls kəυd mɒdju leʃ(ə)n/ noun full is added or extra ć Can we link three addi-form of ADPCM tional workstations to the network?
  15. 15. Computing.fm Page 9 Friday, December 19, 2003 7:16 PM 9 addressing method addition record /ə dʃ(ə)n rekɔ d/ addition record address base /ə dres bes/ noun the address base noun a record with changes used to update part of an address that defines the origin to a master record or file which the logical address is added addition time /ə dʃ(ə)n tam/ noun addition time address book /ə dres bυk/ noun 1. (in address book the time an adder takes to carry out an ad- a network) a list of node addresses 2. (in dition operation electronic mail ) a list of the network ad- addition without carry /ə dʃ(ə)n addition without carry dresses of other users to which electronic wð aυt k ri/ noun an addition opera- mail can be sent tion without any carry bits or words address bus /ə dres b s/ noun a phys- address bus additive colour / dətv k lə/ noun a additive colour ical connection that carries the address colour produced by mixing two or three data in parallel form from the central colours from red, green and blue processing unit to external devices add-on / d ɒn/ adjective added to a add-on address code /ə dres kəυd/ noun a address code computer system to improve its perform- special code that identifies the part of a ance ć The add-on hard disk will boost the document that is an address computer’s storage capabilities. Opposite address computation address computation /ə dres built-in í noun a piece of software or kɒmpjυ teʃ(ə)n/ noun an operation on hardware that is added to a computer sys- address data in an instruction tem to improve its performance address decoder /ə dres di kəυdə/ address decoder add on board / d ɒn bɔ d/ noun same add on board noun a logical circuit that will produce a as expansion board signal when a certain address or range is add register / d red stə/ noun a reg- add register placed on the address bus ister that is an adder address field /ə dres fi ld/ noun 1. (in address field address /ə dres/ noun 1. a number al- address a network) the part of a packet that con- lowing a central processing unit to refer- tains the address of the destination node 2. ence a physical location in a storage medi- (in programming) the part of a computer um in a computer system ć Each separate instruction that contains the location of the memory word has its own unique address. operand 2. a unique number that identifies a device address format /ə dres fɔ m t/ noun address format on a network ć This is the address at which the data starts. í verb to put the lo- the set of rules defining the way the oper- cation data onto an address bus to identify ands, data and addresses are arranged in an which word in memory or storage device instruction address harvester /ə dres hɑ vstə/ address harvester is to be accessed ć A larger address word increases the amount of memory a compu- noun a computer program that collects ter can address. email addresses from the Internet addressability /ə dresə blti/ noun address highway /ə dres hawe/ address highway addressability the control available over pixels on screen noun the set of physical connections that addressable /ə dresəb(ə)l/ adjective addressable carry the address data in a parallel form which can be addressed ć With the new between the central processing unit and operating system, all of the 5MB of in- memory or external devices addressing /ə dresŋ/ noun the process addressing stalled RAM is addressable. addressable cursor /ə dresəb(ə)l addressable cursor of accessing a location in memory k sə/ noun a cursor which can be pro- addressing capacity /ə dresŋ kə addressing capacity grammed to be placed in a certain position p sti/ noun the largest location that a addressable point /ə dresəb(ə)l addressable point certain program or CPU can directly ad- pɔnt/ noun a point or pixel in a graphics dress, without special features, e.g. virtual system that can be directly addressed memory or memory banks addressable terminal /ə dresəb(ə)l addressing level /ə dresŋ lev(ə)l/ addressable terminal addressing level t mn(ə)l/ noun a terminal that will only noun zero-level: operand is the address accept data if it has the correct address and part of the instruction; first-level: operand identification number in the message stored at the address of the instruction; header second-level: operand stored at the address address access time /ə dres kses address access time given in the instruction tam/ noun the total time which a storage addressing method /ə dresŋ addressing method device takes between the moment the data meθəd/ noun the manner in which a sec- is requested and the return of the data tion of memory is located
