Dictionary of computing

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  • 2. Dictionary Titles in the SeriesSpecialist Dictionaries:Dictionary of Accounting 0 7475 6991 6Dictionary of Banking and Finance 0 7475 6685 2Dictionary of Business 0 7475 9680 0Dictionary of Economics 0 7475 6632 1Dictionary of Environment and Ecology 0 7475 7201 1Dictionary of Hotels, Tourism and Catering Management 1 9016 5999 2Dictionary of Human Resources and Personnel Management 0 7475 6623 2Dictionary of ICT 0 7475 6990 8Dictionary of Marketing 0 7475 6621 6Dictionary of Medical Terms 0 7475 6987 8Dictionary of Military Terms 1 9038 5620 5Dictionary of Nursing 0 7475 6634 8Dictionary of Science and Technology 0 7475 6620 8English Language:Easier English Basic Dictionary 0 7475 6644 5Easier English Basic Synonyms 0 7475 6979 7English Study Dictionary 1 9016 5963 1Easier English Student Dictionary 0 7475 6624 0English Thesaurus for Students 1 9016 5931 3Check your English Vocabulary Workbooks:Business 0 7475 6626 7Computing 1 9016 5928 3English for Academic Purposes 0 7475 6691 7PET 0 7475 6627 5FCE + 0 7475 6981 9IELTS 0 7475 6982 7TOEFL® 0 7475 6984 3 Visit our website for full details of all our books http://www.bloomsbury.com/reference
  • 4. www.bloomsbury.com Originally published by Peter Collin Publishing Fifth edition published 2004 Fourth edition published 2002 Third edition published 1998 Second edition published 1994 First published in Great Britain 1988 Bloomsbury Publishing Plc 38 Soho Square, London W1D 3HB © Copyright S.M.H. Collin, 1988, 1994, 1998, 2002 This edition © copyright Bloomsbury Publishing Plc 2004 All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced in any form or by any means without the permission of the publishers. British Library Cataloguing-in-Publication Data A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library eISBN-13: 978-1-4081-0225-1 Text processing and computer typesetting by Bloomsbury Printed and bound in Italy by Legoprint Text Production and Proofreading Lesley Brown, Stephen Curtis, Howard Sargeant, Megan Thomson, Katy McAdam, Joel Adams, Daisy Jackson, Charlotte ReganAll papers used by Bloomsbury Publishing are natural, recyclable products made from woodgrown in well-managed forests. The manufacturing processes conform to the environmental regulations of the country of origin.
  • 5. PrefaceThis dictionary provides the user with a comprehensive range of the vocabularyused in the field of computing. It covers all aspects of computing, includinghardware, software, peripherals, networks and programming, as well as manyapplications in which computers are used, such as the Internet or desktoppublishing. It also describes the latest developments in networks, the Internet,communications, programming, multimedia, processor design and storagetechnology.Each headword is explained in clear, straightforward English. Examples are givento show how the words and phrases can be used in context. General commentsabout particular items of interest, complex ideas or hardware or softwareapplications are given in separate boxes. Quotations from magazines and journalsare given to show how the words are used in real text.The dictionary includes a number of product names and company names. Thetrademarked names that are included are those that are judged to be of de factoimportance to users or important in the development of computer technology.
  • 6. PronunciationThe following symbols have been used to show the pronunciation of the mainwords in the dictionary.Stress has been indicated by a main stress mark ( ) and a secondary stress mark( ). Note that these are only guides, as the stress of the word changes according toits position in the sentence. Vowels Consonants back b buck ɑ harm d dead ɒ stop ð other a type d jump aυ how f fare aə hire gold aυə hour h head ɔ course j yellow ɔ annoy k cab e head l leave eə fair m mix e make n nil eυ o ŋ sing word p print i keep r rest i happy s save ə about ʃ shop  fit t take ə near tʃ change u annual θ theft u pool v value υ book w work υə tour x loch shut measure z zone
  • 7. Computing.fm Page 1 Friday, December 19, 2003 7:16 PM A A1 /e/ symbol the hexadecimal equivalent A aberration / bə reʃ(ə)n/ noun 1. dis- aberration of the decimal number 10 tortion of a light beam or image caused by A2 /e/ abbr ampere A defects in the optical system 2. distortion A: used in some operating systems to de- A: of a television picture caused by a corrupt note the first disk drive on the system signal or incorrect adjustment Å abbr angstrom ablation /ə bleʃ(ə)n/ noun a method of Å ablation abandon /ə b ndən/ verb to clear a abandon writing data to an optical storage device in document, file or work from a computer’s which a laser burns a hole or pit, represent- memory without saving it ć Once you ing digital bits of data, into the thin metal have abandoned your spreadsheet, you surface of the storage device cannot retrieve it again. COMMENT: A laser burns a hole or pit (which represents digital bits of data) into the thin abb. add. abbr abbreviated addressing abb. add. metal surface of the storage device. abbreviated address /ə bri vietid ə abbreviated address abnormal end / b nɔ m(ə)l abnormal end end/ dres/ noun (in a network) a user name noun same as abend that has fewer characters than the full abnormal termination / b nɔ m(ə)l abnormal termination name, making it easier to remember or type in or faster to decode t m neʃ(ə)n/ noun same as abend abort /ə bɔ t/ verb to end a process in the abort abbreviated addressing /ə abbreviated addressing bri vietid ə dresŋ/ noun the use of ab- event of a malfunction occurs by switching breviated addresses. Abbr abb. add. the computer off manually or by an inter- abbreviated installation abbreviated installation /ə nal feature ć The program was aborted by bri vietid nstə leʃ(ə)n/ noun the in- pressing the red button. aborted connection /ə bɔ td kə aborted connection stalling of new hardware or software with- out restoring the previous backup settings nekʃ(ə)n/ noun a connection to a net- of the operating system work or online service that has not been abbreviation /ə bri vi eʃ(ə)n/ noun a abbreviation shut down correctly abort sequence /ə bɔ t si kwəns/ abort sequence short form of a word, command or instruc- tion ć Within the text, the abbreviation noun a unique sequence of bits that indi- proc is used instead of processor. cates that the transmission will be termi- ABD abbr Apple Desktop Bus ABD nated because of a fault, error or power abend / bend/ noun an unexpected abend failure About… /ə baυt/ a menu selection in the About… stoppage of a program that is being run, caused by a fault, error or power failure ć SAA CUA front end that tells you who de- An interrupt from a faulty printer caused veloped the program and gives copyright an abend. Also called abnormal end, ab- information above-the-fold /ə b v ðə fəυld/ ad- above-the-fold normal termination abend code / bend kəυd/ noun a spe- abend code jective referring to the part of a webpage cial number, generated by the operating that is seen by all users who call up the system, that identifies the type of error that page, because they do not have to scroll has caused a particular problem down to read it. Compare below-the-fold abend recovery program / bend r ABR / e bi ɑ / noun a service provided abend recovery program ABR k v(ə)ri prəυ r m/ noun a piece of by an ATM network that tries to provide software that will reload a program or sys- the bandwidth requested by a customer, tem software and restart it at the point at though it cannot guarantee to do so. Full which an abend occurred form available bit rate
  • 8. Computing.fm Page 2 Friday, December 19, 2003 7:16 PMAB roll 2AB roll / e bi rəυl/ noun (in a multi- pletely describes the operation to be per-AB rollmedia application) a sequence of two vid- formed, requiring no other dataeo or music segments that are synchro- absolute loader / bsəlu t ləυdə/ absolute loadernised so that one fades as the second starts noun a program that loads a section ofABS / e bi es/ noun a programming in- code into main memoryABSstruction that returns the magnitude of a absolute maximum rating absolute maximum ratingnumber without the number’s sign ć The / bsəlu t m ksməm retŋ/ noun acommand ABS(-13) will return the answer statement of the maximum values or limits13. Full form absolute function of a systemabsolute address / bsəlu t ə dres/ absolute positioning / bsəlu t pəabsolute address absolute positioningnoun 1. a computer storage address that zʃ(ə)nŋ/ noun the position of an objectdirectly, without any modification, access- in relation to a point of origines a location or device ć Program execu- absolute priority / bsəlu t pra absolute prioritytion is slightly faster if you code only with ɒrti/ noun (in the OS/2 operating sys-absolute addresses. Compare indexed tem) the priority of a process that cannotaddress 2. a computer storage address be changed by the operating systemthat can only access one location ̈ also absolute absolute program program / bsəlu tcalled actual address, machine ad- prəυ r m/ noun a computer programdress written in absolute codeabsolute addressing / bsəlu t ə absolute time / bsəlu t tam/ nounabsolute addressing absolute time dresŋ/ noun the locating of a data word (in CD-audio) the length of time that anstored in memory by the use of its absolute audio disc has been playingaddress absolute value / bsəlu t v lju / absolute valueabsolute assembler / bsəlu t əabsolute assembler noun the size or value of a number, regard- semblə/ noun a type of assembly lan- less of its sign ć The absolute value of –guage program designed to produce code 62.34 is 62.34.that uses only absolute addresses and val- absorb /əb zɔ b/ verb to take in light, absorbues liquid or a signalabsolute cell reference / bsəlu tabsolute cell reference absorptance /əb zɔ ptəns/ noun a absorptancesel ref(ə)rəns/ noun a spreadsheet refer- measure of how completely an object orence that always refers to the same cell, substance absorbs radiant energy. Oppo-even when copied to another location site reflectanceabsolute code / bsəlu t kəυd/ nounabsolute code absorption /əb zɔ pʃən/ noun the pow- absorptionbinary code that directly operates the cen- er loss of a signal when travelling throughtral processing unit, using only absolute a medium, due to its absorptanceaddresses and values. Also called actual abstract data type / bstr kt detə abstract data typecode, basic code tap/ noun a general data type that canabsolute coordinates / bsəlu tabsolute coordinates store any kind of informationkəυ ɔ dnətz/ plural noun coordinates A-bus /e b s/ noun the main internal A-busthat describe the distance of a point from bus in a microprocessorthe intersection of axes ac abbr academic organisation (NOTE: acabsolute device / bsəlu t d vas/absolute device used in email and website addresses)noun an input device such as a tablet or AC abbr alternating current ACmouse that returns the coordinates of apointer within specified axes ACAP / e si e pi / noun an email sys- ACAP tem developed to work with the IMAP4absolute error / bsəlu t erə/ nounabsolute error email protocol to provide extra featuresthe value or magnitude of an error, ignor- such as management of an address book.ing its sign Full form application configuration ac-absolute expression / bsəlu t kabsolute expression cess protocol (NOTE: It was originally spreʃ(ə)n/ noun (in assembly language) termed IMSP (Interactive Mail Supportthe value of an expression that is not af- Protocol).)fected by program relocation ACC / e si si / noun the most important ACCabsolute function / bsəlu tabsolute function internal CPU storage register, containing f ŋkʃən/ noun full form of ABS the data word that is to be processed ćabsolute instruction / bsəlu t n Store the two bytes of data in registers Aabsolute instruction str kʃən/ noun an instruction that com- and B and execute the add instruction –
  • 9. Computing.fm Page 3 Friday, December 19, 2003 7:16 PM 3 accession number the answer will be in the ACC. Full form She accessed the employee’s file stored on accumulator the computer. accelerated graphics port /ək access arm / kses ɑ m/ noun a me- accelerated graphics port access arm seləretd r fks pɔ t/ noun full chanical device in a disk drive used to po- form of AGP sition the read/write head over the correct acceleration time /ək selə reʃ(ə)n acceleration time track on a disk ć The access arm moves to tam/ noun 1. the time taken for a disk the parking region during transport. access authority / kses ɔ θɒrəti/ access authority drive to spin a disk at the correct speed, from rest ć Allow for acceleration time in noun permission to carry out a particular the access time. 2. the total time between operation on data an access instruction’s issue to a peripheral access-barred / kses bɑ d/ adjec- access-barred and the transfer of the data tive prevented from accessing particular accelerator board /ək selə retə data accelerator board bɔ d/, accelerator card /ək selə retə access category / kses k tə (ə)ri/ access category kɑ d/ noun a circuit board that carries a noun a category that defines which files or faster or more advanced version of the data a user can access and which he or she same processor that runs your computer. cannot Adding an accelerator board to your com- access channel control / kses access channel control puter makes it run faster. tʃ n(ə)l kən trəυl/ noun (in a Token- accelerator key /ək selə retə ki / Ring network) the set of protocols that accelerator key noun a key that, when pressed together manage the data transfer between a station with another, carries out a function that and a medium access control would otherwise have to be selected from access charge / kses tʃɑ d / noun a access charge a menu using a mouse ć Instead of select- cost due when logging onto a system or ing the File menu then the Save option, use viewing special pages on a bulletin board the accelerator keys Alt and S to do the access code / kses kəυd/ noun a se- access code same thing and save the file. ries of characters or symbols that must be accept /ək sept/ verb to establish a ses- entered to identify a user before access to accept sion or connection with another comput- a computer is permitted ing device access control / kses kən trəυl/ access control acceptable use policy /ək noun a security device such as a password acceptable use policy septəb(ə)l ju z pɒlsi/ noun a set of that only allows selected users to use a rules that describe what a user can write or computer system or read files do on the Internet without offending other access control byte / kses kən access control byte users. Abbr AUP trəυl bat/ noun (in a Token-Ring net- acceptance sampling /ək septəns work) a byte following a start marker in the acceptance sampling sɑ mplŋ/ noun the testing of a small ran- token that indicates if the station can ac- dom part of a batch to see if the whole cess the network batch is up to standard access controller / kses kən access controller acceptance test /ək septəns test/ acceptance test trəυlə/ noun (in CD-i) an electronic de- noun a test to check that a piece of equip- vice that transfers image data to the video ment will perform as required or will reach controller required standards access control list / kses kən trəυl access control list acceptance testing /ək septəns acceptance testing lst/ noun full form of ACL testŋ/ noun the performing of an accept- access counter / kses kaυntə/ access counter ance test noun ‘ counter access head / kses hed/ noun the access head access / kses/ noun 1. the fact of be- access ing able to reach or use something ć to part of a disk drive that moves to the cor- have access to the computer room 2. the rect part of the disk’s surface and reads in- fact of being allowed to use a computer formation stored on the disk access hole / kses həυl/ noun an access hole and read or alter files stored in it. This is usually controlled by a security device opening in both sides of a floppy disk’s such as a password. ˽ to deny access to casing allowing the read-write head to be refuse access to a circuit or system for rea- positioned over the disk’s surface sons of workload or security í verb to call accession number /ək seʃ(ə)n accession number up data which is stored in a computer ć n mbə/ noun a number in a record that
  • 10. Computing.fm Page 4 Friday, December 19, 2003 7:16 PMaccess level 4shows in which order each record was en- cording changes to an access path in casetered of malfunctionaccess level / kses lev(ə)l/ noun aaccess level access period / kses pəriəd/ noun access periodpredefined access category (NOTE: The a period of time during which a user canlowest access level might allow the user access datato only view data, the highest access lev- access permission / kses pə access permissionel allows a user to do anything.) mʃ(ə)n/ noun a description of all the ac-access line / kses lan/ noun a per-access line cess rights for a particular usermanently connected communications line access point / kses pɔnt/ noun a access pointbetween a terminal and a computer test point on a circuit board or in software,access log / kses lɒ / noun a file onaccess log allowing an engineer to check signals ora website server computer that contains a datarecord of every visitor to the website, access privilege / kses prvld / access privilegeshowing when a person visited and which noun the status granted to a user that al-pages he or she viewed ć The access log is lows him or her to see, read or alter filesinvaluable – we produce graphs of the access provider / kses prə vadə/ access providerpages that are most popular using an ac- noun same as ISPcess log analyser program. access rights / kses rats/ plural access rightsaccess mechanism / ksesaccess mechanism noun the rights of a particular user to ac- mekənz(ə)m/ noun a mechanical device cess a particular file or data objectthat moves an access arm over the surface access time / kses tam/ noun 1. the access timeof a disk total time that a storage device takes be-access method / kses meθəd/access method tween the moment the data is requestednoun 1. a means used for the internal and the return of the data ć The accesstransfer of data between memory and dis- time of this dynamic RAM chip is aroundplay or peripheral devices. Differences in 200nS – we have faster versions if yourthe methods used are often the cause of system clock is running faster. 2. the lengthcompatibility problems. 2. a set of rules of time required to find a file or program,that allows a device to send data onto a net- either in main memory or a secondarywork. Token passing and CSMA/CD are memory sourcetwo methods commonly used in a local access unit / kses ju nt/ noun (in a access unitarea network. Token-Ring network) a wiring concentra-access method routines / ksesaccess method routines tor meθəd ru ti nz/ plural noun software accidental / ks dent(ə)l/ adjective accidentalroutines that move data between main which happens by accident ć Always keepstorage and an output device backup copies in case of accidental dam-access name / kses nem/ noun aaccess name age to the master file.unique name that identifies an object in a accordion fold /ə kɔ diən fəυld/, ac- accordion folddatabase cordion fanfold noun method of foldingaccess number / kses n mbə/access number continuous paper, one sheet in one direc-noun the telephone number that a compu- tion, the next sheet in the opposite direc-ter dials up in order to be connected to an tion, allowing the paper to be fed into aInternet service provider or other network printer continuously with no action on theprovider part of the user. Also called fanfoldaccessor / ksesə/ noun a person whoaccessor account /ə kaυnt/ noun (in a network accountaccesses data or online system) a record of a user’saccessory /ək sesəri/ noun an extra,accessory name, password and rights to access a net-add-on device, e.g. a mouse or printer, that work or online system ć If you are a newis attached to or used with a computer ć user, you will have to ask the supervisor toThe printer comes with several accesso- create an account for you. í verb to keepries including a soundproof hood. (NOTE: track of how much time and resourcesThe plural is accessories.) each user of a network or online systemaccess path / kses pɑ θ/ noun a de-access path usesscription of the location of a stored file accounting package noun a piece of accounting packagewithin the directory structure of a disk software that automates a business’s ac-access path journalling / ksesaccess path journalling counting functions ć We now type in each pɑ θ d nəlŋ/ noun the process of re- transaction into the new accounting pack-
  • 11. Computing.fm Page 5 Friday, December 19, 2003 7:16 PM 5 acoustic delay line age rather than write it into a ledger. Also ACIA / e si a e/ noun a circuit that al- ACIA called accounts package lows a computer to transmit and receive account name /ə kaυnt nem/ noun account name serial data using asynchronous access. Full the unique name of a user on a network or form asynchronous communications online system ć John Smith’s account interface adapter name is JSMITH. ACK / e si ke/ noun a signal that is ACK accounts package /ə kaυnts accounts package sent from a receiver to indicate that a trans- p kd / noun same as accounting mitted message has been received and that package it is ready for the next one ć The printer accumulate /ə kju mjυlet/ verb to accumulate generates an ACK signal when it has re- gather several things together over a peri- ceived data. Full form acknowledge od of time ć We have gradually accumu- Ackerman’s function / kəmənz Ackerman’s function lated a large databank of names and ad- f ŋkʃən/ noun a recursive function used dresses. (NOTE: accumulates – accumu- to test the ability of a compiler to cope lating – accumulated) with recursion accumulator /ə kju mjυletə/, accu- accumulator acknowledge /ək nɒld / noun full acknowledge mulator register noun full form of ACC form of ACK í verb 1. to tell a sender that accumulator address /ə accumulator address a message or letter has been received 2. to kju mjυletə ə dres/ noun an address send a signal from a receiver to show that accessed by an instruction held in the ACC a transmitted message has been received accumulator shift instruction /ə accumulator shift instruction (NOTE: acknowledges – acknowledging – kju mjυletə ʃft n str kʃən/ noun a acknowledged) command to shift the contents of an ACC acknowledge character /ək nɒld acknowledge character left or right by one bit k rktə/ noun a special code sent by a re- accuracy / kjυrəsi/ noun 1. the extent accuracy ceiver to indicate to the transmitter that the to which something is correct or true 2. the message has been correctly received extent to which a person avoids errors 3. acknowledged mail /ək nɒld d acknowledged mail the total number of bits used to define a number in a computer (NOTE: The more mel/ noun a function that signals to the bits allocated the greater the accuracy of sender when an electronic mail message the definition.) has been read by the recipient ACL / e si el/ noun a security system ACL accuracy accuracy control character control character / kjυrəsi kən trəυl k rktə/ noun a that has a list of user names and passwords code that indicates whether data is accu- that is checked by the operating system to rate or whether the data should be disre- find out if a particular user is allowed to garded by a particular device access or use a resource or feature of the ACD / e si di / noun a specialised tele- ACD shared computer or network. Full form ac- phone system that can handle lots of in- cess control list coming calls and direct them to a particu- acoustic /ə ku stk/ adjective referring acoustic lar operator according to programmed in- to sound structions in a database. Full form acoustic coupler /ə ku stk k plə/ acoustic coupler automatic call distribution noun a device that connects to a telephone ACDI abbr asynchronous communica- ACDI handset, converting binary computer data tions device interface into sound signals to allow it to be trans- ACF abbr advanced communications ACF mitted down a telephone line function COMMENT: The acoustic coupler also converts ACH / e si etʃ/ noun an automated ACH back from sound signals to digital signals network that links banks together and ena- when receiving messages. It is basically the same as a modem but uses a handset on bles them to handle payments made from which a loudspeaker is placed to send the sig- one bank to another through electronic nals rather than direct connection to the points of sale and withdrawals from cash- phone line. It is portable and clips over both points. Full form automated clearing ends of a normal telephone handset. It can be used even in a public phone booth. The house acoustic coupler has generally been replaced achromatic colour / ekrəυm tk achromatic colour by a direct cable link from the computer’s mo- k lə/ noun a grey colour within the range dem to the standard telephone socket. acoustic delay line /ə ku stk d le acoustic delay line between black and white displayed by a graphics adapter lan/ noun an outdated data storage meth-
  • 12. Computing.fm Page 6 Friday, December 19, 2003 7:16 PMacoustic feedback 6od that delays data in the form of sound ActionMedia / kʃən mi diə/ a trade ActionMediapulses as they travel across a medium name for a digital video system developedacoustic feedback /ə ku stk by Intel that uses its i750 video processoracoustic feedback fi db k/ noun ‘ feedback chip to allow a computer to record, playacoustic hood /ə ku stk hυd/ noun aacoustic hood back and manipulate digital video action message / kʃən mesd / action messagesoundproof cover put over a line printer tocut down its noise noun a message displayed to inform theacousticacoustic memory memory /ə ku stk user that an action or input is required mem(ə)ri/ noun same as acoustic store action-object / kʃən əb d ekt/ noun action-objectacoustic panel /ə ku stk p n(ə)l/acoustic panel (in a SAA CUA front end ) an object tonoun a soundproof panel placed behind a which a user specifies an action should bedevice to reduce noise applied activate / kt vet/ verb 1. to start a activateacoustic store /ə ku stk stɔ / nounacoustic storean outdated form of regenerative memory process or to make a device start working ć Pressing CR activates the printer. 2. (inthat uses an acoustic delay line. Also an authoring tool or programming lan-called acoustic memory guage) to make a button or menu option orACPI / e si pi a/ noun a software sys-ACPI field on a screen layout available to a usertem that allows the operating system to ć If the button or field is not activated, it isconfigure compatible hardware automati- normally displayed greyed out and doescally. Full form advanced configuration not respond if a user selects it. (NOTE: ac-and power interface tivates – activating – activated)acquisition / kw zʃ(ə)n/ noun theacquisition active / ktv/ adjective busy, working activeaccepting, capturing or collecting of infor- or being usedmation active application / ktv active application plAcrobat ‘ Adobe Acrobat keʃ(ə)n/ noun (in a multitasking operat-AcrobatACS / e si es/ noun a computer linkedACS ing system) an application currently beingto a network that controls several dial-up used by a usermodems and allows remote users to con- active area / ktv eəriə/ noun 1. (in active areanect to the server using a modem link and a spreadsheet program) the area that con-gain access to the network. Full form tains data bounded by the top left handasynchronous communication server corner and the bottom right hand cell 2. (inaction / kʃən/ noun (in a SAA CUA a graphical window) an area that will startactionfront end ) a user event, e.g. pressing a spe- or select a function if the user moves thecial key, that moves the cursor to the action pointer into it with a mousebar at the top of the screen active cell / ktv sel/ noun the spread- active cellaction bar / kʃən bɑ / noun a top line sheet cell that is currently selected with aaction barof the screen that displays the menu names cursor or pointeraction bar pull-down / kʃən bɑ active code page / ktv kəυdaction bar pull-down active code pagepυl/ noun (in a SAA CUA front end ) a fea- ped / noun a code page currently in useture whereby the full menu is displayed by the systembelow the menu name when a user moves active database / ktv detəbes/ active databasethe cursor to a particular menu name on noun a database file currently being ac-the action bar cessed by a database management pro-action code / kʃən kəυd/ noun (in a gramaction codeSAA CUA front end ) a single letter associ- active device / ktv d vas/ noun an active deviceated with a particular menu option to electronic component that requires electri-speed up selection. When the letter action cal power to operate and provides gain orcode is pressed, the menu option is select- a logical functioned. Active Active Document Document / ktvaction cycle / kʃən sak(ə)l/ noun dɒkjυmənt/ noun a standard Windowsaction cyclethe series of steps required to carry out a application that is accessed from within aprocess or operation on data, e.g. reading, web browser and controlled by specialprocessing, output and storage commands in the webpageaction list / kʃən lst/ noun (in a SAA active file / ktv fal/ noun a file thataction list active fileCUA front end ) a list of choices is currently being worked on
  • 13. Computing.fm Page 7 Friday, December 19, 2003 7:16 PM 7 actual data transfer rate active gateway / ktv active gateway etwe/ active storage / ktv stɔ rd / noun active storage noun (in a network) a gateway that ex- a main storage, fast access RAM whose lo- changes routing information cations can be directly and immediately active high / ktv ha/ noun an elec- active high addressed by the CPU tronic signal that is valid when it is high or active streaming format / ktv active streaming format logical one or at five volts stri mŋ fɔ m t/ noun full form of ASF active hub / ktv h b/ noun a hub active video / ktv vdiəυ s n(ə)l/, active hub active video that selectively directs packets of data ac- active video signal noun a part of a vid- cording to their address or content eo signal that contains picture information active line / ktv lan/ noun a line in ActiveVRML / ktv vi ɑ em el/ active line ActiveVRML a communications link or port that is being noun ‘ VRML used to transfer data or carry control sig- active window / ktv wndəυ/ noun active window nals 1. an area of the display screen where the active link / ktv lŋk/ noun a link active link operator is currently working 2. (in a GUI currently being used to transfer informa- or SAA CUA front end ) the window that is tion currently the focus of cursor movements active low / ktv ləυ/ noun an elec- and screen displays. ı window active low tronic signal that is valid when it is low or ActiveX / ktv eks/ a trade name for a ActiveX logical zero or at zero volts programming language and program defi- active menu / ktv menju / noun a active menu nition used to create small applications de- menu selection currently displayed below signed to enhance the functionality of a a menu bar webpage. ı Java, VBScript active node / ktv nəυd/ noun a active node COMMENT: ActiveX applications, called ap- node on a network connected to or availa- plets, are often used to add database or mul- timedia effects to a website that cannot be ble to connect to another node supported with basic HTML commands. active pixel region / ktv pks(ə)l active pixel region When a user visits the web page that uses the ri d ən/ noun an area of a computer ActiveX applet, the program is automatically downloaded by the user’s browser and run on screen that can display graphic image in- the user’s computer. formation activities / k tvtiz/ plural noun jobs activities active printer / ktv prntə/ noun a active printer or tasks which are being performed on a printer that is currently connected to the computer computer’s printer port activity level / k tvəti lev(ə)l/ noun activity level active program / ktv prəυ r m/ active program the maximum number of jobs that can run noun (in a multitasking system) a pro- in a multitasking system gram that is currently in control of the activity light / k tvti lat/ noun activity light processor small light or LED on the front of a disk active record / ktv rekɔ d/ noun a active record drive or computer that indicates when the record that is being updated or accessed disk drive is reading or writing data to disk active region / ktv ri d (ə)n/ noun active region activity loading / k tvti ləυdŋ/ activity loading an area on a screen that will start an action noun a method of organising disk contents or has been defined as a hotspot so that the most often accessed files or pro- Active Server Page / ktv s və Active Server Page grams can be loaded quickly ped / noun a webpage that is created activity ratio / k tvti reʃiəυ/ noun activity ratio only when accessed by a visitor, allowing the website to display up-to-date informa- the number of files currently in use com- tion or information from a database ć The pared to the total stored activity trail / k tvti trel/ noun a activity trail database search results page is imple- mented as an Active Server Page. Abbr record of activities carried out actual address / ktʃuəl ə dres/ actual address ASP active star / ktv stɑ / noun a net- active star noun same as absolute address actual code / ktʃuəl kəυd/ noun actual code work consisting of a central point with nodes branching out, in which a central same as absolute code processor controls and routes all messages actual data transfer rate / ktʃuəl actual data transfer rate between devices detə tr nsf ret/ noun the average active state / ktv stet/ noun an number of data bits transferred in a period active state electronic state in which an action occurs of time
  • 14. Computing.fm Page 8 Friday, December 19, 2003 7:16 PMactual instruction 8actual instruction / ktʃuəl n adaptive packet assembly /əactual instruction adaptive packet assembly str kʃən/ noun the resulting instruction d ptv p kt ə sembli/ noun a methodexecuted after the modification of an orig- used by the MNP error correcting protocolinal instruction to adjust the size of data packets accordingactuator / ktʃυetə/ noun a mechani- to the quality of the telephone line. Theactuatorcal device that can be controlled by an ex- better the line, the bigger the packet size.ternal signal, e.g. the read/write head in a adaptive routing /ə d ptv ru tŋ/ adaptive routingdisk drive noun the ability of a system to change itsACU / e si ju / noun a device that al- communications routes in response to var-ACUlows a computer to call stations or dial tel- ious events or situations such as line fail-ephone numbers automatically. Full form ure (NOTE: The messages are normallyautomatic calling unit sent along the most cost-effective pathad abbr Andorra (NOTE: used in emailad unless there is a problem with that route,and website addresses) in which case they are automatically re-A/D abbr analog to digitalA/D routed.) adaptive system /ə d ptv sstəm/ adaptive systemADA / e di e/ noun a high-level pro-ADAgramming language that is used mainly in noun a system that is able to alter its re-military, industrial and scientific fields of sponses and processes according to inputscomputing or situations adaptor /ə d ptə/ noun another spell- adaptoradapt /ə d pt/ verb to change, adjust oradaptmodify something so that it fits ć Can this ing of adapter ADB abbr Apple Desktop Bus ADB™computer be adapted to take 5.25 inchdisks? ADC / e di si / noun an electronic de- ADCadaptation / d p teʃ(ə)n/ noun the vice that converts an analog input signal toadaptationability of a device to adjust its sensitivity a digital form, which can be processed byrange according to various situations a computer. Full form analog to digitaladapter /ə d ptə/, adaptornoun a de-adapter converter add / d/ verb 1. to put figures together to addvice that allows two or more incompatibledevices to be connected together make a total 2. to put things together toadapter card /ə d ptə kɑ d/ noun aadapter card form a larger group ć The software housecard that plugs into an expansion bus in a has added a new management package toPC and adds a new function to the compu- its range of products. addend / dend/ noun the number add- addendter or allows it to communicate with anoth-er device (NOTE: A sound card is a type of ed to the augend in an additionadapter card that plugs into an expan- adder / də/ noun a device or routine addersion connector and allows sound to be that provides the sum of two or more in-played back or recorded.) puts, either digital or analogadapter plug /ə d ptə pl / noun aadapter plug COMMENT: A parallel adder takes one clock cy-plug that allows plugs with different num- cle to add two words, a serial adder takes abers or shapes of pins to be fitted into the time equal to the number of bits in a word to add.same socket adder-subtractor / də səb tr ktə/ adder-subtractoradaptive channel allocation /əadaptive channel allocation noun a device that can either add or sub- d ptv tʃ n(ə)l lə keʃ(ə)n/ noun tractprovision of communications channels ac- add file / d fal/ noun a file in which add filecording to demand rather than a fixed allo-cation new records are stored prior to updatingadaptive compression /ə d ptvadaptive compression the main database add-in / d n/ noun, adjective some- add-inkəm preʃ(ə)n/ noun a data compressionsystem that continuously monitors the data thing that is added to something else í ad-it is compressing and adjusts its own algo- jective that is added to something else addition /ə dʃ(ə)n/ noun an arithmetic additionrithm to provide the most efficient com-pression operation that produces the sum of an ad-adaptive differential pulse codeadaptive differential pulse code modulation dend and augendmodulation /ə d ptv dfə renʃ(ə)l additional /ə dʃ(ə)nəl/ adjective which additional p ls kəυd mɒdju leʃ(ə)n/ noun full is added or extra ć Can we link three addi-form of ADPCM tional workstations to the network?
  • 15. Computing.fm Page 9 Friday, December 19, 2003 7:16 PM 9 addressing method addition record /ə dʃ(ə)n rekɔ d/ addition record address base /ə dres bes/ noun the address base noun a record with changes used to update part of an address that defines the origin to a master record or file which the logical address is added addition time /ə dʃ(ə)n tam/ noun addition time address book /ə dres bυk/ noun 1. (in address book the time an adder takes to carry out an ad- a network) a list of node addresses 2. (in dition operation electronic mail ) a list of the network ad- addition without carry /ə dʃ(ə)n addition without carry dresses of other users to which electronic wð aυt k ri/ noun an addition opera- mail can be sent tion without any carry bits or words address bus /ə dres b s/ noun a phys- address bus additive colour / dətv k lə/ noun a additive colour ical connection that carries the address colour produced by mixing two or three data in parallel form from the central colours from red, green and blue processing unit to external devices add-on / d ɒn/ adjective added to a add-on address code /ə dres kəυd/ noun a address code computer system to improve its perform- special code that identifies the part of a ance ć The add-on hard disk will boost the document that is an address computer’s storage capabilities. Opposite address computation address computation /ə dres built-in í noun a piece of software or kɒmpjυ teʃ(ə)n/ noun an operation on hardware that is added to a computer sys- address data in an instruction tem to improve its performance address decoder /ə dres di kəυdə/ address decoder add on board / d ɒn bɔ d/ noun same add on board noun a logical circuit that will produce a as expansion board signal when a certain address or range is add register / d red stə/ noun a reg- add register placed on the address bus ister that is an adder address field /ə dres fi ld/ noun 1. (in address field address /ə dres/ noun 1. a number al- address a network) the part of a packet that con- lowing a central processing unit to refer- tains the address of the destination node 2. ence a physical location in a storage medi- (in programming) the part of a computer um in a computer system ć Each separate instruction that contains the location of the memory word has its own unique address. operand 2. a unique number that identifies a device address format /ə dres fɔ m t/ noun address format on a network ć This is the address at which the data starts. í verb to put the lo- the set of rules defining the way the oper- cation data onto an address bus to identify ands, data and addresses are arranged in an which word in memory or storage device instruction address harvester /ə dres hɑ vstə/ address harvester is to be accessed ć A larger address word increases the amount of memory a compu- noun a computer program that collects ter can address. email addresses from the Internet addressability /ə dresə blti/ noun address highway /ə dres hawe/ address highway addressability the control available over pixels on screen noun the set of physical connections that addressable /ə dresəb(ə)l/ adjective addressable carry the address data in a parallel form which can be addressed ć With the new between the central processing unit and operating system, all of the 5MB of in- memory or external devices addressing /ə dresŋ/ noun the process addressing stalled RAM is addressable. addressable cursor /ə dresəb(ə)l addressable cursor of accessing a location in memory k sə/ noun a cursor which can be pro- addressing capacity /ə dresŋ kə addressing capacity grammed to be placed in a certain position p sti/ noun the largest location that a addressable point /ə dresəb(ə)l addressable point certain program or CPU can directly ad- pɔnt/ noun a point or pixel in a graphics dress, without special features, e.g. virtual system that can be directly addressed memory or memory banks addressable terminal /ə dresəb(ə)l addressing level /ə dresŋ lev(ə)l/ addressable terminal addressing level t mn(ə)l/ noun a terminal that will only noun zero-level: operand is the address accept data if it has the correct address and part of the instruction; first-level: operand identification number in the message stored at the address of the instruction; header second-level: operand stored at the address address access time /ə dres kses address access time given in the instruction tam/ noun the total time which a storage addressing method /ə dresŋ addressing method device takes between the moment the data meθəd/ noun the manner in which a sec- is requested and the return of the data tion of memory is located