  16. 16. Computing.fm Page 10 Friday, December 19, 2003 7:16 PMaddressing mode 10addressing mode /ə dresŋ məυd/addressing mode adjacent domains /ə d es(ə)nt dəυ adjacent domainsnoun a way in which a location is ad- menz/ plural noun two domains linkeddressed, e.g. sequential, indexed or direct by two adjacent nodesaddress mapping /ə dres m pŋ/address mapping adjacent nodes /ə d es(ə)nt nəυdz/ adjacent nodesnoun the translation of a virtual address to plural noun two nodes connected by a pathan absolute real address that does not connect any other nodeaddress mark /ə dres mɑ k/ noun aaddress mark adjunct register / d ŋkt red stə/ adjunct registerspecial code on a disk that indicates the noun a 32-bit register in which the top 16start of sector location data bits are used for control information and only the bottom 16 bits are available foraddress mask /ə dres mɑ sk/ noun aaddress mask use by a programpattern of binary data bits that is used toblock out parts of an address data word. It adjustment /ə d stmənt/ noun the adjustmentis normally used to separate the network making of a slight change made to some-and subnet parts of an address within a thing so that it works better, or a changelong Internet or IP address. ć The address made ć The brightness needs adjustment.mask ‘111000’ will block off the last three AdLib / d lb/ noun a type of sound card AdLibbits of any address data. for a PC with basic sound playback and MIDI functionsaddress modification /ə dresaddress modification mɒdf keʃ(ə)n/ noun the changing of administrator /əd mnstretə/ noun a administratorthe address field, so that it can refer to a person who is responsible for looking afterdifferent location a network, including installing, configur- ing and maintaining itaddress register /ə dres red stə/address register Adobe Acrobat /ə dəυbi krəb t/ a Adobe Acrobatnoun register in a computer that is able to trade name for a piece of software thatstore all the bits that make up an address converts documents and formatted pages,which can then be processed as a single into a file format that can be viewed on al-unit most any computer platform or using aaddress resolution /ə dresaddress resolution web browser on the Internet (NOTE: For rezəlu ʃ(ə)n/ noun the converting pf an example, if you publish a newsletter, youInternet address into the correct physical could lay out the pages using a desktopnetwork address that corresponds to the publish system, print the pages for a pa-distant computer or resource per version and convert the files to Acro-address resolution protocol /ə bat format allowing you to distribute theaddress resolution protocol dres rezə lu ʃ(ə)n prəυtəkɒl/ noun same formatted pages on CD-ROM orfull form of ARP over the Internet.)address space /ə dres spes/ noun theaddress space Adobe Systems /ə dəυbi sstəmz/ a Adobe Systemstotal number of possible locations that can software company that developed productsbe directly addressed by the program or including Acrobat, ATM, and PostScriptCPU Adobe Type Manager /ə dəυbi tap Adobe Type Manageraddress strobe /ə dres strəυb/ noun aaddress strobe m nd ə/ a trade name for a standard forsignal in the form of a pulse that indicates describing scalable fonts, used with Applethat a valid address is on the address bus System 7 and Microsoft Windows to pro- vide fonts that can be scaled to almost anyaddress track /ə dres tr k/ nounaddress track point size, and printed on almost any print-track on a magnetic disk containing the ad- er. Abbr ATMdresses of files or other data stored on oth-er tracks ADP / e di pi / noun data processing ADP done by a computer. Full form automaticaddress translation /ə dres tr nsaddress translation data processing leʃ(ə)n/ noun an address produced by ADPCM / e di pi si em/ noun a ADPCMcalculating an expression CCITT standard that defines a method ofaddress word /ə dres w d/ noun aaddress word converting a voice or analog signal into acomputer word that contains the address compressed digital signal. Full formdata. In a small micro it is usually made up adaptive differential pulse code mod-of two data words. ulationadd time / d tam/ noun a period of ADSL / e di es el/ noun high-speedadd time ADSLtime taken either by a CPU or adder to per- transmission standard that uses the sameform one addition operation copper telephone wires as a normal tele-