  • 16. Computing.fm Page 10 Friday, December 19, 2003 7:16 PMaddressing mode 10addressing mode /ə dresŋ məυd/addressing mode adjacent domains /ə d es(ə)nt dəυ adjacent domainsnoun a way in which a location is ad- menz/ plural noun two domains linkeddressed, e.g. sequential, indexed or direct by two adjacent nodesaddress mapping /ə dres m pŋ/address mapping adjacent nodes /ə d es(ə)nt nəυdz/ adjacent nodesnoun the translation of a virtual address to plural noun two nodes connected by a pathan absolute real address that does not connect any other nodeaddress mark /ə dres mɑ k/ noun aaddress mark adjunct register / d ŋkt red stə/ adjunct registerspecial code on a disk that indicates the noun a 32-bit register in which the top 16start of sector location data bits are used for control information and only the bottom 16 bits are available foraddress mask /ə dres mɑ sk/ noun aaddress mask use by a programpattern of binary data bits that is used toblock out parts of an address data word. It adjustment /ə d stmənt/ noun the adjustmentis normally used to separate the network making of a slight change made to some-and subnet parts of an address within a thing so that it works better, or a changelong Internet or IP address. ć The address made ć The brightness needs adjustment.mask ‘111000’ will block off the last three AdLib / d lb/ noun a type of sound card AdLibbits of any address data. for a PC with basic sound playback and MIDI functionsaddress modification /ə dresaddress modification mɒdf keʃ(ə)n/ noun the changing of administrator /əd mnstretə/ noun a administratorthe address field, so that it can refer to a person who is responsible for looking afterdifferent location a network, including installing, configur- ing and maintaining itaddress register /ə dres red stə/address register Adobe Acrobat /ə dəυbi krəb t/ a Adobe Acrobatnoun register in a computer that is able to trade name for a piece of software thatstore all the bits that make up an address converts documents and formatted pages,which can then be processed as a single into a file format that can be viewed on al-unit most any computer platform or using aaddress resolution /ə dresaddress resolution web browser on the Internet (NOTE: For rezəlu ʃ(ə)n/ noun the converting pf an example, if you publish a newsletter, youInternet address into the correct physical could lay out the pages using a desktopnetwork address that corresponds to the publish system, print the pages for a pa-distant computer or resource per version and convert the files to Acro-address resolution protocol /ə bat format allowing you to distribute theaddress resolution protocol dres rezə lu ʃ(ə)n prəυtəkɒl/ noun same formatted pages on CD-ROM orfull form of ARP over the Internet.)address space /ə dres spes/ noun theaddress space Adobe Systems /ə dəυbi sstəmz/ a Adobe Systemstotal number of possible locations that can software company that developed productsbe directly addressed by the program or including Acrobat, ATM, and PostScriptCPU Adobe Type Manager /ə dəυbi tap Adobe Type Manageraddress strobe /ə dres strəυb/ noun aaddress strobe m nd ə/ a trade name for a standard forsignal in the form of a pulse that indicates describing scalable fonts, used with Applethat a valid address is on the address bus System 7 and Microsoft Windows to pro- vide fonts that can be scaled to almost anyaddress track /ə dres tr k/ nounaddress track point size, and printed on almost any print-track on a magnetic disk containing the ad- er. Abbr ATMdresses of files or other data stored on oth-er tracks ADP / e di pi / noun data processing ADP done by a computer. Full form automaticaddress translation /ə dres tr nsaddress translation data processing leʃ(ə)n/ noun an address produced by ADPCM / e di pi si em/ noun a ADPCMcalculating an expression CCITT standard that defines a method ofaddress word /ə dres w d/ noun aaddress word converting a voice or analog signal into acomputer word that contains the address compressed digital signal. Full formdata. In a small micro it is usually made up adaptive differential pulse code mod-of two data words. ulationadd time / d tam/ noun a period of ADSL / e di es el/ noun high-speedadd time ADSLtime taken either by a CPU or adder to per- transmission standard that uses the sameform one addition operation copper telephone wires as a normal tele-
  • 17. Computing.fm Page 11 Friday, December 19, 2003 7:16 PM 11 aggregate bandwidth phone service, but is much faster than a advanced wave modulation /əd advanced wave modulation standard modem or a digital system such vɑ nst wev mɒdjυleʃ(ə)n/ noun full as ISDN. Full form Asymmetric Digital form of AWM Subscriber Line (NOTE: As well as the advisory lock /əd vaz(ə)ri lɒk/ noun advisory lock speed, ADSL provides a user with an ‘al- (in a multitasking system) a lock placed ways on’ connection to the Internet – on a region of a file by one process to pre- there is no need to dial an access vent any other process accessing the same number and no delay. Typically, compa- data nies provide ADSL for a fixed monthly advisory system /əd vaz(ə)ri advisory system rental; data is usually transferred from sstəm/ noun an expert system that pro- the Internet to the user’s computer at vides advice to a user 2Mbps but transferred from the user’s aerial perspective / eəriəl pə aerial perspective computer to the Internet at a slower rate spektv/ noun a view of a three-dimen- of 256Kbps.) sional landscape as if the viewer is above advanced configuration and pow- advanced the scene er interface /əd vɑ nst kən f jə AFAIK abbr as far as I know (NOTE: used AFAIK reʃ(ə)n ən paυə ntəfes/ noun full in emails and text messages) form of ACPI affiliate marketing affiliate marketing /ə fliət Advanced Micro Devices /əd Advanced Micro Devices mɑ ktŋ/ noun a type of marketing that vɑ nst makrəυ d vasz/ full form of uses a central website to advertise and sell AMD products and services from other sites advanced peer-to-peer network- affirmative /ə f mətv/ adjective advanced peer-to-peer networking affirmative ing /əd vɑ nst pə tə pə netw kŋ/ meaning ‘yes’ ˽ the answer was in the noun full form of APPN affirmative the answer was ‘yes’ advanced power management /əd advanced power management affirmative acknowledgement /ə affirmative acknowledgement vɑ nst paυə m nd mənt/ noun full f mətv ək nɒld mənt/ noun an ACK form of APM from the receiver that it has accepted the advanced program to program advanced program to program communications message and is ready for the next one communications /əd vɑ nst AFIPS abbr American Federation of In- AFIPS prəυ r m tə prəυ r m kə mju n formation Processing Societies keʃ(ə)nz/ noun full form of APPC AFP / e ef pi / noun a protocol used to AFP Advanced Research Projects Advanced Research Projects Agency Network communicate between workstations and Agency Network /əd vɑ nst ri s tʃ servers in a network of Apple Macintosh prɒd ekts ed (ə)nsi netw k/ noun computers. Full form Appletalk Filing full form of ARPANET Protocol advanced run-length limited /əd advanced run-length limited afterglow / ɑ ftə ləυ/ noun afterglow ‘ persist- vɑ nst r n leŋθ lmtd/ noun a meth- ence od of storing data onto a hard disk that is after-image / ɑ ftə md / noun a after-image faster and more efficient than RLL. Abbr copy of a block of data that has been mod- ARLL ified advanced technology attachment AGC / e d i si / noun an electronic cir- advanced technology attachment AGC /əd vɑ nst tek nɒləd i ə t tʃmənt/ cuit that adjusts the level of an incoming noun full form of ATA signal so that it is suitable for the next part advanced technology attachment advanced technology attachment packet interface of the circuit. Full form automatic gain packet interface /əd vɑ nst tek control nɒləd i ə t tʃmənt p kt ntəfes/ agent / ed ənt/ noun 1. a program or agent noun a type of standard interface that is piece of software that runs on a worksta- used for CD-ROMs. Abbr ATAPI. Also tion in a network and sends performance called ATA packet interface and statistical information about the work- Advanced Television Systems Advanced Television Systems Committee station to a central network management Committee /əd vɑ nst telv (ə)n console 2. a series of commands or actions sstəmz kə mti/ noun full form of that are carried out automatically on a par- ATSC ticular file or data advanced version advanced version /əd vɑ nst aggregate / r ət/ noun a collection aggregate v ʃ(ə)n/ noun a program with more of data objects complex features for use by an experi- aggregate bandwidth / r ət aggregate bandwidth enced user b ndwdθ/ noun the total bandwidth of a
  • 18. Computing.fm Page 12 Friday, December 19, 2003 7:16 PMaggregate function 12channel carrying a multiplexed data about something ć The alert box warnedstream me that I was about to delete all my files.aggregateaggregate function function / r ət alert condition /ə l t kən dʃ(ə)n/ alert condition f ŋkʃən/ noun a mathematical database noun a status of a particular object or de-function performed on a selected field in vice that triggers an alarmevery record in a selected database algebra / ld brə/ noun the use of let- algebraaggregate line speed / r ət lan ters in certain mathematical operations toaggregate line speed spi d/ noun the maximum speed at which represent unknown numbers or a range ofdata can be transmitted through a particu- possible numberslar channel algebraic language / ld brek algebraic languageaggregateaggregate operator operator / r ət l ŋ wd / noun a context-free language ɒpəretə/ noun a command in a database ALGOL / l ɒl/ noun a high-level pro- ALGOLmanagement program that starts an aggre- gramming language using algorithmicgate function methods for mathematical and technicalAGP / e d i pi / noun a dedicated busAGP applications. Full form algorithmic lan-between a graphics controller and main guagememory that allows data to be transferred algorithm / l ərð(ə)m/ noun a set of algorithmvery quickly without using the main proc- rules used to define or perform a specificessor. Full form accelerated graphics task or to solve a specific problemport (NOTE: It is used with the Intel Pen- ‘…image processing algorithms are step by step pro- cedures for performing image processing opera-tium II processor to provide very high- tions’ [Byte]speed three-dimensional graphics and ‘…the steps are: acquiring a digitized image, devel-video processing. This port does not re- oping an algorithm to process it, processing the im-place a PCI bus but works with it.) age, modifying the algorithm until you are satisfied with the result’ [Byte]AI / e a/ noun the design and develop-AIment of computer programs that attempt to algorithmic / l ə rðmk/ adjective algorithmic expressed using algorithmsimitate human intelligence and decision-making functions, providing basic reason- algorithmic language / l ərðmk algorithmic languageing and other human characteristics. Full l ŋ wd / noun full form of ALGOLform artificial intelligence. ı IKBS alias / eliəs/ noun a representative name aliasaiming symbol / emŋ smb(ə)l/,aiming symbol given to a file, port, device or spreadsheetaiming field noun a symbol displayed on cell or range of cells ć The operating sys-screen which defines the area in which a tem uses the alias COM1 to represent thelight-pen can be detected serial port address 3FCh. aliasing / eliəsŋ/ noun jagged edges aliasingairbrush / eə br ʃ/ noun (in graphicsairbrush that appear along diagonal or curved linessoftware) a painting tool that creates a dif- displayed on a computer screen caused byfuse pattern of dots, like an mechanical the size of each pixelairbrush ć We used the airbrush to createthe cloud effects in this image. alias name / eliəs nem/ noun another alias name name that is used on a network instead ofair gap / eə p/ noun a narrow gap be-air gap the user nametween a recording or playback head and alien / eliən/ adjective not fitting the alienthe magnetic medium usual systemAIX / e a eks/ a trade name for a versionAIX alien disk / eliən dsk/ noun a disk for- alien diskof UNIX produced by IBM to run on its matted on another system or containingrange of PCs, minicomputers and main- data in a format that cannot be read or un-frames. Full form advanced interactive derstood ć When you have an alien diskexecutive select the multi-disk option to allow you toA law / ə lɔ / noun a method of encodingA law turn the disk drive into an alien disk read-digital audio data so that an 8-bit data er.word can contain a 13-bit audio sample alien disk reader / eliən dsk ri də/ alien disk readeralert /ə l t/ noun a warning messagealert noun an add-on device that allows a com-sent from software to warn a person or ap- puter to access data on disks from otherplication that an error or problem has oc- computers or systemscurred align /ə lan/ verb 1. to make sure that alignalert box /ə l t bɒks/ noun a warning the characters to be printed are spaced andalert boxpanel displayed on screen to warn a user levelled correctly, either vertically or hori-
  • 19. Computing.fm Page 13 Friday, December 19, 2003 7:16 PM 13 alphanumeric operand zontally 2. to arrange numbers into a col- alphabetic string / lfəbetk strŋ/ alphabetic string umn with all figured lines up against the noun a string that only contains alphabetic right hand side (right-aligned) or the left- characters hand side (left-aligned) 3. to ensure that a alphabetise / lfəbetaz/, alphabet- alphabetise read/write head is correctly positioned ize verb to put items into alphabetical or- over the recording medium der ć Enter the bibliographical informa- aligner /ə lanə/ noun a device used to aligner tion and alphabetise it. (NOTE: alphabet- make sure that the paper is straight in a ises – alphabetising – alphabetised) printer alpha blending / lfə blendŋ/ noun alpha blending aligning edge /ə lanŋ ed / noun an aligning edge control over the transparency of a graphi- edge of an optical character recognition cal object, normally used to display com- system used to position a document plex graphical objects such as glass and alignment /ə lanmənt/ noun the cor- alignment water rect spacing and levelling of printed char- alpha channel / lfə tʃ n(ə)l/ noun alpha channel acters ˽ in alignment correctly aligned (in 32-bit graphics systems) the top eight alignment pin /ə lanmənt pn/ noun a alignment pin bits that define the properties of a pixel peg that fits in a hole to ensure that two de- (NOTE: The lower 24 bits define the pixel’s vices are correctly aligned colour.) allocate / lə ket/ verb to divide a pe- allocate alphageometric / lfəd i əυ metrk/ alphageometric riod of time or a piece of work in various adjective referring to a set of codes that in- ways and share it out between users ć The struct a teletext terminal to display various operating system allocated most of main graphics patterns or characters memory to the spreadsheet program. alphameric / lfə merk/ adjective US alphameric (NOTE: allocates – allocating – allocated) same as alphanumeric allocation / lə keʃ(ə)n/ noun the di- allocation alphamosaic / lfəməυ zek/ adjec- alphamosaic viding of something such as memory, disk tive (character set) used in teletext to pro- space, printer use, operating system time, vide alphanumeric and graphics characters or a program or device in various ways alphanumeric / lfənjυ merk/ ad- alphanumeric allocation routine / lə keʃ(ə)n ru allocation routine jective using the letters of the alphabet, the ti n/ noun a short program that divides Arabic numerals and punctuation marks the memory resources of a system between (NOTE: The US term is alphameric.) the software and peripherals that use it alphanumeric array / lfənjυmerk alphanumeric array allocation unit / lə keʃ(ə)n ju nt/ allocation unit noun a sector or set of sectors on a hard ə re/ noun an array whose elements are disk that is used to store a file or part of a letters and numbers alphanumeric characters alphanumeric characters file all points addressable mode / ɔ l all points addressable mode / lfənjυmerk k rktəz/ plural noun pɔnts ə dresəb(ə)l məυd/ noun a Roman letters and Arabic numerals and graphics mode in which each pixel can be other signs such as punctuation marks. individually addressed and its colour and Also called alphanumerics alphanumeric data / lfənjυmerk alphanumeric data attributes defined. Also called APA mode alpha / lfə/ noun 1. same as alpha test alpha detə/ noun data that represents the let- ć The new software is still in an alpha ters of the alphabet and the Arabic numer- product stage. 2. an item of data that de- als alphanumeric display alphanumeric display fines the properties of a pixel or part of an image / lfənjυmerk d sple/ noun a display ALPHA / lfə/ noun a 64-bit RISC proc- ALPHA device able to show characters as well as essor chip developed by Digital Equip- numbers alphanumeric key / lfənjυmerk alphanumeric key ment Corporation alpha beta technique / lfə bi tə alpha beta technique ki / noun a keyboard key which produces tek ni k/ noun a free structure technique a letter, symbol or figure alphanumeric keyboard alphanumeric keyboard used in artificial intelligence for solving game and strategy problems / lfənjυmerk ki bɔ d/ noun a key- alphabetic alphabetic character set character set board containing character keys as well as / lfəbetk k rktə set/ noun the set of numerical keys characters, both capitals and small letters, alphanumeric operand alphanumeric operand that make up the alphabet / lfənjυmerk ɒpər nd/ noun an oper-
  • 20. Computing.fm Page 14 Friday, December 19, 2003 7:16 PMalphanumerics 14and which can contain alphanumeric char- alternating current1 / ɔ ltənetŋ alternating currentacters, e.g. a string k rənt/ noun an electrical current whosealphanumerics / lfənjυ merks/ value varies with time in a regular sinusoi-alphanumericsplural noun same as alphanumeric char- dal way, changing direction of flow eachacters half cycle. Abbr ACalphanumeric string / lfənjυmerk COMMENT: The mains electricity supply usesalphanumeric string alternating current to minimise transmission strŋ/ noun a series of alphanumeric power loss, with a frequency of 50 Hz in thecharacters that are manipulated and treated UK, 60 Hz in the USA.as a single unit alternating current2 / ɔ ltənetŋ alternating currentalpha-particle / lfə pɑ tk(ə)l/ noun k rənt/ noun full form of ACalpha-particlean emitted alpha radiation particle alternation / ɔ ltə neʃ(ə)n/ noun a alternationalpha-particle sensitivity / lfə logical function that produces a true outputalpha-particle sensitivity pɑ tk(ə)l sensə tvəti/ noun a problem if any input is trueexperienced by certain MOS memory de- alternative denial /ɔ l t nətv d alternative denialvices exposed to alpha radiation, causing naəl/ noun a logical function whose out-loss of stored charge and so of data put is false if all inputs are true and true ifalphaphotographic / lfəfəυtəυ any input is falsealphaphotographic r fk/ adjective which represents pic- Alt key / ɔ lt ki / noun a special key on a Alt keytures using predefined graphics characters, PC’s keyboard used to activate specialfor teletext services functions in an application ć Press Alt andalphasort / lfə sɔ t/ verb to sort data P at the same time to print your document.alphasortinto alphabetical order COMMENT: The Alt key has become the stand- ard method of activating a menu bar in anyalpha test / lfə test/ noun the firstalpha test software running on a PC. For example, Alt-Fworking attempt of a computer product. normally displays the File menu of a program,Also called alpha. ı beta test Alt-X normally exits the program.alt /ɔ lt/ noun a type of newsgroup on thealt ALU / e el ju / noun a section of the ALUInternet that contains discussions about al- CPU that performs all arithmetic and logi-ternative subjects. ı newsgroup (NOTE: cal functions. Full form arithmetic logicThese are not official newsgroups and unit. Also called arithmetic unit. ı CPUare not supported or monitored by any always on / ɔ lwez ɒn/ adjective refer- always oncompany, and any user can write just ring to a feature of high-speed broadbandabout anything that he or she wants to communications devices such as cablesay. Some online service providers do modems and ADSL that link your compu-not allow their subscribers to view all of ter to the Internet whereby your computerthe alt newsgroups because they may appears to be permanently connected tocontain offensive and pornographic ma- the net and you do not need to dial up aterial.) special numberalternate / ɔ ltənet/ verb to change AM abbr amplitude modulationalternate AMfrom one state to another and back, over ambience / mbiəns/ noun the sum of ambienceand over again (NOTE: alternates – alter- acoustic properties of a room that gives thenating – alternated) listener a sense of space, creating echoesalternate character set /ɔ l t nət due to the size of the roomalternate character set k rktə set/ noun a second set of spe- ambient / mbiənt/ adjective referring ambientcial characters that can be accessed from a to normal background conditionskeyboard ć We can print Greek characters ambient noise / mbiənt nɔz/ noun ambient noiseby selecting the alternate character set. normal background noise that is present allalternate key /ɔ l t nət ki / noun a the time, usually given a reference pres-alternate keykey in a database file that is not the prima- sure level of 0.00002 pascal in SI unitsry key ambient temperature / mbiənt ambient temperaturealternate mode /ɔ l t nət məυd/alternate mode temprtʃə/ noun the normal averagenoun an application for multi-user use, in temperature of the air around a devicewhich two operators can access and share ambiguity / mb ju ti/ noun some- ambiguitya single file at the same time thing which is not clearly definedalternate route /ɔ l t nət ru t/ noun a ambiguity error / mb ju ti erə/alternate route ambiguity errorbackup path in a communications system, noun an error due to incorrect selection ofused in case of a fault or breakdown ambiguous data
  • 21. Computing.fm Page 15 Friday, December 19, 2003 7:16 PM 15 analog recording ambiguous / m b juəs/ adjective amplitude quantisation ambiguous amplitude quantisation which has two or more possible meanings / mpltju d kwɒnta zeʃ(ə)n/ noun ambiguous filename / m b juəs conversion of an analog signal to a numer- ambiguous filename falnem/ noun a filename which is not ical representation unique to a single file, making it difficult analog / nəlɒ /, analog analogue to locate the file / n(ə)lɒ / noun the representation and AMD a company that develops and pro- measurement of numerical data by contin- AMD duces processor components including a uously variable physical quantities, as for range of processors that are compatible the size of electrical voltages. Compare with Intel processors and are used in many digital PCs. Full form Advanced Micro Devic- analog channel / nəlɒ analog channel tʃ n(ə)l/ es noun a communications line that carries amendment record /ə men(d)mənt amendment record analog signals such as speech rekɔ d/ noun a record containing new in- analog computer / nəlɒ kəm analog computer formation used to update a master record pju tə/ noun a computer which processes or file data in analog form, represented by a con- American National Standards In- American National Standards Institute tinuously varying signal stitute /ə merkən n ʃ(ə)nəl analog data / nəlɒ detə/ noun analog data st ndədz nsttju t/ noun full form of data that is represented as a continuously ANSI variable signal. Speech is a form of analog American Standard Code for In- American Standard Code for Information Interchange data. formation Interchange /ə merkən analog display / nəlɒ d sple/ analog display st ndəd kəυd fər nfəmeʃ(ə)n ntətʃend / noun full form of ASCII noun a display or monitor that can display an infinite range of colours or shades of America Online /ə merkə ɒnlan/ a America Online grey, unlike a digital display that can only company that is the largest Internet service display a finite range of colours. VGA provider in the world. Abbr AOL monitors are a form of analog display. amount /ə maυnt/ verb ˽ to amount to amount analog gate / nəlɒ et/ noun a log- analog gate to make a total of ć The total keyboarded characters amount to ten million. ic gate whose output is proportional to an input signal amp / mp/ noun same as ampere amp analog input card / nəlɒ npυt analog input card (NOTE: used with figures: a 13-amp fuse) kɑ d/ noun all circuitry on one PCB re- ampere / mpeə/ noun the base SI unit ampere quired for amplifying and converting ana- of electrical current, defined as the current log input signals to a digital form flowing through an impedance of one ohm analog line / nəlɒ lan/ noun a analog line which has a voltage of one volt across it. Abbr A communications line that carries analog amplification amplification / mplf keʃ(ə)n/ signals, e.g. a telephone line analog loopback / nəlɒ lu pb k/ analog loopback noun the output-to-input signal strength ratio ć Increase the amplification of the noun a test mode on a modem used to test input signal. the serial port of the local computer or ter- amplifier / mpl faə/ noun an elec- amplifier minal ˽ analog loopback with selftest a tronic circuit that magnifies the power of a test mode on a modem used to test the se- signal rial port of the modem analog monitor / nəlɒ mɒntə/ analog monitor amplify / mpl fa/ verb to magnify a amplify signal power or amplitude ć The received noun a display screen that uses a continu- signal needs to be amplified before it can ously variable input signal to control the be processed. (NOTE: amplifies – amplify- colours display so that it can display a near ing – amplified) infinite range of colours amplitude / mpl tju d/ noun the analog output card / nəlɒ aυt analog output card amplitude strength or size of a signal pυt kɑ d/ noun all circuitry on one PCB amplitude modulation / mpltju d amplitude modulation required to convert digital output data mɒdju leʃ(ə)n/ noun a method of carry- from a computer to an analog form analog recording / nəlɒ r kɔ dŋ/ analog recording ing data by varying the size of a carrier sig- nal of fixed frequency according to the noun the storing of signals in their natural data form without conversion to digital form