  17. 17. Computing.fm Page 11 Friday, December 19, 2003 7:16 PM 11 aggregate bandwidth phone service, but is much faster than a advanced wave modulation /əd advanced wave modulation standard modem or a digital system such vɑ nst wev mɒdjυleʃ(ə)n/ noun full as ISDN. Full form Asymmetric Digital form of AWM Subscriber Line (NOTE: As well as the advisory lock /əd vaz(ə)ri lɒk/ noun advisory lock speed, ADSL provides a user with an ‘al- (in a multitasking system) a lock placed ways on’ connection to the Internet – on a region of a file by one process to pre- there is no need to dial an access vent any other process accessing the same number and no delay. Typically, compa- data nies provide ADSL for a fixed monthly advisory system /əd vaz(ə)ri advisory system rental; data is usually transferred from sstəm/ noun an expert system that pro- the Internet to the user’s computer at vides advice to a user 2Mbps but transferred from the user’s aerial perspective / eəriəl pə aerial perspective computer to the Internet at a slower rate spektv/ noun a view of a three-dimen- of 256Kbps.) sional landscape as if the viewer is above advanced configuration and pow- advanced the scene er interface /əd vɑ nst kən f jə AFAIK abbr as far as I know (NOTE: used AFAIK reʃ(ə)n ən paυə ntəfes/ noun full in emails and text messages) form of ACPI affiliate marketing affiliate marketing /ə fliət Advanced Micro Devices /əd Advanced Micro Devices mɑ ktŋ/ noun a type of marketing that vɑ nst makrəυ d vasz/ full form of uses a central website to advertise and sell AMD products and services from other sites advanced peer-to-peer network- affirmative /ə f mətv/ adjective advanced peer-to-peer networking affirmative ing /əd vɑ nst pə tə pə netw kŋ/ meaning ‘yes’ ˽ the answer was in the noun full form of APPN affirmative the answer was ‘yes’ advanced power management /əd advanced power management affirmative acknowledgement /ə affirmative acknowledgement vɑ nst paυə m nd mənt/ noun full f mətv ək nɒld mənt/ noun an ACK form of APM from the receiver that it has accepted the advanced program to program advanced program to program communications message and is ready for the next one communications /əd vɑ nst AFIPS abbr American Federation of In- AFIPS prəυ r m tə prəυ r m kə mju n formation Processing Societies keʃ(ə)nz/ noun full form of APPC AFP / e ef pi / noun a protocol used to AFP Advanced Research Projects Advanced Research Projects Agency Network communicate between workstations and Agency Network /əd vɑ nst ri s tʃ servers in a network of Apple Macintosh prɒd ekts ed (ə)nsi netw k/ noun computers. Full form Appletalk Filing full form of ARPANET Protocol advanced run-length limited /əd advanced run-length limited afterglow / ɑ ftə ləυ/ noun afterglow ‘ persist- vɑ nst r n leŋθ lmtd/ noun a meth- ence od of storing data onto a hard disk that is after-image / ɑ ftə md / noun a after-image faster and more efficient than RLL. Abbr copy of a block of data that has been mod- ARLL ified advanced technology attachment AGC / e d i si / noun an electronic cir- advanced technology attachment AGC /əd vɑ nst tek nɒləd i ə t tʃmənt/ cuit that adjusts the level of an incoming noun full form of ATA signal so that it is suitable for the next part advanced technology attachment advanced technology attachment packet interface of the circuit. Full form automatic gain packet interface /əd vɑ nst tek control nɒləd i ə t tʃmənt p kt ntəfes/ agent / ed ənt/ noun 1. a program or agent noun a type of standard interface that is piece of software that runs on a worksta- used for CD-ROMs. Abbr ATAPI. Also tion in a network and sends performance called ATA packet interface and statistical information about the work- Advanced Television Systems Advanced Television Systems Committee station to a central network management Committee /əd vɑ nst telv (ə)n console 2. a series of commands or actions sstəmz kə mti/ noun full form of that are carried out automatically on a par- ATSC ticular file or data advanced version advanced version /əd vɑ nst aggregate / r ət/ noun a collection aggregate v ʃ(ə)n/ noun a program with more of data objects complex features for use by an experi- aggregate bandwidth / r ət aggregate bandwidth enced user b ndwdθ/ noun the total bandwidth of a