  • 22. Computing.fm Page 16 Friday, December 19, 2003 7:16 PManalog representation 16analog representation / nəlɒanalog representation AND gate / nd et/ noun electronic AND gate reprzen teʃ(ə)n/ noun a value or varia- gate that performs a logical AND functionble in analog form on electrical signals. Also called AND cir-analog signal / nəlɒanalog signal s n(ə)l/ cuit, AND element. Compare coinci-noun a continuously varying signal dence gateanalog to digital / nəlɒ tə AND operation / nd ɒpəreʃ(ə)n/analog to digital AND operation dd t(ə)l/ adjective referring to chang- noun the processing of two or more inputing a signal from an analog form to a dig- signals, outputting their AND functionitally coded form. Abbr A/D, A to D anechoic chamber / nekəυk anechoic chamberanalog to digital converter tʃembə/ noun a perfectly quiet room inanalog to digital converter/ nəlɒ tə dd t(ə)l kən v tə/ noun which sound or radio waves do not reflectfull form of ADC off the wallsanalog transmission / nəlɒanalog transmission angle / ŋ əl/ noun a measure of the angletr nz mʃ(ə)n/ noun data transmission in change in direction, usually as the distancewhich the data is sent as a series of chang- turned from a reference linees in a continuously varying signal angled line / ŋ ləd lan/ noun a line angled lineanalyser / nəlazə/ noun a piece ofanalyser with three or more points, e.g. a zig-zagelectronic test equipment that displays var- angstrom / ŋstrɒm/ noun a unit of angstromious features of a signal (NOTE: The US measurement equal to one thousand mil-spelling is analyzer.) lionth of a metre. Abbr Åanalyst / nəlst/ noun a person whoanalyst ANI ANI / e en a/ noun a telephone systemcarries out an analysis of a problem which displays the telephone number ofanalyticalanalytical engine engine / nəltk(ə)l the caller. Full form automatic number end n/ noun a mechanical calculating identificationmachine developed by Charles Babbage in animated GIF / n metd d i a animated GIF1833 that is generally considered the first ef/ noun a simple animation effect creat-general-purpose digital computer ed by saving several small graphic imagesanamorphic / nə mɔ fk/ adjectiveanamorphic within one file so that they can be repeat-referring to an image that has unequal ver- edly displayed in sequence giving an im-tical and horizontal scaling, making it ap- pression of animation. It is often used topear squashed or taller than the original create animated buttons or other effects onancestral file / n sestrəl fal/ noun aancestral file a webpage. ı transparent GIFsystem of backing up files based on a son animation / n meʃ(ə)n/ noun the animationto father to grandfather file, where the son creation of the illusion of movement byis the current working file displaying a series of slightly different im-anchor cell / ŋkə sel/ noun a cell in aanchor cell ages on screen very rapidly to give the ef-spreadsheet program that defines the start fect of smooth movement. Also calledof a range of cells computer animationancillary equipment / n sləri ancillary equipment animation software / n meʃ(ə)n animation software kwpmənt/ noun equipment which is sɒftweə/ noun software that allows youused to make a task easier but which is not to draw several separate frames, eachabsolutely necessary slightly different, and then display themAND / nd/ noun an operator, often usedAND one after another in rapid succession toin searches, that matches text that contains give the impression of movement. Eachboth search words. Compare OR (NOTE: frame is called a cel and the objects thatFor example, searching for ‘cat AND dog’ move are normally called actors.finds all entries that contain both the animatronics / nmə trɒnks/ noun animatronicswords ‘cat’ and ‘dog’) a technology that uses computers and aAND circuit, AND element noun sameAND circuit form of radio control to make puppets oras AND gate other models appear to move in a lifelikeAND function / nd f ŋkʃən/ noun aAND function way, e.g. in filmslogical function whose output is true if annotation / nə teʃ(ə)n/ noun a annotationboth its inputs are true. Also called coin- comment or note in a program which ex-cidence function plains how the program is to be used COMMENT: If both inputs are 1, results of the annotation symbol / nəυ teʃ(ə)n annotation symbol AND will be 1. If one of the input digits is 0, then AND will produce a 0. smb(ə)l/ noun a symbol used when mak-
  • 23. Computing.fm Page 17 Friday, December 19, 2003 7:16 PM 17 anti-tinkle suppression ing flowcharts, to allow comments to be ANSI screen control / nsi skri n ANSI screen control added kən trəυl/ noun a set of standard codes announce /ə naυns/ verb to publicise a developed by ANSI that control how col- announce new or updated website by registering the ours and simple graphics are displayed on domain name with the main search en- a computer screen gines; (NOTE: announces – announcing – answer / ɑ nsə/ verb to reply to a signal answer announced) and set up a communications link ć The COMMENT: Each search engine allows a per- first modem originates the call and the son to add a new website and enter a descrip- second answers it. tion and category. Because there are now several hundred search engines, special soft- answer back / ɑ nsə b k/ noun a sig- answer back ware utilities are available to automatically nal sent by a receiving computer to identi- register the website with each engine. fy itself annunciator /ə n nsietə/ noun a sig- annunciator answering machine / ɑ ns(ə)rŋ mə answering machine nal which can be heard or seen in order to ʃi n/ noun an application software that attract attention runs on a PC and controls a modem that anode / nəυd/ noun a positive electri- anode has voice-mail functionality cal terminal of a device answer mode / ɑ nsə məυd/ noun the answer mode state of a modem that is waiting to receive anonymiser /ə nɒnmazə/, ano- anonymiser a telephone call and establish a connection nymizer noun a website that allows a per- son to browse the World Wide Web with- answer modem / ɑ nsə məυdem/ answer modem out leaving any traces of his or her identity noun the state of a modem that emits an answertone before establishing a connec- anonymous FTP /ə nɒnməs ef ti anonymous FTP tion with an originate modem pi / noun a method commonly used on answer/originate, answer/originate answer/originate the Internet that allows a user to connect to device noun a communications device, a remote computer using the FTP protocol e.g. a modem, that can receive or send data and log in as a guest to download publicly accessible files. ı FTP (NOTE: If you are answer time / ɑ nsə tam/ noun the answer time using the FTP protocol to connect to a re- time taken for a receiving device to re- mote computer and you are asked for a spond to a signal login name and password, you can nor- answertone / ɑ nsətəυn/ noun a tone answertone mally gain access to the remote compu- an answering modem emits before the car- ter’s public areas by entering ‘anony- rier is exchanged mous’ as the login user name and your anthropomorphic anthropomorphic software software full email address as the password.) / nθrəpəmɔ fk sɒftweə/ noun artifi- ANSI / nsi/ a US organisation which ANSI cial intelligence software that appears to specifies computer and software stand- react to what a user says ards, including those of high-level pro- anti-aliasing / nti eliəsŋ/ noun 1. a anti-aliasing gramming languages (US) Full form method of reducing the effects of jagged American National Standards Institute edges in graphics by using shades of grey to blend in along edges. Also called de- ANSI C / nsi si / noun a standard ver- ANSI C jagging 2. a method of adding sound sig- sion of the C programming language nals between the sound samples to create a ANSI driver / nsi dravə/ noun a ANSI driver smoother sound small resident software program in a PC anticoincidence circuit / ntikəυ anticoincidence circuit that interprets ANSI screen control codes nsdəns s kt/, anticoincidence and controls the screen appropriately function noun a logical function whose ANSI escape sequence / nsi  ANSI escape sequence output is true if either of two inputs is true, skep si kwəns/ noun a sequence of and false if both inputs are the same ANSI screen control characters that con- anti-static mat / nti st tk m t/ anti-static mat trols the colours and attributes of text on noun a special rubberised mat which dissi- screen (NOTE: The sequence must begin pates static electricity charge through an with the ASCII character Esc (ASCII 27) electrical earth connection (NOTE: An op- and the character [ (ASCII 91).) erator touches the mat before handling ANSI keyboard / nsi ki bɔ d/ noun sensitive electronic components that ANSI keyboard a standard for a keyboard that provides ei- could be damaged by static electricity.) ther uppercase or upper and lowercase anti-tinkle suppression / nti anti-tinkle suppression characters on a typewriter-style keyboard tŋk(ə)l sə preʃ(ə)n/ noun a switch that
  • 24. Computing.fm Page 18 Friday, December 19, 2003 7:16 PManti-virus program 18prevents other telephones on a line ringing be appended to the end of file A. 2. to addwhen a modem dials out a file or data to the end of an existing fileanti-virus program / nti varəs Apple Computer Corporationanti-virus program Apple Computer Corporation prəυ r m/ noun a software program that / p(ə)l kəm pju tə kɔ pəreʃ(ə)n/ alooks for virus software on a computer and company, formed in 1975, that has devel-destroys it before it can damage data or oped a range of personal computers in-files cluding the Apple II, Apple Lisa and, moreanti-virus software / nti varəs recently, the Apple Macanti-virus software sɒftweə/ noun software that removes a ‘Apple Computer has fleshed out details of a migra- tion path to the PowerPC RISC architecture for its 7virus from a file million Apple Macintosh users. Developments in theanycast / enikɑ st/ noun a type of com-anycast pipeline include PowerPC versions of the AppleTalkmunication in which a single computer Remote Access networking protocol.’ [Computing]user sends data across a network to the Apple Desktop Bus / p(ə)l Apple Desktop Busnearest of a group of receivers desktɒp b s/ a trade name for a serialAOL abbr America OnlineAOL bus built into Apple Macs that allows low- speed devices, e.g. the keyboard andAPA abbr all points addressableAPA mouse, to communicate with the proces-Apache HTTPD /ə p tʃi etʃ ti tiApache HTTPD sor. Abbr ADBpi di / noun a popular piece of web serv- Apple file exchange / p(ə)l fal ks Apple file exchangeer software that provides the basic func- tʃend / a trade name for a software pro-tions required to operate a web server on a gram that runs on an Apple Mac allowingcomputer it to read disks from a PCaperture / pətʃə/ noun an opening in aaperture Apple filing protocol / p(ə)l falŋ Apple filing protocoldevice that allows a certain amount of light prəυtəkɒl/ a trade name for a method ofor a signal to pass through it storing files on a network server so thataperture mask / pətʃə mɑ sk/ nounaperture mask they can be accessed from an Apple Mac.a mask used in colour monitors to keep the Abbr AFPred, green and blue beams separate Apple Key / p(ə)l ki / a trade name for Apple KeyAPI / e pi a/ noun a set of standardAPI a special key on the keyboard of an Appleprogram functions and commands that al- Mac that, when pressed with another key,low any programmer to interface a pro- provides a short-cut to a menu selectiongram with another application ć If I follow Apple Mac / p(ə)l m k/ , Apple Mac- Apple Macthe published API for this system, my pro- intosh computer a trade name for any ofgram will work properly. Full form appli- a range of personal computers developedcation programming interface by Apple Computer Corporation that has aAPL / e pi el/ noun a high-level pro-APL graphical user interface and uses thegramming language used in scientific and 68000 family of processorsmathematical work. Full form A pro- AppleScript / p(ə)lskrpt/ a trade AppleScriptgramming language name for a script language built into theAPM / e pi em/ noun a specification operation system of an Apple Mac that al-APMthat allows an operating system such as lows a user to automate simple tasksolder Windows to control the power man- Appleshare / p(ə)lʃeə/ a trade name Appleshareagement features of a computer. Full form for software that allows Apple Macs toadvanced power management. ı ACPI share files and printers using a file server(NOTE: This standard has been replaced Apple System / p(ə)l sstəm/ a Apple Systemby the ACPI standard in Windows 98 and trade name for a version of the operatingWindows NT 5.0.) system for the Apple Mac that introducesAPPC / e pi pi si / noun a set of pro-APPC multitasking, virtual memory and peer-to-tocols developed by IBM that allows peer- peer file sharingto-peer communication between worksta- applet / plət/ noun 1. a small utility applettions connected to an SNA network. Full within Microsoft Windows, originally anyform advanced program to program of the icons in the Control Panel window,communication. Also called LU 6.2 pro- but now any piece of software that is usedtocols to configure the computer ć There are ap-append /ə pend/ verb 1. to add data to plets to help format your disk and config-appendan existing file or record ć If you enter the ure your keyboard. 2. a small applicationsDOS command COPY A+B, the file B will on the Internet designed to enhance the
  • 25. Computing.fm Page 19 Friday, December 19, 2003 7:16 PM 19 applications programmer functionality of a webpage. ı ActiveX, application layer / pl keʃ(ə)n application layer Java, VBScript (NOTE: For example, if leə/ noun the seventh and top layer in an you want to add multimedia effects to ISO/OSI network, which allows a user to your webpage, you cannot carry out requests functions such as transfer files, these functions with standard HTML send mail and use resources. The other commands, but you could write a small layers are not normally accessed by users. ActiveX program, called an applet, that is application orientated language application orientated language automatically downloaded by the user’s / plkeʃ(ə)n ɔ riəntetd l ŋ wd / browser and run on the user’s computer.) noun a programming language that pro- AppleTalk / p(ə)ltɑ k/ a trade name AppleTalk vides functions which allow the user to for a communications protocol developed solve certain application problems by the Apple Computer Corporation that application package / pl keʃ(ə)n application package carries data over network hardware be- p kd / noun a set of computer pro- tween two or more Apple Macs and pe- grams and manuals that cover all aspects ripherals (NOTE: AppleTalk is similar to of a particular task, e.g. payroll, stock con- the seven-layer OSI protocol model. It trol or tax. Also called applications can link up to 32 devices, uses a CS- package MA/CA design and transmits data at 230 application program / pl keʃ(ə)n application program Kbps.) prəυ r m/ noun a piece of application AppleTalk Filing Protocol / p(ə)l AppleTalk Filing Protocol software ć The multi-window editor is tɔ k falŋ prəυtəkɒl/ full form of AFP used to create and edit applications pro- appliance computer /ə plaəns kəm appliance computer grams. pju tə/ noun a ready-to-run computer application programming inter- application programming interface system that can be bought in a shop, taken face / plkeʃ(ə)n prəυ r mŋ home and used immediately for a particu- ntəfes/ noun full form of API lar purpose. ı turnkey system application service element application service element application / pl keʃ(ə)n/ noun a application / plkeʃ(ə)n s vs elmənt/ noun a task which a computer performs or a prob- part of a program in the application layer lem which a computer solves of an OSI environment that interacts with application configuration access application configuration access protocol the layers beneath it protocol / plkeʃ(ə)n kən f jυ application application service provider service provider reʃ(ə)n kses prəυtəkɒl/ full form of / plkeʃ(ə)n s vs prə vadə/ noun a ACAP specialist company that installs, config- application developer application developer ures and manages software on its own / plkeʃ(ə)n d veləpə/ noun a pro- server and then allows any business to use grammer who designs the look of an appli- the software via the Internet or a private cation and defines its functions network. Abbr ASP (NOTE: The user does application file / pl keʃ(ə)n fal/ not realise that the software is located on application file noun a binary file stored on disk that con- a distant server, and the business does tains the machine code instructions of a not need to buy or support the software, program just rent it.) application form / pl keʃ(ə)n fɔ m/ application software / plkeʃ(ə)n application software application form noun a form to be filled in when applying sɒftweə/ noun software designed to for something ć to fill in an application make the computer do what is required and form for an account on the system perform particular tasks. Also called ap- application generator application generator / pl plications software keʃ(ə)n d enəretə/ noun a piece of applications package / pl applications package special software that allows a programmer keʃ(ə)nz p kd / noun same as appli- to define the main functions and look of an cation package application. The generator then automati- application specific integrated application specific integrated circuits cally creates the instructions to carry out circuits / plkeʃ(ə)n spə sfk the defined application. nt retd s kts/ noun full form of application icon / pl keʃ(ə)n ASIC application icon akɒn/ noun a small image or graphical applications programmer / pl applications programmer symbol that represents an application pro- keʃ(ə)nz prəυ r mə/ noun a pro- gram in a graphical user interface grammer who writes application software
  • 26. Computing.fm Page 20 Friday, December 19, 2003 7:16 PMapplications software 20applications software / pl archival quality / ɑ kav(ə)l kwɒləti/applications software archival quality keʃ(ə)nz sɒftweə/ noun same as ap- noun the length of time that a copy can beplication software stored before it becomes illegibleapplication terminal / pl keʃ(ə)napplication terminal archive / ɑ kav/ noun storage of data archive t mn(ə)l/, applications terminal over a long period í verb to put data in/ pl keʃ(ə)nz t mn(ə)l/ noun a ter- storage (NOTE: archives – archiving – ar-minal, e.g. at a sales desk, which is spe- chived)cially configured to carry out certain tasks archive attribute / ɑ kav ə trbju t/, archive attributeapplication window / pl keʃ(ə)napplication window archive bit noun a special attribute at- wndəυ/ noun an application program tached to a file that indicates if the file hasrunning in a window displayed in a graph- been archived since it was last changed.ical user interface such as Microsoft’s Also called archive flagWindows archived copy / ɑ kavd kɒpi/ noun a archived copyAPPN / e pi pi en/ noun an extensionAPPN copy kept in storageto the IBM SNA protocol that allows archive file / ɑ kav fal/ noun a file archive fileworkstations to share information on a containing data which is out of date butpeer-to-peer basis without the need for a which is kept for future referencecentral mainframe. Full form advanced archive flag / ɑ kav fl / noun same archive flagpeer-to-peer networking (NOTE: It is of-ten used to route information around a as archive attribute archive site / ɑ kav sat/ noun one archive sitenetwork and dynamically adjusts theroute if part of the network is damaged.) computer on the Internet that provides aapproximationapproximation error error /ə prɒks vast collection of public-domain files and meʃ(ə)n erə/ noun an error caused by programs, copied from other computersrounding off a real number around the Internet, that a user can down- loadA programming language / eA programming language archive storage / ɑ kav stɔ rd / archive storage prəυ r mŋ l ŋ wd / noun full formof APL noun storage of data for a long period ofAPT / e pi ti / noun a programmingAPT time area / eəriə/ noun a section of memory or arealanguage used to control numerically con-trolled machines. Full form automatical- code that is reserved for a certain purpose area fill / eəriə fl/ noun (in graphics) an area fillly programmed toolsArabic figures / rəbk f əz/ nounArabic figures instruction to fill an area of the screen orsame as Arabic numbers an enclosed pattern with a colour or pat-Arabic numbers / rəbk n mbəz/,Arabic numbers ternArabic figures / rəbk f əz/, Arabic area graph / eəriə rɑ f/ noun a line area graphnumerals / rəbk nju mərəl/ noun graph in which the area below the line isfigures such as 1, 2, 3, 4, etc. (as opposed filled with a pattern or colourto the Roman numerals I, II, III. IV, etc.) ć area search / eəriə s tʃ/ noun a area searchThe page numbers are written in Arabic search for specific data within a certainfigures. section of memory or filesarbitration software / ɑ b treʃ(ə)narbitration software arg arg /ɑ / noun same as argument sɒftweə/ noun software that is responsi- argument / ɑ jυmənt/ noun a variable argumentble for allocating resources to devices, of- acted upon by an operator or function ć Iften used to manage the way Plug and Play you enter the words ‘MULTIPLY A, B’, theadapters use other resources in a computer processor will recognise the operator,Archie / ɑ tʃi / noun a system of serversArchie MULTIPLY, and use it with the two argu-on the Internet that catalogue the public ments, A and B. ı operand. Abbr argfiles available on the Internet argument separator / ɑ jυmənt argument separatorarchitecture / ɑ ktektʃə/ noun thearchitecture sepəretə/ noun a punctuation mark orlayout and interconnection of a computer’s symbol that separates several argumentsinternal hardware and the logical relation- on one line ć The command ‘MULTIPLYships between CPU, memory and I/O de- A, B’ uses a comma as the argument sepa-vices rator. ‘Software giant Microsoft is also interested in using Xerox’ Glyph technology as part of its Microsoft At arithmetic capability / rθmetk arithmetic capability Work architecture that seeks to unite office comput- kepə blti/ noun the ability of a device ers with fax machines and copiers.’ [Computing] to perform mathematical functions
  • 27. Computing.fm Page 21 Friday, December 19, 2003 7:16 PM 21 ascender arithmetic check /ə rθmətk tʃek/ array /ə re/ noun an ordered structure arithmetic check array noun a further arithmetic operation carried containing individually accessible ele- out to ensure that a result is correct ments referenced by numbers, used to arithmetic functions /ə rθmətk store tables or sets of related data arithmetic functions f ŋkʃənz/ plural noun calculations car- array bounds /ə re baυndz/ plural array bounds ried out on numbers, e.g. addition, subtrac- noun limits to the number of elements tion, multiplication and division which can be given in an array arithmetic instruction / rθmetk array dimension /ə re da menʃ(ə)n/ arithmetic instruction array dimension n str kʃən/ noun an instruction to per- noun the number of elements in an array, form an arithmetic operation on data rather given as rows and columns than a logical function array element /ə re elmənt/ noun array element arithmetic logic unit / rθmetk arithmetic logic unit one individual piece of data within an ar- lɒd k ju nt/ noun full form of ALU ray arithmetic operation / rθmetk array processor /ə re prəυsesə/ arithmetic operation array processor ɒpə reʃ(ə)n/ noun a mathematical func- noun a computer that can act upon several tion carried out on data arrays of data simultaneously, for very fast arithmetic operator / rθmetk mathematical applications ć The array arithmetic operator ɒpəretə/ noun a symbol which indicates processor allows the array that contains an arithmetic function, e.g. + for addition, the screen image to be rotated with one x for multiplication simple command. arithmetic register / rθmetk arrow key / rəυ ki / noun each of a set arithmetic register arrow key red stə/ noun a memory location which of four keys on a keyboard that move the stores operands cursor or pointer around the screen, con- arithmetic shift / rθmetk ʃft/ trolling movement up, down, left and right arithmetic shift noun a word or data moved one bit to the arrow pointer / rəυ pɔntə/ noun a arrow pointer left or right inside a register, losing the bit small arrow on-screen that you can move shifted off the end using the mouse arithmetic unit / rθmetk ju nt/ artefact / ɑ tf kt/, artifact noun 1. a arithmetic unit artefact noun same as ALU very small error in a video signal 2. a very arm /ɑ m/ verb 1. to prepare a device or small error in a digital version of an analog arm machine or routine for action or inputs 2. signal to define which interrupt lines are active article / ɑ tk(ə)l/ noun one message in a article armed interrupt /ɑ md ntər pt/ newsgroup armed interrupt noun an interrupt line which has been artifact / ɑ tf kt/ noun another spell- artifact made active, using an interrupt mask ing of artefact ARP / e ɑ pi / noun a protocol within ARP artificial intelligence / ɑ tfʃ(ə)l n artificial intelligence the TCP/IP standard that is used to deter- teld (ə)ns/ noun full form of AI mine whether the source and destination artificial life / ɑ tfʃ(ə)l laf/ noun the artificial life address in a packet are in the data-link use of computer systems to imitate aspects control or Internet protocol format. Full of natural human behaviour such as learn- form address resolution protocol ing and reproduction (NOTE: Once the format of the address is artificial neural network / ɑ tfʃ(ə)l artificial neural network known, the packet can be correctly rout- ed over a network.) njυərəl netw k/ noun a system for ARPANET / ɑ pənet/ noun the original ARPANET processing information that is made up of network of interconnected computers, interconnected elements that behave in a linked by leased lines, that formed the first similar way to the neurons in the human prototype for the current Internet. It was nervous system and have the ability to developed by the US Department of De- learn through experience artwork / ɑ t w k/ noun graphical artwork fense. Full form advanced research projects agency network work or images ARQ / e ɑ kju / noun an error correc- ascend /ə send/ verb to increase ascend ARQ ascender /ə sendə/ noun a part of a ascender tion system, used in some modems, which asks for data to be re-transmitted if it con- character that rises above the main line of tains errors. Full form automatic repeat printed characters, e.g. the upward line of request a ‘b’ or ‘d’
  • 28. Computing.fm Page 22 Friday, December 19, 2003 7:16 PMascending order 22ascending order /ə sendŋ ɔ də/ascending order the disk drive are made in Japan and as-noun an arrangement of data with the sembled in France. (NOTE: assembles –smallest value or date first in the list assembling – assembled) 2. to translateASCII / ski / noun a code which repre-ASCII assembly code into machine code ć Theresents alphanumeric characters in binary is a short wait during which time the pro-code. Full form American Standard gram is assembled into object code. 3. toCode for Information Interchange insert specific library routines or macrosASCII character / ski k rktə/ASCII character or parameters into a program assembler /ə semblə/ noun a program assemblernoun a character which is in the ASCII listof codes which converts a program written in as-ASCII file / ski fal/ noun a stored fileASCII file sembly language into machine code. Alsocontaining only ASCII coded character called assembler programdata ć Use a word processor or other pro- assembler error messages /ə assembler error messagesgram that generates a standard ASCII file. semblə erə mesd / plural noun mes-ASCII keyboard / ski ki bɔ d/ noun sages produced by an assembler that indi-ASCII keyboarda keyboard that provides a key for every cate that errors have been found in theASCII code source codeASCII text / ski tekst/ noun the set ofASCII text assembler language /ə semblə assembler languageletter and number characters with an AS- l ŋ wd / noun same as assembly lan-CII code between 0 and 127 guageASCIIZ string / ski zed strŋ/ nounASCIIZ string assembler mnemonic /ə semblə n assembler mnemonica sequence of ASCII characters followed mɒnk/ noun a standard word abbrevia-by the ASCII code zero that indicates the tion used when writing a program for aend of the sequence in programming particular CPU in assembly language, e.g.ASF / e es ef/ noun a multimedia deliv-ASF LDA for load register Aery format developed by Microsoft for de- assembler assembler program program /ə sembləlivery over the Internet and used in its Net- prəυ r m/ noun same as assemblerShow product. Full form active stream- assembly /ə sembl/ noun the process assemblying formatASIC / e es a si / plural noun speciallyASIC of putting an item together from variousdesigned ICs for one particular function or parts ć There are no assembly instructionsto special specifications. Full form appli- to show you how to put the computer to-cation specific integrated circuits gether. assembly code /ə sembli kəυd/ noun assembly codeASP abbr 1. Active Server Page 2. appli-ASPcation service provider a set of mnemonics which are used to rep-aspect ratio / spekt reʃiəυ/ nounaspect ratio resent machine code instructions in an as-the ratio of the width to the height of pixel sembler program assembly language /ə sembli assembly languageshapesaspect system / spekt sstəm/aspect system l ŋ wd / noun a programming lan-noun a method of storing and indexing guage using mnemonics to code instruc-documents in a retrieval system tions which will then be converted to ma-ASR / e es ɑ / noun a device or terminalASR chine code. Also called assembler lam- guage, base languagethat can transmit and receive information. assembly listing /ə sembli lstŋ/ assembly listingFull form automatic send/receive.Compare KSR noun a display of an assembler ordered ac- COMMENT: An ASR terminal can input informa- cording to memory location tion via a keyboard or via a tape cassette or assembly plant /ə sembli plɑ nt/ assembly plant paper tape. It can receive information and store it in internal memory or on tape. noun a factory where units are put togetherASR keyboard / e es ɑ ki bɔ d/ASR keyboard from parts made in other factories assembly routine /ə sembli ru ti n/, assembly routinenoun a communications console keyboardthat has all the characters and punctuation assembly system /ə sembl sstəm /keys and special control, send and receive noun a part of a computer program thatkeys translates assembly code into machineassemble /ə semb(ə)l/ verb 1. to put aassemble code assembly system /ə sembl sstəm/ assembly systemhardware or software product togetherfrom various smaller parts ć The parts for noun same as assembly routine
  • 29. Computing.fm Page 23 Friday, December 19, 2003 7:16 PM 23 asynchronous communication assembly time /ə sembli tam/ noun associative processor /ə səυsiətv assembly time associative processor the time taken by an assembler to translate prəυsesə/ noun a processor that uses as- a program sociative memory assertion /ə s ʃ(ə)n/ noun a program associative storage /ə səυsiətv associative storage assertion statement of a fact or rule stɔ rd / noun same as associative memory assets / sets/ plural noun separate assets associative storage register /ə associative storage register data elements such as video, audio and im- age that are used in a multimedia applica- səυsiətv stɔ rd red stə/ noun a tion register that is located by its contents rath- er than a name or address assign /ə san/ verb 1. to give a compu- assign asterisk / stərsk/ noun 1. a graphical asterisk ter or person something to do ć He was as- signed the job of checking the sales fig- symbol (*) used in programming as a sign ures. 2. to set a variable equal to a string of for multiplication 2. a graphical symbol characters or numbers 3. to keep part of a (*) used as a wildcard in many operating computer system for use while a program systems, including DOS, to mean any is running characters asterisk fill / st(ə)rsk fl/ noun the asterisk fill assigned numbers /ə sand assigned numbers filling of unused decimal places with the n mbəz/ plural noun unique numbers asterisk symbol that are each assigned to an Internet or net- asymmetric compression / s asymmetric compression work manufacturer’s device, protocol or other resource (NOTE: Manufacturers ap- metrk kəm preʃ(ə)n/ noun a method of ply for a unique ID number from the IANA reducing the space taken by data Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line organisation.) Line / s metrk dd t(ə)l səb assignment /ə sanmənt/ noun the assignment skrabə lan/ noun full form of ADSL process of setting a variable equal to a val- asymmetric transmission /es asymmetric transmission ue or string or character metrk tr nz mʃ(ə)n/ noun a method assignment compatible /ə assignment compatible of data transmission which has two differ- sanmənt kəm p təb(ə)l/ adjective (in ent speeds for data received by the compu- the Pascal programming language) refer- ter and data transmitted by the computer ring to a value whose type is established by asymmetric video compression asymmetric video compression a check to be allowed /es metrk vdiəυ kəm preʃ(ə)n/ assignment conversion /ə assignment conversion noun the use of a powerful computer to sanmənt kən v ʃ(ə)n/ noun (in the C compress video, allowing it to be played and Fortran programming languages) an back on a less powerful computer operation to change the type of a value async /e sŋk/ adjective same as asyn- async assignment statement /ə sanmənt assignment statement chronous (informal ) stetmənt/ noun a basic programming asynchronous /ə sŋkrənəs/ adjec- asynchronous command that sets a variable equal to a tive referring to serial data or equipment value or string or character which does not depend on being synchro- associated document /fal/, associ- nised with another piece of equipment associated document ated file noun a document or file that is asynchronous access /e sŋkrənəs asynchronous access linked to its originating application (NOTE: kses/ noun communication using hand- When you select the file, the operating shaking to synchronise data transmission system automatically starts the originat- asynchronous cache /e sŋkrənəs asynchronous cache ing application.) k ʃ/ noun a type of cache memory that associative addressing /ə səυsiətv associative addressing provides the slowest performance and uses ə dresŋ/ noun the identification of a lo- a type of SDRAM that is cheap but slow cation by its contents rather than its ad- asynchronous communication /e asynchronous communication dress. Also called content-addressable sŋkrənəs kə mju n keʃ(ə)n/ noun addressing data transmission between devices that is associative memory /ə səυsiətv not synchronized to a clock, but is trans- associative memory mem(ə)ri/ noun a method of data retriev- mitted when ready al that uses part of the data rather than an asynchronous communication asynchronous communication server address to locate the data. Also called as- server /e sŋkrənəs kə mju n sociative storage keʃ(ə)n s və/ noun full form of ACS
  • 30. Computing.fm Page 24 Friday, December 19, 2003 7:16 PMasynchronous communications 24asynchronous communicationsasynchronous communications ATA packet interface / e ti e ATA packet interfaceinterface adapter /ə sŋkrənəs kə p kt ntəfes/ noun same as ad- mju nkeʃ(ə)nz ntəfes ə d ptə/ vanced technology attachment packetnoun full form of ACIA interfaceasynchronous computer /e ATAPI abbr advanced technology attach-asynchronous computer ATAPI sŋkrənəs kəm pju tə/ noun 1. a com- ment packet interfaceputer that changes from one operation to AT attachment /e ti ə t tʃmənt/ AT attachmentthe next according to signals received noun same as ATAwhen the process is finished 2. a computer ATA Ultra / e ti e ltrə/ noun a pro- ATA Ultrain which a process starts on the arrival of prietary extension to ATA-2, developed bysignals or data rather than on a clock pulse Quantum Corp., that provides a high-asynchronous data transfer /easynchronous data transfer speed standard interface that provides data sŋkrənəs detə tr nsf / noun trans- transfer at up to 33 MBps.fer of data between two devices that takes AT-bus /ət b s/ noun an expansion bus AT-busplace without any regular or predictable standard developed by IBM that uses antiming signal edge connector to carry 16-bits of data andasynchronous mode /e sŋkrənəsasynchronous mode address informationməυd/ noun the state of a terminal linked ATC / e ti si / noun permission granted ATCto another piece of equipment in a way in by the software publisher to the user towhich the two need not be synchronised make a certain number of copies of a pro-asynchronous port /e sŋkrənəsasynchronous port gram. Full form authorization to copy pɔ t/ noun a connection to a computer al- (NOTE: Some companies have intro-lowing asynchronous data access ć Since duced ATC schemes that allow users ofasynchronous ports are used no special certain software to make duplicates ofhardware is required. the companies’ programs for a fee.)asynchronous procedure call /easynchronous procedure call AT command set / e ti kə mɑ nd AT command set sŋkrənəs prə si d ə kɔ l/ noun a pro- set/ noun a standard set of commands togram function that runs separately from control a modem, developed by Hayesthe main program and will execute when a Corporationparticular set of conditions exist. Abbr ATD / e ti di / noun a standard com- ATDAPC mand for compatible modems used to dialasynchronous transfer mode /easynchronous transfer mode a telephone number; defined by Hayes sŋkrənəs tr nsf məυd/ noun full Corporation. Full form attention, dialform of ATM ATE / e ti i / noun computer controlled ATEasynchronous transmission /easynchronous transmission testing facilities that can check a complex sŋkrənəs tr nz mʃ(ə)n/ noun data circuit or PCB for faults or problems. Fulltransmission that uses handshaking sig- form automatic test equipmentnals rather than clock signals to synchro- Athlon XP / θlɒn eks pi / a trade Athlon XPnize data pulses name for a 32-bit processor, developed byAT / e ti / noun a trade name for a stand-AT AMD, that can run the same software as anard of PC originally developed by IBM Intel Pentium processorthat uses a 16-bit 80286 processor AT-keyboard /ət ki bɔ d/ noun a AT-keyboard COMMENT: AT originally meant IBM’s Ad- standard keyboard layout for IBM AT per- vanced Technology personal computer, but is now used to describe any IBM PC compatible sonal computers, with 102 keys with a row that uses a 16-bit processor. of 12 function keys along the topATA / e ti e/ noun hard disk drive tech-ATA ATM1 / e ti em/ abbr Adobe Type ATMnology in which the controller is part of Managerthe disk drive rather than being part of the ATM2 / e ti em/ noun 1. method of ATMmain computer or located on the mother- transferring data very rapidly, at up to 155board. Full form advanced technology Mbps, across an ISDN link or network 2. aattachment. Also called AT attachment CCITT and ANSI standard defining cellATA Fast / e ti e fɑ st/ noun a pro-ATA Fast relay transmission ̈ full form asynchro-prietary standard interface developed by nous transfer modeSeagate and based on ATA that improves ATM adaptation layer / e ti em ATM adaptation layerthe transfer rate and has three modes of op- d p teʃ(ə)n leə/ noun part of theeration that provide either 11.1 MBps, ATM system that translates a user’s data to13.3 MBps or 16.6 MBps transfer rates the standard ATM cell format. Abbr AAL
  • 31. Computing.fm Page 25 Friday, December 19, 2003 7:16 PM 25 audit trail ATM cell format / e ti em sel/ noun ATM cell format attention interruption /ə tenʃ(ə)n attention interruption data sent over an ATM network in a 53-oc- ntə r pʃən/ noun an interrupt signal tet packet that includes a header and ad- that requests the attention of the processor dress information attention key /ə tenʃ(ə)n ki / noun a attention key ATM layers / e ti em leəs/ noun a ATM layers key on a terminal that sends an interrupt method of dividing the functions of an signal to the processor ATM network system into hierarchical attenuation /ə tenju eʃ(ə)n/ noun 1. attenuation layers reduction or loss of signal strength 2. the AT mode / e ti məυd/ noun a state of AT mode difference between transmitted and re- a modem that is ready to accept commands ceived power measured in decibels ć If the using the Hayes AT command set cable is too long, the signal attenuation ATM payload / e ti em pe ləυd/ ATM payload will start to cause data errors. Opposite noun a section of an ATM cell that con- gain tains the data. It contains 48 octets of data attribute / trbju t/ noun 1. a field en- attribute within the 53-octet cell. try in a file ć This attribute controls the A to D adjective same as analog to dig- A to D colour of the screen. 2. a piece of informa- ital tion concerning the display or presentation A to D converter / ə tə, tυ di / noun A to D converter of information 3. a set of control data same as ADC ć The speech signal was stored with and controlling particular first passed through an A to D converter functions or aspects of the file in some op- before being analysed. erating systems such as DOS and OS/2 atom / təm/ noun 1. the smallest parti- atom auctioneering device / ɔ kʃə nərŋ auctioneering device cle of an element that has the same proper- d vas/ noun a device that will select the ties as the element 2. a value or string that maximum or minimum signal from a cannot be reduced to a simpler form number of input signals atomic /ə tɒmk/ adjective an referring atomic audible / ɔ db(ə)l/ adjective which can audible to an operation that returns data to its orig- be heard ć The printer makes an audible inal state if it is stopped during processing signal when it runs out of paper. ATSC / e ti es si / noun a committee ATSC audio / ɔ diəυ/ adjective referring to audio that defines the SDTV and HDTV stand- sound or to things which can be heard ards for use in the USA. Full form Ad- audio board / ɔ diəυ bɔ d/ noun same audio board vanced Television Systems Commit- as sound card tee audio file / ɔ diəυ fal/ noun a digital audio file attach /ə t tʃ/ verb to connect a node or attach sound sample stored on disk login to a server on a network audio range / ɔ diəυ rend / noun the audio range attached processor /ə t tʃt frequency range between 50–20,000 Hz attached processor prəυsesə/ noun a separate microproces- that can be detected by a human ear sor in a system that performs certain func- audio response unit / ɔ diəυ r audio response unit tions under the control of a central proces- spɒns ju nt/ noun a speech synthesiser sor that allows a computer to speak responses attachment /ə t tʃmənt/ noun a attachment to requests named file which is transferred together audiotex / ɔ diəυteks/ noun an interac- audiotex with an electronic mail message ć There is tive voice response over the telephone in an attachment with my last mail message – which a computer asks the caller questions it contains the sales report. and the caller responds by pressing num- attack /ə t k/ noun the shape of the start attack bers on his telephone of a sound signal over time audio/video interleaved / ɔ diəυ audio/video interleaved attended operation /ə tendd ɒpə attended operation vdiəυ ntə li vd/ noun full form of AVI reʃ(ə)n/ noun a process which has an op- audio-video support system audio-video support system erator standing by in case of problems / ɔ diəυ vdiəυ sə pɔ t/ noun full form attention, dial /ə tenʃən daəl/ noun attention, dial of AVSS full form of ATD audit / ɔ dt/ noun the process of noting audit attention code /ə tenʃən kəυd/ noun attention code tasks carried out by a computer í verb to the two characters ‘AT’ that are used to examine the state of a system and check preface a command to a Hayes-compatible that it is still secure or working properly modem (NOTE: For example, ‘ATD123’ audit trail / ɔ dt trel/ noun a record of audit trail tells the modem to dial the number ‘123’) details of the use made of a system by not-