  18. 18. Computing.fm Page 12 Friday, December 19, 2003 7:16 PMaggregate function 12channel carrying a multiplexed data about something ć The alert box warnedstream me that I was about to delete all my files.aggregateaggregate function function / r ət alert condition /ə l t kən dʃ(ə)n/ alert condition f ŋkʃən/ noun a mathematical database noun a status of a particular object or de-function performed on a selected field in vice that triggers an alarmevery record in a selected database algebra / ld brə/ noun the use of let- algebraaggregate line speed / r ət lan ters in certain mathematical operations toaggregate line speed spi d/ noun the maximum speed at which represent unknown numbers or a range ofdata can be transmitted through a particu- possible numberslar channel algebraic language / ld brek algebraic languageaggregateaggregate operator operator / r ət l ŋ wd / noun a context-free language ɒpəretə/ noun a command in a database ALGOL / l ɒl/ noun a high-level pro- ALGOLmanagement program that starts an aggre- gramming language using algorithmicgate function methods for mathematical and technicalAGP / e d i pi / noun a dedicated busAGP applications. Full form algorithmic lan-between a graphics controller and main guagememory that allows data to be transferred algorithm / l ərð(ə)m/ noun a set of algorithmvery quickly without using the main proc- rules used to define or perform a specificessor. Full form accelerated graphics task or to solve a specific problemport (NOTE: It is used with the Intel Pen- ‘…image processing algorithms are step by step pro- cedures for performing image processing opera-tium II processor to provide very high- tions’ [Byte]speed three-dimensional graphics and ‘…the steps are: acquiring a digitized image, devel-video processing. This port does not re- oping an algorithm to process it, processing the im-place a PCI bus but works with it.) age, modifying the algorithm until you are satisfied with the result’ [Byte]AI / e a/ noun the design and develop-AIment of computer programs that attempt to algorithmic / l ə rðmk/ adjective algorithmic expressed using algorithmsimitate human intelligence and decision-making functions, providing basic reason- algorithmic language / l ərðmk algorithmic languageing and other human characteristics. Full l ŋ wd / noun full form of ALGOLform artificial intelligence. ı IKBS alias / eliəs/ noun a representative name aliasaiming symbol / emŋ smb(ə)l/,aiming symbol given to a file, port, device or spreadsheetaiming field noun a symbol displayed on cell or range of cells ć The operating sys-screen which defines the area in which a tem uses the alias COM1 to represent thelight-pen can be detected serial port address 3FCh. aliasing / eliəsŋ/ noun jagged edges aliasingairbrush / eə br ʃ/ noun (in graphicsairbrush that appear along diagonal or curved linessoftware) a painting tool that creates a dif- displayed on a computer screen caused byfuse pattern of dots, like an mechanical the size of each pixelairbrush ć We used the airbrush to createthe cloud effects in this image. alias name / eliəs nem/ noun another alias name name that is used on a network instead ofair gap / eə p/ noun a narrow gap be-air gap the user nametween a recording or playback head and alien / eliən/ adjective not fitting the alienthe magnetic medium usual systemAIX / e a eks/ a trade name for a versionAIX alien disk / eliən dsk/ noun a disk for- alien diskof UNIX produced by IBM to run on its matted on another system or containingrange of PCs, minicomputers and main- data in a format that cannot be read or un-frames. Full form advanced interactive derstood ć When you have an alien diskexecutive select the multi-disk option to allow you toA law / ə lɔ / noun a method of encodingA law turn the disk drive into an alien disk read-digital audio data so that an 8-bit data er.word can contain a 13-bit audio sample alien disk reader / eliən dsk ri də/ alien disk readeralert /ə l t/ noun a warning messagealert noun an add-on device that allows a com-sent from software to warn a person or ap- puter to access data on disks from otherplication that an error or problem has oc- computers or systemscurred align /ə lan/ verb 1. to make sure that alignalert box /ə l t bɒks/ noun a warning the characters to be printed are spaced andalert boxpanel displayed on screen to warn a user levelled correctly, either vertically or hori-