  • 32. Computing.fm Page 26 Friday, December 19, 2003 7:16 PMaugend 26ing transactions carried out, used for authorisation code / ɔ θəra authorisation codechecking on illegal use or malfunction zeʃ(ə)n kəυd/ noun a code used to re-augend / ɔ end/ noun the number to strict access to a computer system to au-augendwhich another number, the addend, is add- thorised users onlyed to produce the sum authorisation authorisation to copy to copyaugmented addressing /ɔ mentd / ɔ θərazeʃ(ə)n tə kɒp/ noun fullaugmented addressingə dresŋ/ noun the producing of a usable form of ATCaddress word from two shorter words authorised user / ɔ θə razd ju zə/, authorised useraugmenter / ɔ mentə/ noun a value authorized user noun person who is al-augmenteradded to another lowed to access a systemAUI connector / e ju a kə nektə/ authority file, authority list noun a listAUI connector authority filenoun a D-connector used to connect thick of special terms used by people compilingEthernet cable to a network adapter a database and also by the users of the da-AUP abbr acceptable use policyAUP tabaseauthentication of messages /ɔ author level / ɔ θə lev(ə)l/ noun the author levelauthentication of messages θentkeʃ(ə)n əv mesd z/ noun the mode of an authoring software packageuse of special codes to identify the sender that is used by the author to design the ap-of messages, so that the messages can be plication (NOTE: The user uses the fin-recognised as being genuine ished application at user level.)authenticator /ɔ θentketə/ noun a auto advance / ɔ təυ əd vɑ ns/ noun aauthenticator auto advancetrustworthy company that provides au- system by which the paper in a printer isthentication for digital signatures on the automatically moved forward to the nextInternet (NOTE: This process is used by line at the end of a linesecure websites (shopping or payment auto-answer / ɔ təυ ɑ nsə/ noun a auto-answersites) to prove to a visitor that the website feature of a modem that will automaticallyhas been created by the authorised pub- answer a telephone when calledlisher.) auto-baud scanning / ɔ təυ bɔ d/, auto-baud scanningauthor / ɔ θə/ noun the person whoauthor auto-baud sensing / ɔ təυ bɔ d/ noun awrote a program í verb to create a multi- feature of a modem that can automaticallymedia application by combining sound, sense and select the correct baud rate for avideo and images line ‘The authoring system is a software product that in- auto-boot / ɔ təυ bu t/ noun a feature auto-boot tegrates text and fractally compressed images, using any wordprocessor line editor, to create an electronic of a computer system that will initiate a book with hypertext links between different pages.’ boot-up procedure when it is switched on [Computing] auto-dial / ɔ təυ daəl/ noun feature of auto-dialauthoring language / ɔ θərŋauthoring language a modem that dials a number automatical- l ŋ wd / noun a programming lan- ly using stored dataguage used to write CAL and training pro- AUTOEXEC.BAT / ɔ təυ zek b t/ AUTOEXEC.BATgrams noun (in an IBM PC running the MS-DOSauthoring / ɔ θərŋ softwareauthoring software operating system) a batch file that con- sstəm/, authoring system noun 1. a tains commands that are executed whenspecial application that allows you to cre- the computer is first switched on or resetate multimedia titles. Authoring software autoflow / ɔ təυfləυ/ noun a feature of autoflowlets you design the pages of the multime-dia book and place video clips, images, DTP or wordprocessing software that au-text and sound on a page. (NOTE: Almost tomatically flows text around a graphicall multimedia developers use some type image or from one page to the next auto-login / ɔ təυ lɒ n/, auto-logon auto-loginof authoring software rather than a tradi-tional programming language because / ɔ təυ lɒ ɒn/ noun a phone number,it’s a much faster and easier way to cre- password and user’s number transmittedate multimedia programs.) 2. same as when requested by a remote system to au-webpage design software tomate logon. Also called automatic log-authorisation / ɔ θəra zeʃ(ə)n/, au- onauthorisation automated teller machine automated teller machinethorization noun 1. permission or powerto do something 2. the process of giving a / ɔ təmetd telə mə ʃi n/ noun fulluser permission to access a system form of ATM
  • 33. Computing.fm Page 27 Friday, December 19, 2003 7:16 PM 27 automatic speed matching automatically programmed tools automatically programmed tools automatic letter writing / ɔ təm tk automatic letter writing / ɔ təm tkli prəυ r md tu lz/ plural letə ratŋ/ noun the writing of form let- noun full form of APT ters using a word-processor automatic automatic backup backup / ɔ təm tk automatic loader / ɔ təm tk ləυdə/ automatic loader b k p/ noun same as auto save noun a short program, usually in ROM, automatic automatic call distribution call distribution that will boot up a system and load a pro- / ɔ təm tk kɔ l dstrbju ʃ(ə)n/ noun gram full form of ACD automatic log on / ɔ təm tk lɒ automatic log on automatic calling unit / ɔ təm tk automatic calling unit ɒn/ noun same as auto-login kɔ lŋ ju nt/ noun full form of ACU automatic mailing list / ɔ təm tk automatic mailing list automatic automatic carriage return carriage return melŋ lst/ noun ‘ listserv / ɔ təm tk k rd r t n/ noun a sys- automatic mode / ɔ tə m tk məυd/ automatic mode tem in which the cursor automatically re- noun a feature of a monitor that can adjust turns to the beginning of a new line when its internal circuits to the different fre- it reaches the end of the previous one quencies used by different video stand- automatic checking / ɔ təm tk automatic checking ards. Also called automatic frequency tʃekŋ/ noun error detection and valida- switching tion check carried out automatically on re- automatic number identification automatic number identification ceived data / ɔ təm tk n mbə a dentfkeʃ(ə)n/ automatic data capture / ɔ təm tk automatic data capture noun full form of ANI detə k ptʃə/ noun a system in which automatic power off / ɔ təm tk automatic power off data is automatically recorded in a compu- paυə ɒf/ noun a feature of equipment ter system, as it is input that will switch itself off if it has not been automatic automatic data processing data processing used for a certain time / ɔ təm tk detə prəυsesŋ/ noun full automatic automatic programming programming form of ADP / ɔ təm tk prəυ r mŋ/ noun the automatic automatic decimal adjustment decimal adjustment process of producing an optimum operat- / ɔ təm tk desm(ə)l ə d stmənt/ ing system for a particular process noun the process of lining up all the deci- automatic automatic recalculation recalculation mal points in a column of figures / ɔ təm tk ri k lkju leʃ(ə)n/ noun a automatic automatic error correction error correction spreadsheet mode in which the answers to / ɔ təm tk erə kə rekʃ(ə)n/ noun cor- new formula are calculated every time any rection of received data, using error detec- value or cell changes tion and correction codes automatic automatic recovery program recovery program automatic automatic error detection error detection / ɔ təm tk r k v(ə)ri prəυ r m/ / ɔ təm tk erə d tekʃ(ə)n/ noun use noun a piece of software that is automati- of an alphanumeric code, e.g. a grey code, cally run when a piece of equipment fails, that will allow any errors to be detected to ensure that the system continues to op- automatic automatic font downloading font downloading erate / ɔ təm tk fɒnt dəυn ləυdŋ/ noun the automatic repeat / ɔ təm tk r pi t/ automatic repeat process in which special font information noun a facility whereby a character is au- is sent to a printer by the application tomatically repeated if the key is kept automatic frequency switching automatic frequency switching pressed down. Also called auto repeat / ɔ təm tk fri kwənsi swtʃŋ/ noun automatic repeat request automatic repeat request same as automatic mode / ɔ təm tk r pi t r kwest/ noun full automatic gain / ɔ təm tk en/ automatic gain form of ARQ noun an electronic circuit which automat- automatic automatic send/receive send/receive ically increases the volume when someone / ɔ təm tk send r si v/ noun full form is speaking quietly and drops it when of ASR someone is speaking loudly automatic sequencing / ɔ təm tk automatic sequencing automatic gain control / ɔ təm tk automatic gain control si kwənsŋ/ noun the ability of a compu- en kən trəυl/ noun full form of AGC ter to execute a number of programs or automatic hyphenation / ɔ təm tk automatic hyphenation tasks without extra commands hafə naʃ(ə)n/ noun a feature of a soft- automatic speed matching automatic speed matching ware program that looks up in an electron- / ɔ təm tk spi d m tʃŋ/ noun the ic dictionary how to correctly split and hy- ability of a modem to adjust its data rate to phenate words the speed of the remote modem
  • 34. Computing.fm Page 28 Friday, December 19, 2003 7:16 PMautomatic test equipment 28automatic testautomatic test equipment equipment AUX / e ju eks/ noun a serial commu- AUX/ ɔ təm tk test  kwpmənt/ noun full nications port under the DOS operatingform of ATE system. Full form auxiliaryautomatic volumeautomatic volume control control A/UX a trade name for a version of the A/UX/ ɔ təm tk vɒlju m kən trəυl/ noun Unix operating system for the Apple Macfull form of AVC range of computersauto-redial / ɔ təυ ri daəl/ noun aauto-redial auxiliary /ɔ zliəri/ noun full form of auxiliaryfeature of a modem that dials a telephone AUXnumber again if engaged, until it replies auxiliary device /ɔ zliəri d vas/ auxiliary device noun a piece of computer hardware that isauto-reliable mode / ɔ təυ rauto-reliable mode not part of the central processing unit but laəb(ə)l məυd/ noun a feature of a mo- is controlled by it, e.g. a printer or scanner.dem in which the modem will try and es- Also called peripheraltablish a reliable connection with anothermodem using error correction auxiliary equipment /ɔ zliəri  auxiliary equipment kwpmənt/ noun backup or secondaryauto repeat / ɔ təυ r pi t/ noun sameauto repeat equipment in case of a breakdownas automatic repeat auxiliary auxiliary memory memory /ɔ zliəriautoresponder / ɔ təυr spɒndə/ mem(ə)ri/ noun same as auxiliary stor-autorespondernoun a software application that automat- ageically indicates that a person is unavailable auxiliary processor /ɔ zliəri auxiliary processorto respond to incoming email prəυsesə/ noun an extra, specialisedauto restart / ɔ təυ ri stɑ t/ noun a processor, e.g. an array or numerical proc-auto restartfeature of a computer that can initialise essor, that can work with a main processorand reload its operating system if there is a to improve performancefault or power failure or at switch on auxiliary storage /ɔ zliəri auxiliary storageauto save / ɔ təυ sev/ noun a featureauto save stɔ rd /, auxiliary store noun any dataof some application programs, e.g. word- storage medium that is not the main highprocessor or database software, that auto- speed computer storage (RAM) ć Diskmatically saves the file being used every drives are auxiliary storage on this ma-few minutes in case of a power failure or chine. Also called auxiliary memorysystem crash. Also called automatic auxilliary audio device /ɔ zliəri auxilliary audio devicebackup ɔ diəυ d vas/ noun an audio deviceauto scan / ɔ təυ sk n/ noun the abili-auto scan whose output is mixed with other wave-ty of a monitor to maintain the same rec- formstangular image size when changing from available bit rate /ə veləb(ə)l bt available bit rateone resolution to another ret/ noun full form of ABRauto start / ɔ təυ stɑ t/ noun a facilityauto start available list /ə veləb(ə)l lst/ noun a available listto load a program automatically when the list of unallocated memory and resourcescomputer is switched on in a system available point /ə veləb(ə)l pɔnt/ available pointauto stop / ɔ təυ stɒp/ noun a featureauto stop noun the smallest single unit or point of aof a tape player which stops when it has display whose colour and brightness canreached the end of a tape be controlledautosync / ɔ təυsŋk/ noun a feature ofautosync available power /ə veləb(ə)l paυə/ available powera modem that allows it to transfer synchro- noun the maximum electrical or process-nous data signals to and from a computer ing power that a system can deliverthat can only transfer asynchronous sig- available time /ə veləb(ə)l tam/ available timenals noun the time during which a system mayauto trace / ɔ təυ tres/ noun a featureauto trace be usedof some graphics programs that will trans- avalanche / vəlɑ ntʃ/ noun a se- avalancheform a bit-mapped image into a vector im- quence of actions in which each actionage by automatically locating the edges of starts another ć There was an avalanche ofthe shapes in the image and drawing lines errors after I pressed the wrong key.around them avatar / vətɑ / noun 1. the graphical avatarauto verify / ɔ təυ verfa/ noun a ver-auto verify image that is used to represent a real per-ification procedure carried out automati- son in a cyberspace or three-dimensionalcally, as soon as the data has been saved system, e.g. the image of a person in a
  • 35. Computing.fm Page 29 Friday, December 19, 2003 7:16 PM 29 BABT approval three-dimensional adventure game 2. the play back video and audio files on a com- name for the superuser account on a UNIX puter. Full form audio-video support system. Also called root system AVC1 / e vi si / noun an electronic cir- AVC AWM / e d b(ə)l ju em/ noun a sys- AWM cuit that maintains a constant sound level tem developed by Yamaha to sample natu- despite undesired differences in strength ral sounds and convert them to digital of the incoming signal. Full form auto- form. Full form advanced wave modu- matic volume control lation AVC2 / e vi si / a trade name for multi- AVC axis / kss/ noun 1. a line around which axis media software developed by IBM that something turns ć The CAD package al- works with its Audio Capture and Video lows an axis to be placed anywhere. Capture boards (NOTE: The plural is axes.) 2. a reference average access time / v(ə)rd average access time line which is the basis for coordinates on a kses tam/ noun the average time tak- graph en between a request being sent and data azerty keyboard /ə z ti ki bɔ d/ azerty keyboard being returned from a memory device average delay / v(ə)rd d le/ average delay noun a method of arranging the keys on a noun the average time that a user must keyboard where the first line begins AZ- wait when trying to access a communica- ERTY, used mainly in Continental Europe. tion network ć The average delay increas- Compare QWERTY keyboard azimuth / zməθ/ noun the angle of a azimuth es at nine-thirty when everyone tries to log-in. tape head to a reference, e.g. a tape plane AVI / e vi a/ noun a Windows multi- AVI azimuth alignment / zməθ ə azimuth alignment media video format developed by Micro- lanmənt/ noun the correct horizontal an- soft. Full form audio/video interleaved gle of a tape head to the magnetic tape ć AVSS / e vi es es/ noun a digital video AVSS Azimuth alignment is adjusted with this system, originally for MS-DOS, used to small screw B b abbr bit b consumers rather than at other businesses. B1 abbr byte B Full form business-to-consumer babble / b b(ə)l/ noun crosstalk or babble B2 symbol the hexadecimal equivalent of B noise from other sources which interferes the decimal number 11 with a signal B: used in personal computers to indicate B: BABT / bi e bi ti / noun an independ- BABT the second disk drive, normally a floppy ent organisation that tests and certifies tel- disk drive ć Copy the files from the hard ecommunications equipment ć If you de- drive, C:, to the floppy drive, B:. sign a new modem, you must have BABT B2B / bi tə bi / adjective referring to B2B approval before you can sell it. Full form advertising or marketing that is aimed at British Approvals Board for Telecom- other businesses rather than at consumers. munications Full form business-to-business BABT approval / bi e bi ti ə BABT approval B2C / bi tə si / adjective referring to pru vəl/ noun official approval required B2C advertising or marketing that is aimed at before a new modem can be sold and be
  • 36. Computing.fm Page 30 Friday, December 19, 2003 7:16 PMbackbone 30connected to the UK telephone network background communication background communication(NOTE: The approval does not provide / b k raυnd kə mju n keʃ(ə)n/ nounany quality assurance about the modem, data communication activity, e.g. down-but ensures that it is manufactured in loading a file, carried out as a low-prioritysuch a way that it does not damage the task in the backgroundtelephone network. A green label is visi- background image / b k raυnd background imageble on modem equipment that has re- md / noun an image displayed as aceived BABT approval.) backdrop behind a program or windows ofbackbone / b k bəυn/ noun a high-backbone a GUI (NOTE: The background imagespeed, high-capacity connection path that does not move and does not interferelinks smaller sub-networks, usually used with any programs.)to connect servers on a network ć We have background job / b k raυnd d ɒb/ background joblinked the servers in each office using a noun a low-priority taskhigh-speed backbone. (NOTE: Smaller background mode / b k raυnd background modeworkgroups or networks are connected məυd/ noun in a computer system into the backbone as segments or ribs.) which two modes for program executionbackbone ring / b k bəυn rŋ/ noun abackbone ring are possible, the mode that is for house-high-speed ring network that connects a keeping and other necessary system pro-number of smaller ring networks grams. Compare foreground modeback buffer /b k b fə/ noun a sectionback buffer background noise / b k raυnd background noiseof memory used as a temporary storage for nɔz/ noun noise which is present alonggraphics before they are displayed on with the required signal ć The other ma-screen (NOTE: The image is built up in the chines around this device will produce aback buffer memory area then trans- lot of background noise.ferred to the main video memory area for background operation / b k raυnd background operationdisplay.) ɒpə reʃ(ə)n/ noun a low-priority proc-backdoor / b k dɔ / noun same asbackdoor ess that works as and when resources be-trapdoor come available from high-priority fore-backdrop / b kdrɒp/ noun a staticbackdrop ground tasksbackground image in front of which are background printing / b k raυnd background printingdisplayed actors or scenes prntŋ/ noun printing from a computerback-end network / b k endback-end network while it is processing another task ć Back- netw k/ noun a connection between a ground printing can be carried out whilstmainframe computer and a high-speed you are editing another document.mass storage device or file server background background processing processingback-end processor / b k endback-end processor / b k raυnd prəυsesŋ/ noun the exe- prəυsesə/ noun a special purpose auxil- cution of a low-priority job when there areiary processor no higher priority activities for the compu-back-end server / b k end s və/back-end server ter to attend tonoun a computer connected to a network background program / b k raυnd background programthat carries out tasks requested by client prəυ r m/ noun a computer programworkstations with a very low prioritybackground / b k raυnd/ noun 1. the background recalculationbackground background recalculationpart of a picture which is behind the main / b k raυnd ri k lkju leʃ(ə)n/ noun aobject of interest ć The new graphics facility in a spreadsheet program that al-processor chip can handle background, lows a user to enter new numbers or equa-foreground and sprite movement inde- tions while the program recalculates thependently. 2. a system in a computer where solutions in the backgroundlow-priority work can be done in the inter- background background reflectance reflectancevals when very important work is not be- / b k raυnd r flektəns/ noun light re-ing done flected from a sheet of paper that is beingbackground colour / b k raυndbackground colour scanned or read by an optical character k lə/ noun the colour of a computer readerscreen display, different from that of char- background task / b k raυnd tɑ sk/ background taskacters and graphics ć White background noun a process executed at any time by thecolour with black characters is less stress- computer system, not normally noticed byful for the eyes. the user