  19. 19. Computing.fm Page 13 Friday, December 19, 2003 7:16 PM 13 alphanumeric operand zontally 2. to arrange numbers into a col- alphabetic string / lfəbetk strŋ/ alphabetic string umn with all figured lines up against the noun a string that only contains alphabetic right hand side (right-aligned) or the left- characters hand side (left-aligned) 3. to ensure that a alphabetise / lfəbetaz/, alphabet- alphabetise read/write head is correctly positioned ize verb to put items into alphabetical or- over the recording medium der ć Enter the bibliographical informa- aligner /ə lanə/ noun a device used to aligner tion and alphabetise it. (NOTE: alphabet- make sure that the paper is straight in a ises – alphabetising – alphabetised) printer alpha blending / lfə blendŋ/ noun alpha blending aligning edge /ə lanŋ ed / noun an aligning edge control over the transparency of a graphi- edge of an optical character recognition cal object, normally used to display com- system used to position a document plex graphical objects such as glass and alignment /ə lanmənt/ noun the cor- alignment water rect spacing and levelling of printed char- alpha channel / lfə tʃ n(ə)l/ noun alpha channel acters ˽ in alignment correctly aligned (in 32-bit graphics systems) the top eight alignment pin /ə lanmənt pn/ noun a alignment pin bits that define the properties of a pixel peg that fits in a hole to ensure that two de- (NOTE: The lower 24 bits define the pixel’s vices are correctly aligned colour.) allocate / lə ket/ verb to divide a pe- allocate alphageometric / lfəd i əυ metrk/ alphageometric riod of time or a piece of work in various adjective referring to a set of codes that in- ways and share it out between users ć The struct a teletext terminal to display various operating system allocated most of main graphics patterns or characters memory to the spreadsheet program. alphameric / lfə merk/ adjective US alphameric (NOTE: allocates – allocating – allocated) same as alphanumeric allocation / lə keʃ(ə)n/ noun the di- allocation alphamosaic / lfəməυ zek/ adjec- alphamosaic viding of something such as memory, disk tive (character set) used in teletext to pro- space, printer use, operating system time, vide alphanumeric and graphics characters or a program or device in various ways alphanumeric / lfənjυ merk/ ad- alphanumeric allocation routine / lə keʃ(ə)n ru allocation routine jective using the letters of the alphabet, the ti n/ noun a short program that divides Arabic numerals and punctuation marks the memory resources of a system between (NOTE: The US term is alphameric.) the software and peripherals that use it alphanumeric array / lfənjυmerk alphanumeric array allocation unit / lə keʃ(ə)n ju nt/ allocation unit noun a sector or set of sectors on a hard ə re/ noun an array whose elements are disk that is used to store a file or part of a letters and numbers alphanumeric characters alphanumeric characters file all points addressable mode / ɔ l all points addressable mode / lfənjυmerk k rktəz/ plural noun pɔnts ə dresəb(ə)l məυd/ noun a Roman letters and Arabic numerals and graphics mode in which each pixel can be other signs such as punctuation marks. individually addressed and its colour and Also called alphanumerics alphanumeric data / lfənjυmerk alphanumeric data attributes defined. Also called APA mode alpha / lfə/ noun 1. same as alpha test alpha detə/ noun data that represents the let- ć The new software is still in an alpha ters of the alphabet and the Arabic numer- product stage. 2. an item of data that de- als alphanumeric display alphanumeric display fines the properties of a pixel or part of an image / lfənjυmerk d sple/ noun a display ALPHA / lfə/ noun a 64-bit RISC proc- ALPHA device able to show characters as well as essor chip developed by Digital Equip- numbers alphanumeric key / lfənjυmerk alphanumeric key ment Corporation alpha beta technique / lfə bi tə alpha beta technique ki / noun a keyboard key which produces tek ni k/ noun a free structure technique a letter, symbol or figure alphanumeric keyboard alphanumeric keyboard used in artificial intelligence for solving game and strategy problems / lfənjυmerk ki bɔ d/ noun a key- alphabetic alphabetic character set character set board containing character keys as well as / lfəbetk k rktə set/ noun the set of numerical keys characters, both capitals and small letters, alphanumeric operand alphanumeric operand that make up the alphabet / lfənjυmerk ɒpər nd/ noun an oper-