  • 37. Computing.fm Page 31 Friday, December 19, 2003 7:16 PM 31 backup domain controller backing memory / b kŋ mem(ə)ri/ backing memory foreground characters are displayed and noun same as backing store the composite scene photographed.) backing storage / b kŋ stɔ rd / backing storage backslash / b ksl ʃ/ noun ASCII backslash noun same as backing store character 92, , the sign which is used in backing store / b kŋ stɔ /, backing backing store MS-DOS to represent the root directory of storage / b kŋ stɔ rd /, backing a disk, such as C: or to separate subdirec- memory / b kŋ mem(ə)ri/ noun a per- tories in a path, such as C: manent storage medium onto which data backspace / b k spes/ noun a move- backspace can be recorded before being processed by ment of a cursor or printhead left or back the computer or after processing for later by one character retrieval ć By adding another disk drive, I backspace character / b kspes backspace character will increase the backing store capabili- k rktə/ noun a code that causes a back- ties. space action in a display device. Abbr BS back-level /b k lev(ə)l/ noun the ear- back-level backspace key / b k spes ki / noun backspace key lier release of a product which may not the key which moves the cursor left on the support a current function screen or back by one character ć If you backlight / b klat/ noun light behind a backlight make a mistake entering data, use the liquid crystal display unit that improves backspace key to correct it. the contrast of characters on the screen and backtab / b kt b/ verb (in an SAA backtab allows it to be read in dim light CUA front end ) to move the cursor back to backlit display / b klt d sple/ noun backlit display the previous field (NOTE: backtabbing – a liquid crystal display unit that has a backtabbed) backlight fitted to improve the contrast of backtrack / b ktr k/ verb to carry out backtrack the display list processing in reverse, starting with the backlog / b k lɒ / noun work or tasks backlog goal and working towards the proofs that have yet to be processed ć The pro- back up / b k p/ verb 1. to support back up grammers can’t deal with the backlog of something or help someone ć He brought programming work. along a file of documents to back up his back office / b k ɒfs/ noun a secure back office claim. 2. to make a copy of a file or data or area of e-commerce software containing disk ć The company accounts were backed details of a company’s store properties and up on disk as a protection against fire products and tax tables damage. backout / b k aυt/ verb to restore a file backout backup / b k p/ noun 1. the providing backup to its original condition before any chang- of help ć We offer a free backup service to es were made customers. 2. the process of making a copy back panel /b k p n(ə)l/ noun a pan- back panel of a file or data or disk as a security pre- el at the rear of a computer which normally caution 3. a copy of a file or data or disk holds the connectors to peripherals such as made as a security precaution. Also called keyboard, printer, video display unit and backup copy, backup version mouse ‘…the previous version is retained, but its extension backplane / b kplen/ noun part of the backplane is changed to .BAK indicating that it’s a back-up’ body of a computer which holds the circuit [Personal Computer World] boards, buses and expansion connectors backup agent / b k p ed ənt/ noun backup agent (the backplane does not provide any a software program that will carry out an processing functions) (NOTE: The back- automatic backup of a set of files or fold- plane does not provide any processing ers for you at a regular time and date each functions.) week back pointer /b k pɔntə/ noun a backup copy / b k p kɒpi/ noun backup copy back pointer pointer in a tree structure that holds the po- same as backup 3 backup disk / b k p dsk/ noun a disk backup disk sition of the parent node relative to the cur- rent node, used in programming to search which contains a copy of the information backwards through a file from other disks, as a security precaution back projection /b k prə d ekʃ(ə)n/ back projection backup domain controller / b k p backup domain controller noun the projection of an image from be- dəυ men kən trəυlə/ noun a server in a hind a screen (NOTE: It is often used in an- network that keeps a copy of database of imation where the static scene is dis- user accounts to validate login requests in played with back projection, then the case of a fault with the main server
  • 38. Computing.fm Page 32 Friday, December 19, 2003 7:16 PMbackup file 32backup file / b k p fal/ noun a copybackup file backwards search / b kwədz s tʃ/ backwards searchof a file, made as a security precaution noun a search for data in a word-processorbackup path / b k p pɑ θ/ noun (in abackup path or database that begins at the position ofToken-Ring network) an alternative path the cursor or end of the file and searches tofor a signal around a network avoiding a the beginning of the filemalfunctioning device backwards supervision / b kwədz backwards supervisionbackup plan / b k p pl n/ noun a setbackup plan su pə v (ə)n/ noun data transmissionof rules that take effect when normal oper- controlled by the receiveration has gone wrong ć The normal UPS BACS /b ks/ noun a system to transfer BACShas gone wrong, so we will have to use our money between banks using computerbackup plan to try and restore power. linked via a secure network. Full formbackup procedure / b k p prəbackup procedure Bankers Automated Clearing Services si d ə/ noun a method of making backup bad break / b d brek/ noun a hyphen bad breakcopies of files inserted in the wrong place within a word,backup server / b k p s və/ noun abackup server a problem sometimes caused by the auto-second computer on a network that con- matic hyphenation feature of word-tains duplicate files and up-to-date data in processing softwarecase of a problem with the main server badge reader /b d ri də/ noun a ma- badge readerbackup utility / b k p ju tlti/ nounbackup utility chine that reads data from an identificationa piece of software that simplifies the badge ć A badge reader makes sure thatprocess of backing up data (NOTE: Backup only authorised personnel can gain accessutilities often allow a user to back up files to a computer room.automatically at a particular time.) bad sector /b d sektə/ noun a disk bad sectorbackup version / b k p v ʃ(ə)n/backup version sector that has been wrongly formatted ornoun same as backup 3 which contains an error or fault and is un-Backus-Naur-Form / b kəs naυəBackus-Naur-Form able to be correctly written to or read from fɔ m/ noun full form of BNF ć You will probably receive error messag-backwardbackward chaining chaining / b kwəd es when you copy files that are stored ontʃenŋ/ noun a method used in artificial bad sectors on a disk.intelligence systems to calculate a goal baffle / b f(ə)l/ noun a loudspeaker bafflefrom a set of results which is built into a unitbackwardbackward channel channel / b kwəd bag /b / noun a number of elements in bag tʃ n(ə)l/ noun a channel from the receiv- no particular orderer to transmitter allowing the receiver to BAK file extension / b k fal  BAK file extensionsend control and handshaking signals stenʃ(ə)n/ noun a standard three-letterbackward errorbackward error correction correction file extension used in MS-DOS systems to/ b kwəd erə kə rekʃ(ə)n/ noun correc- signify a backup or copy of another filetion of errors which are detected by the re- balance / b ləns/ noun the placing of balanceceiver and a signal is sent to the transmitter text and graphics on a page in an attractiveto request a re-transmission of the data way ć The dtp package allows the user tobackward LAN channel / b kwədbackward LAN channel see if the overall page balance is correct. l n tʃ n(ə)l/ noun (in a broadband balanced circuit / b lənst s kt/ balanced circuitnetwork) a channel from receiver to sender noun an electronic circuit that presents aused to carry control signals correct load to a communications linebackward mode / b kwəd məυd/backward mode (NOTE: The correct load is usually equalnoun negative displacement from an ori- to the impedance of a line element.)gin balanced error / b lənst erə/ noun balanced errorbackward recovery / b kwəd rbackward recovery the probability of any error occurring from k v(ə)ri/ noun data retrieval from a sys- a number of errors when it is the same fortem that has crashed all errorsbackwards compatible / b kwədzbackwards compatible balanced line / b lənst lan/ noun a balanced linekəm p təb(ə)l/ adjective 1. able to work communications line that is terminated atwith older versions or systems 2. referring each end with a balanced circuit, prevent-to a new piece of software that provides ing signal reflectionsthe same functions as the previous version balanced routing / b lənst raυtŋ/ balanced routingand can read the files created in the previ- noun a method of using all possible routesous version through a network equally
  • 39. Computing.fm Page 33 Friday, December 19, 2003 7:16 PM 33 base balun / b lən/ noun a transformer that ries an advertising slogan, logo or message balun matches two circuits which have different and is displayed on a web page impedances ć We have used a balun to COMMENT: A long, narrow strip is now the un- connect the coaxial cable to the twisted- official standard format for advertisements that appear on almost every commercial web- pair circuit. site on the Internet. Some banner ads are im- band /b nd/ noun 1. a range of frequen- band ages, others include animation to attract the cies between two limits 2. a group of viewer’s attention. If you click on a banner ad, you will usually jump to the advertiser’s own tracks on a magnetic disk site. If you would rather not see banner adver- bandpass filter / b ndpɑ s fltə/ tisements when you surf, you can install spe- bandpass filter noun an electronic filter that allows a cial software that blocks them. Websites nor- mally charge advertisers according either to range of frequencies to pass but attenuates the number of times the banner ad is dis- all frequencies outside the specified range played (called the number of impressions) or the number of times that a user clicks on the bandwidth / b ndwdθ/ noun 1. a bandwidth ad (called the click-through rate). range of frequencies 2. a measure of the banner page / b nə ped / noun a banner page amount of data that can be transmitted page that is printed out first with the time, along a cable or channel or other medium date, name of the document and the name ć This fibre-optic cable has a greater of the person who has printed it bandwidth than the old copper cable and bar /bɑ / noun a thick line or block of col- bar so it can carry data at higher speeds. 3. a measure of the range of frequencies that a our bar chart / bɑ tʃɑ t/ noun a graph on bar chart monitor or CRT will accept and display (NOTE: High resolution monitors display which values are represented as vertical or more pixels per area so need high speed horizontal bars. Also called bar graph data input and so a higher bandwidth.) bar code / bɑ kəυd/ noun data repre- bar code bandwidth on demand / b nd wdθ sented as a series of printed stripes of var- bandwidth on demand ɒn d mɑ nd/ noun a system used with a ying widths (NOTE: The US term is bar switching service, e.g. ISDN, in a wide graphics.) area network that allows a user to send as COMMENT: Bar codes are found on most much information as he or she wants be- goods and their packages; the width and po- sition of the stripes is sensed by a light pen or cause the network will adjust to transmit optical wand and provides information about this amount of information the goods such as price and stock quantities. bank /b ŋk/ noun a collection of similar bar code reader / bɑ kəυd ri də/ bank bar code reader devices ć A bank of minicomputers proc- noun same as optical bar reader ess all the raw data. bare board / beə bɔ d/ noun a circuit bare board COMMENT: Memory banks are used to expand board with no components on it, especially the main memory of a CPU (often above the a memory expansion board that does not addressing range of the CPU) by having a number of memory chips arranged into banks. yet have any memory chips mounted on it bar graph / bɑ rɑ f/ noun same as bar graph Each bank operates over the same address range but is selected independently by a spe- bar chart cial code. bar graphics /bɑ r fks/ noun US bar graphics Bankers Automated Clearing Bankers Automated Clearing Services same as bar code Services / b ŋkəz ɔ təmetd barrel / b rəl/ noun a conducting post in barrel klərŋ s vsz/ noun full form of BACS a terminal base /bes/ noun 1. the lowest or first po- base bank Internet payment system bank Internet payment system / b ŋk ntənet pemənt sstəm / noun sition 2. a collection of files used as a ref- a protocol that enables bank payments to erence. ‘ database 3. an initial or original be made over the Internet and gives each position 4. notation referring to a number financial institution a unique identification system 5. (in C++ programming lan- number for the purposes of Internet trans- guage) a class from which other classes actions. Abbr BIPS can be derived by inheritance í verb 1. to start to calculate something from a posi- bank switching / b ŋk swtʃŋ/ bank switching tion ć We based our calculations on the noun selection of a particular memory basic keyboarding rate. 2. to set up a com- bank from a group pany or a person in a place ć The Europe- banner / b nə/, banner advertise- banner an manager is based in our London office. ment, banner ad noun an image that car- (NOTE: bases – basing – based)
  • 40. Computing.fm Page 34 Friday, December 19, 2003 7:16 PMbase 2 34base 2 / bes tu / noun the binarybase 2 stage or author level of an application,number system, using the two digits 0 and which define the size and layout of a page1 in an application 2. a horizontal line alongbase 8 / bes et/ noun the octal numberbase 8 which characters are printed or displayedsystem, using the eight digits 0 – 7 and below which the descenders of a char-base 10 / bes ten/ noun the decimalbase 10 acter dropnumber system, using the ten digits 0 – 9 base memory /bes mem(ə)ri/, base base memorybase 16 / bes sks ti n/ noun the hexa-base 16 RAM noun the first 640Kb of random ac-decimal number system, using the ten dig- cess memory fitted to an IBM-compatibleits 0 – 9 and the six letters A – F PCbase address /bes ə dres/ noun an in- base register /bes red stə/ noun abase address base registeritial address in a program used as a refer- register in a CPU, though not usually in aence for others small computer, that contains the addressbase address register / bes ə dresbase address register of the start of a program. Also called B red stə/ noun a register in a CPU that is boxused to store the base address base station /bes steʃ(ə)n/ noun a base stationbaseband / besb nd/, base bandbaseband fixed radio transmitter/receiver that relaysnoun 1. the frequency range of a signal be- radio signals to and from data terminals orfore it is processed or transmitted ć Voice radiosbaseband ranges from 20 Hz to 15 KHz. 2. BASIC / besk/ noun a high-level pro- BASICdigital signals transmitted without modu- gramming language for developing pro-lation 3. information modulated with a grams in a conversational way, providingsingle carrier frequency an easy introduction to computer program-base band local area networkbase band local area network ming. Full form beginner’s all-purpose/ bes b nd ləυk(ə)l eəriə netw k/ symbolic instruction codenoun a transmission method in which the basic code / besk kəυd/ noun same basic codewhole bandwidth of the cable is used and as absolute codethe data signal is not modulated ć Base basic controller / besk kən trəυlə/ basic controllerband local area networks can support a noun a part of a communications control-maximum cable length of around 300m.(NOTE: Ethernet is a baseband local area ler that carries out arithmetic and logicnetwork.) functions basic control system satellite basic control system satellitebase band modem / bes b ndbase band modem məυdem/ noun a communications circuit / besk kən trəυl sstəm s təlat/that transmits an unmodulated, baseband noun a system that runs dedicated pro-signal over a short distance ć Do not use a grams or tasks for a central computer. It isbase band modem with a normal phone controlled by using interrupt signals. Abbrline. BCS basic direct access method basic direct access methodbaseband signalling / besb ndbaseband signalling s nəlŋ/ noun transmission of data as / besk darekt kses meθəd/ noun avarying voltage levels across a link method of directly updating or retrieving abase font / bes fɒnt/ noun a defaultbase font particular block of data stored on a directfont and point size used by a word- access device. Abbr BDAM basic encoding rules / besk n basic encoding rulesprocessing programbase hardware /bes hɑ d weə/ nounbase hardware kəυdŋ ru lz/ plural noun full form ofthe minimum hardware requirements that BER basic exchange format / besk ks basic exchange formata particular software package needs in or-der to run tʃend fɔ m t/ noun a standard meth-base language /bes l ŋ wd /base language od of storing data on a disk so that it maynoun same as assembly language be accessed by another type of computerbase level synthesizer / bes lev(ə)l basic input/output operating sys- basic input/output operating systembase level synthesizer sŋθesazə/ noun (on a sound card ) a tem / besk npυt aυtpυt ɒpəretŋsynthesiser that supports three melodic in- sstəm/ noun full form of BIOSstruments and can play six notes simulta- basic instruction / besk n basic instructionneously str kʃən/ noun an unmodified programbase line / bes lan/ noun 1. any of thebase line instruction which is processed to obtainlines, only displayed during the design the instruction to be executed
  • 41. Computing.fm Page 35 Friday, December 19, 2003 7:16 PM 35 BBS basic mode link control / besk batch region /b tʃ ri d (ə)n/ noun a basic mode link control batch region məυd lŋk kən trəυl/ noun a standard- memory area where the operating system ised control of transmission links using executes batch programs special codes batch system /b tʃ sstəm/ noun a batch system basic product / besk prɒd kt/ system that executes batch files basic product batch total /b tʃ təυt(ə)l/ noun the batch total noun the main product made from a raw material sum of a number of batches of data, used basic rate access / besk ret basic rate access for error checking, validation or to provide kses/ noun full form of BRA useful information BAT file extension / b t fal k BAT file extension basic rate interface / besk ret basic rate interface stenʃən/ noun a standard three-letter file ntəfes/ noun full form of BRI extension used in MS-DOS systems to sig- basic sequential access method basic sequential access method nify a batch file / besk s kwenʃ(ə)l kses meθəd/ battery-backed / b t(ə)ri b kd/ battery-backed noun a method of storing or retrieving noun referring to a volatile storage device blocks of data in a continuous sequence. that has a battery backup Abbr BSAM battery backup / b t(ə)ri b k p/ battery backup basic telecommunications ac- basic telecommunications access method noun a battery to provide power to volatile cess method / besk storage devices to retain data after a com- telikəmju nkeʃ(ə)nz kses meθəd/ puter has been switched off noun full form of BTAM battery charging / b t(ə)ri tʃɑ d ŋ/ battery charging BAT /b t/ noun a three-letter file exten- BAT noun the replenishing of the charge stored sion used in MS-DOS systems to signify a in a re-chargeable battery batch file battery meter / b t(ə)ri mi tə/ noun a battery meter batch /b tʃ/ noun 1. a group of docu- utility in a laptop computer that tells you batch ments which are processed at the same how much life or working time you have time ć today’s batch of orders 2. a group left in your batteries (NOTE: In Windows of tasks or amount of data to be processed 95, a tiny icon appears in the bottom as a single unit ć We deal with the orders right-hand corner of the screen and this in batches of fifty. í verb to put data or shows you when you are about to run out tasks together in groups of battery power and need to recharge.) baud /bɔ d/ noun a unit of data compres- baud batched communication / b tʃ kə batched communication mju n keʃ(ə)n/ noun high-speed trans- sion speed equal to one unit element per mission of large blocks of data without re- second baud rate / bɔ d ret/ noun a measure baud rate quiring an acknowledgement from the re- ceiver for each data item of the number of signal changes transmit- batch file / b tʃ fal/ noun a file stored batch file ted per second ć The baud rate of the bi- nary signal was 300 bits per second. on disk that contains a sequence of system COMMENT: Baud rate is often considered the commands. When the batch file is run, the same as bits per second, but in fact it depends commands are executed, saving a user typ- on the protocol used and the error checking ing them in. ć This batch file is used to (300 baud is roughly equivalent to 30 charac- save time and effort when carrying out a ters per second using standard error check- ing). routine task. baud rate generator / bɔ d ret baud rate generator batch processing / b tʃ prəυsesŋ/ batch processing d enəretə/ noun a device that produces noun 1. computer system able to process various timing signals to synchronise data groups of tasks 2. a system of data at different baud rates processing where information is collected bay /be/ noun a space within a compu- bay into batches before being processed by the ter’s casing where a disk drive is fitted. computer in one machine run Also called drive bay COMMENT: Batch processing is the opposite of B box / bi bɒks/ noun same as base B box interactive processing, where the user gives instructions and receives an immediate re- register sponse. BBS / bi bi es/ noun an information BBS batch processor / b tʃ prəυsesə/ batch processor and message database accessible by mo- noun a computer system able to process dem and computer link. Full form bulletin groups of tasks board system
  • 42. Computing.fm Page 36 Friday, December 19, 2003 7:16 PMBCC 36BCC / bi si si / noun an error detectionBCC Bell-compatible modem / bel kəm Bell-compatible modemmethod for blocks of transmitted data. Full p tb(ə)l məυdem/ noun a modem thatform block character check operates according to standards set downBCD / bi si di / noun a representationBCD by AT&Tof single decimal digits as a pattern of four bells and whistles / belz ənd bells and whistlesbinary digits ć The BCD representation of ws(ə)lz/ plural noun advanced featuresdecimal 8 is 1000. Full form binary cod- or added extras to an application or periph-ed decimal eral ć This word-processor has all theBCD adder / bi si diBCD adder də/ noun a bells and whistles you would expect – in-full adder able to add two four-bit BCD cluding page preview.words below-the-fold /b ləυ ðə fəυld/ ad- below-the-foldBCH code / bi si etʃ kəυd/ noun anBCH code jective referring to the lower part of a web-error correcting code. Full form Bose- page that is seen only by a user who scrollsChandhuri-Hocquenghem code down the page and that is therefore lessBCNF / bi si en ef/ noun ‘ normalBCNF commercially valuable. Compare above-form the-foldBCPL / bi si pi el/ noun a high level benchmark / bentʃmɑ k/ noun 1. a benchmarkBCPLprogramming language point in an index which is important, andBCS abbr 1. British Computer Society 2.BCS can be used to compare with other figuresbasic control system satellite 2. a program used to test the performancebeacon / bi kən/ verb a signal transmit-beacon of software or hardware or a system ć Theted repeatedly by a device that is malfunc- magazine gave the new program’s bench-tioning on a network mark test results. benchmarking / bentʃmɑ kŋ/ noun benchmarkingbeacon frame / bi kən frem/ noun abeacon framespecial frame within the FDDI protocol the testing of a system or program with athat is sent after a network break has oc- benchmarkcurred benchmark problem / bentʃmɑ k benchmark problembead /bi d/ noun a small section of a pro-bead prɒbləm/ noun a task or problem used togram that is used for a single task test and evaluate the performance of hard- ware or softwarebeam /bi m/ noun a narrow set of light orbeam COMMENT: The same task or program is givenelectron rays ć A beam of laser light is to different systems and their results andused in this printer to produce high-reso- speeds of working are compared.lution graphics. BER / bi i ɑ / noun a standard method BERbeam deflection /bi m d flekʃ(ə)n/beam deflection of encoding data that is stored in the ASNnoun to move a CRT’s electron beam with language, often used in libraries and otherthe CRT across the screen Internet data sites. Full form basic en-BEC abbr bus extension cardBEC coding rules Berkeley UNIX / b kli ju nks/ noun Berkeley UNIXbeginner’s all-purpose symbolicbeginner’s all-purpose symbolic instruction codeinstruction code /b nəz ɔ l a version of the UNIX operating system p pəs sm bɒlk n str kʃən kəυd/ developed by the University of California,noun full form of BASIC Berkeleybeginning of file /b nŋ əv fal/ bespoke software /b spəυkbeginning of file bespoke softwarenoun a character or symbol that shows the sɒftweə/ noun software that has beenstart of a valid section of data. Abbr bof written especially for a customer’s partic-beginning of information mark /bbeginning of information mark ular requirements nŋ əv nfə meʃ(ə)n mɑ k/ noun best fit /best ft/ noun a function that best fitfull form of BIM selects the smallest free space in mainbeginning of tape marker /b nŋbeginning of tape marker memory for a requested virtual pageəv tep mɑ kə/ noun a section of mate- beta site / bi tə sat/ noun a company beta siterial that marks the start of the recording or person that tests new software before itarea of a reel of magnetic tape. Also called is released in a real environment to makebot marker sure it works correctlybell character /bel k rktə/, BEL beta software / bi tə sɒf(t)weə/ nounbell character beta softwarenoun a control code that causes a machine software that has not finished all its testingto produce an audible signal, equivalent to before release and so may still containASCII code 7 bugs
  • 43. Computing.fm Page 37 Friday, December 19, 2003 7:16 PM 37 binary dump beta test / bi tə test/ noun a second beta test data transfer that can occur to and from a stage of tests performed on new software device along a particular channel just before it is due to be released ć The Big Blue /b blu / noun same as IBM Big Blue application has passed the alpha tests and (informal ) is just entering the beta test phase. bilinear filtering /ba lniə fltərŋ/ bilinear filtering ‘The client was so eager to get his hands on the prod- noun a method of removing unwanted im- uct that the managing director bypassed internal test- ing and decided to let it go straight out to beta test.’ age defects, particularly on a texture- [Computing] mapped object, by looking at the four ad- beta version / bi tə v beta version n/ noun a ver- jacent pixels that surround each pixel to sion of a software application that is al- check that there is no sudden change in most ready to be released ć We’ll try out colour the beta test software on as many different billion / bljən/ noun a number equal to billion PCs as possible to try and find all the bugs. one thousand million. Abbr bn betaware / bi təweə/ noun of computer betaware BIM / bi a em/ noun a symbol indicat- BIM software in a version that is given to a few ing the start of a data stream stored on a customers before the final version is put on disk drive. Full form beginning of infor- sale mation mark bezel / bez(ə)l/ noun the front cover of a bezel bin /bn/ noun a tray used to hold a supply bin computer’s casing or disk drive unit of paper ready to be fed into a printer Bézier curve / bezie k v/ noun a ge- Bézier curve binary / banəri/ adjective referring to binary ometric curve with the overall shape de- the number notation system which uses fined by two midpoints, called control only the digits 0 and 1 handles binary adder / banəri də/ noun a binary adder COMMENT: Bézier curves are a feature of device that provides the sum of two or many high-end design software packages. more binary digits They allow a designer to create smooth curves by defining a number of points. The binary arithmetic / banəri ə binary arithmetic PostScript page description language uses rθmətk/ noun the rules and functions Bézier curves to define the shapes of charac- governing arithmetic operations in the bi- ters during printing. nary system BGP / bi d i pi / noun a protocol that BGP allows routers to share routing information binary bit / banəri bt/ noun same as binary bit binary digit to allow each router to calculate the most efficient path for information. Full form binary cell / banəri sel/ noun a storage binary cell border gateway protocol (NOTE: This element for one bit protocol is most often used between binary chop / banəri tʃɒp/ noun same binary chop routers installed at Internet Service Pro- as binary search viders (ISPs).) binary code / banəri kəυd/ noun code binary code biased exponent / baəst k biased exponent using different patterns of binary digits to spəυnənt/ noun the value of the expo- represent various symbols and elements nent in a floating point number binary coded characters / banəri binary coded characters bid /bd/ verb (of a computer ) to gain bid kəυdd k rktəz/ plural noun alphanu- control of a network in order to transmit meric characters represented as patterns of data ć The terminal had to bid three times binary digits before there was a gap in transmissions on binary coded decimal / banəri binary coded decimal the network. kəυdd desm(ə)l/ noun full form of bi-directional bus / ba da BCD bi-directional bus rekʃ(ə)n(ə)l b s/ noun data or control binary counter / banəri binary counter kaυntə/ lines that can carry signals travelling in noun a circuit that will divide a binary in- two directions put signal by two, producing one output bi-directional printer / ba da bi-directional printer pulse for two input pulses rekʃ(ə)n(ə)l printə/ noun a printer that binary digit / banəri dd t/ noun binary digit is able to print characters from left to right smallest single unit in binary notation, ei- and from right to left as the head is moving ther a 0 or a 1. Also called binary, binary forwards or backwards across the paper, bit, binary number, bit speeding up the printing operation binary dump / banəri d mp/ noun a binary dump bi-directional transmission / ba bi-directional transmission section of memory dumped onto another da rekʃ(ə)n(ə)l tr nz mʃ(ə)n/ noun medium or printed out in binary form
  • 44. Computing.fm Page 38 Friday, December 19, 2003 7:16 PMbinary encoding 38binary encoding / banəri n kəυdŋ/binary encoding binary representation / banəri binary representationnoun representation of each character or reprzen teʃ(ə)n/ noun same as binaryelement with a unique combination or pat- notationtern of bits in a word binary scale / banəri skel/ noun a binary scalebinary exponent / banəri k power of two associated with each bit po-binary exponent spəυnənt/ noun one word that contains sition in a word ć In a four bit word, thethe sign and exponent of a binary digit, ex- binary scale is 1,2,4,8.pressed in exponent and mantissa form binary search / banəri s tʃ/ noun a binary searchbinary field / banəri fi ld/ noun a fieldbinary field search method for use on ordered lists ofin a database record that contains binary data. Also called binary chop, binarydigits, often one capable of holding any in- look-up (NOTE: The search key is com-formation, including data, text, graphics pared with the data in the middle of theimages, voice and video list and one half is discarded. This is re-binary file / banəri fal/ noun a file thatbinary file peated with the remaining half until onlycontains data rather than alphanumeric the required data item is left.)characters. A binary file can include any binary sequence / banəri si kwəns/ binary sequencecharacter code and cannot always be dis- noun a series of binary digitsplayed or edited. ć The program instruc- binary signalling / banəri s nəlŋ/ binary signallingtions are stored in the binary file. noun transmission using positive and zerobinary fraction / banəri fr kʃən/binary fraction voltage levels to represent binary datanoun a representation of a decimal frac- binary split / banəri splt/ noun a binary splittion in binary form ć The binary fraction method of iteration in which the existing0.011 is equal to one quarter plus one number is compared to a new value calcu-eighth (i.e. three eighths). lated as the mid-point between the high and low limitsbinary half adder / banəri hɑ fbinary half adder də/ noun a binary adder that can pro- binary synchronous communica- binary synchronous communicationsduce the sum of two inputs, producing a tions / banəri sŋkrənəs kə mju ncarry output if necessary, but cannot ac- keʃ(ə)nz/ noun full form of BSCcept a carry input binary system / banəri sstəm/ binary system noun the use of binary digits, or the databinary large object / banəri lɑ dbinary large object system that operates with binary digits ɒbd ekt/ noun a field in a databaserecord that can contain a large quantity of binary-to-decimal conversion binary-to-decimal conversion / banəri tə, tυ desm(ə)l/ noun thebinary data, normally a bitmap image.Abbr blob process to convert a binary digit into its equivalent decimal valuebinary loader / banəri ləυdə/ noun abinary loader binary tree / banəri tri / noun a data binary treeshort section of program code that allows system where each item of data or nodeprograms in binary form, e.g. object code has only two branches. Also called btreefrom a linker or assembler, to be loadedinto memory binary variable / banəri veəriəb(ə)l/ binary variable noun a variable that can contain either abinary look-up / banəri lυk/ nounbinary look-up one or zerosame as binary search binaural sound /ban ɔ rl saυnd/ binaural soundbinary mantissa / banəri m n tsə/binary mantissa noun a method of recording sound so thatnoun a fractional part of a number, in bina- it gives the impression of stereophonyry form when played back. ı Dolby Digitalbinary notation / banəri nəυ bind /band/ verb to link and convert onebinary notation bind teʃ(ə)n/ noun the numerical system us- or more object code programs into a forming only the digits 0 and 1. Also called that can be executedbase 2, binary representation BIND / bi a en di / noun software that BINDbinary operation / banəri ɒpə provides the functions of a Domain Namebinary operation reʃ(ə)n/ noun 1. an operation on two op- Server for server computers running BSDerands 2. an operation on an operand in bi- UNIXnary form binder / bandə/ noun a program that binderbinary point / banəri pɔnt/ noun a converts object code into a form that canbinary pointdot that indicates the division between the be executedbits for the numbers’ whole units and the Bindery / bandəri/ noun a special data- Binderyfractional part of the binary number base used in a Novell NetWare network
  • 45. Computing.fm Page 39 Friday, December 19, 2003 7:16 PM 39 bitFTP operating system to store user account, ac- biquinary code /ba kwnəri kəυd/ biquinary code cess and security details noun code in which decimal digits are rep- binding offset / bandŋ ɒfset/ noun resented as two digits added together binding offset an extra wide margin on the inside of a (NOTE: Decimal digits smaller than 5 are printed page to prevent text being hidden represented as 0 + the digit; decimal dig- during binding (NOTE: It is the left margin its greater than 4 are represented as 5 + on a right hand page, the right margin on the digit minus 5.) B-ISDN /bi a es di en/ abbr broad- B-ISDN a left hand page.) binding time / bandŋ tam/ noun the binding time band ISDN bistable /ba steb(ə)l/ adjective refer- bistable time taken to produce actual addresses from an object code program ring to a device or circuit that has two pos- BinHex /bn heks/ noun a method en- BinHex sible states, on and off bit /bt/ noun 1. same as binary digit 2. bit coding binary data into ASCII characters. ı Uuencoding the smallest unit of data that a system can COMMENT: Software programs and data files handle bit addressing /bt ə dresŋ/ noun se- bit addressing are stored as binary data (using all eight bits of information within one byte of storage lection of a register or word and examining space), whereas ASCII characters can be stored in just the first seven of the eight bits of one bit of it bit blit / bt blt/ noun same as blit bit blit storage space within one byte. Email and many communication systems originally only bit block / bt blɒk/ noun (in computer bit block supported the transfer of text (ASCII charac- ters), so if you wanted to attach a data file to graphics) a group of bits treated as one your email message, the data had to be en- unit coded before it could be transferred. Now al- bit block transfer / bt blɒk bit block transfer most all email software and links between computers support full eight-bit transfer, so tr nsf / noun full form of blit bit bucket /bt b kt/ noun an area of bit bucket data does not have to be encoded. biochip / baəυtʃp/ noun a computer memory into which data can be discarded biochip chip that uses organic molecules to store BITC abbr burned-in time code BITC and process information bit density /bt densəti/ noun the bit density biocomputer / baəυkəm pju tə/ number of bits that can be recorded per biocomputer noun a very fast computer that operates unit of storage medium using biological processes instead of sem- bit depth / bt depθ/ noun the number bit depth iconductor technology of bits used to represent the number of col- BIOS / baɒs/ noun a set of system rou- ours that can be displayed on a screen or BIOS tines that interface between high-level pro- printer at one time (NOTE: The bit depth of gram instructions and the system peripher- each pixel is represented by a number of als to control the input and output to vari- bits associated with the pixel that de- ous standard devices. Full form basic scribe the number of colours that can be input/output system (NOTE: This often displayed.) bit error rate / bt erə ret/ noun the bit error rate includes controlling the screen, keyboard and disk drives.) ratio of the number of bits received com- bipolar /ba pəυlə/ adjective with two bipolar pared to the number of errors in a trans- levels mission, especially in fibre optics. Abbr BER bipolar coding / bapəυlə kɒdŋ/ bipolar coding bit flipping /bt flpŋ/ noun inversion bit flipping noun a transmission method that uses al- ternate positive and negative voltage levels of the state of bits from 0 to 1 and 1 to 0 bitFTP / bt ef ti pi / noun a type of bitFTP to represent a binary one, with binary zero represented by zero level server that allows a user to retrieve a file bipolar signal / bapəυlə s n(ə)l/ bipolar signal using only an email link (NOTE: The user sends an email to the bitFTP server, con- noun the use of positive and negative volt- taining a series of FTP commands that age levels to represent the binary digits ask it to fetch the file from a remote serv- bipolar transistor / bapəυlə tr n bipolar transistor er. When it has done this, the bitFTP zstə/ noun a transistor constructed of server sends an email back to the user three layers of alternating types of doped as an email attachment or encoded mail semiconductor, p-n-p or n-p-n message. If you want to retrieve a file, BIPS abbr bank Internet payment system BIPS send a message that contains just ’help’
  • 46. Computing.fm Page 40 Friday, December 19, 2003 7:16 PMbit handling 40to ’ftpmail@doc.ic.ac.uk’ to find out how sion to transfer eight bits at a time to athe system works.) printer.bit handling /bt h ndlŋ/ noun the bit pattern /bt p t(ə)n / noun an ar-bit handling bit patternuse of CPU commands and processes that rangement of bits within a word, that rep-allow bit manipulation and changing resents a particular character or actionbit image /bt md / noun a collection bit plane / bt plen/ noun (in computerbit image bit planeof bits that represent the pixels that make graphics) one layer of a multiple-layer im-up an image on screen or on a printer age in which each layer defines one colourbit interleaving / bt ntə li vŋ/ noun of each pixelbit interleavinga form of time domain multiplexing used bit position /bt pə zʃ(ə)n/ noun the bit positionin some synchronous transmission proto- place of a bit of data in a computer wordcols such as HDLC and X.25. bit rate / bt ret/ noun a measure of the bit ratebit manipulation /bt mə npjυbit manipulation number of bits transmitted per second leʃ(ə)n/ noun the use of various instruc- bit rotation /bt rəυ teʃ(ə)n/ noun a bit rotationtions that provide functions such as exam- shifting a pattern of bits in a word to theine a bit, change or set or move a bit within left or right, the old last bit moving to thea word new first bit positionbit-map / btm p/, bitmap verb to de-bit-map bit-significant / bt s nfkənt/ ad- bit-significantfine events or data using an array of singlebits, which can be, e.g., an image or graph- jective using the bits within a byte to de-ics or a table of devices in us (NOTE: bit- scribe something ć Testing bit six of a bytemapping – bitmapped) containing an ASCII character is bit sig- nificant and determines if the ASCII char- ‘…the expansion cards fit into the PC’s expansion slot and convert bit-mapped screen images to video acter is upper or lower case. bit-slice architecture / bt slas bit-slice architecture signals’ [Publish]bit-mapped font / bt m pt fɒnt/ ɑ ktektʃə/, bit-slice design / bt slasbit-mapped fontnoun a font whose characters are made up d zan/ noun the construction of a largeof patterns of pixels word size CPU by joining a number ofbit-mapped graphics / bt m pt smaller word size blocks ć The bit-slicebit-mapped graphics r fks/ plural noun images whose indi- design uses four four-bit word processorsvidual pixels can be controlled by chang- to make a sixteen-bit processor.ing the value of stored bits (NOTE: One is bit-slice microprocessor / bt slas bit-slice microprocessoron, zero is off. In colour displays, more makrəυprəυsesə/, bit-slice processorthan one bit is used to provide control for / bt slas prəυsesə/ noun a large wordthe three colours red, green and blue.) size CPU constructed by joining a numberbit-mapped register / bt m pt of smaller word size blocks ć The bit-slicebit-mapped register red stə/ noun a memory location that microprocessor uses four 4-bit processorsholds configuration information in a proc- to make a 16-bit word processor.essor in which each separate bit within the bits per inch / bts p ntʃ/ noun full bits per inchlocation has a different use or meaning form of BPI(NOTE: For example, a register that refers bits per pixel / bts p pks(ə)l/ noun bits per pixelto a mouse might be one byte (eight bits) full form of BPPwide and each bit could indicate whether bits per second / bts p sekənd/ bits per seconda mouse button is up or down.) noun a measure of the number of binarybitmp / btm p/ abbr bit-mapbitmp digits transmitted every second. Abbr bpsBitNet / btnet/ noun a network used toBitNet bit stream / bt stri m/ noun a binary bit streamconnect mostly academic sites and com- data sequence that does not consist of sep-puters and allows transfer of electronic arate, distinct character codes or groupsmail and listserver application (NOTE: Bit- bit stuffing /bt st fŋ/ noun the addi- bit stuffingNet is similar to the Internet and is con-nected to allow the transfer of electronic tion of extra bits to a group of data to makemail to and from academic users to other up the length required for transmission bit track / bt tr k/ noun a track on a bit trackusers on the Internet.)bit parallel /bt p rəlel/ noun the magnetic disk along which bits can be re-bit paralleltransmission of a collection of bits simul- corded or read back bitwise / btwaz/ adverb carried out on bitwisetaneously over a number of lines. The par-allel printer port uses bit parallel transmis- each bit in a byte, one bit at a time
  • 47. Computing.fm Page 41 Friday, December 19, 2003 7:16 PM 41 block capitals BIX / bi a eks/ noun a commercial on- BIX videotext terminal when it is in graphics line system founded by Byte magazine mode biz /bz/ noun a type of newsgroup that biz bleed /bli d/ noun 1. a line of printing bleed contains business discussions and oppor- that runs off the edge of the paper 2. a bad- tunities (NOTE: For example, ‘biz.opportu- ly adjusted colour monitor in which col- nities’ contains messages from users ours of adjoining pixels blend that are offering ways of making money. bleeding edge / bli dŋ ed / adjective bleeding edge Only the biz series of newsgroups are referring to technology that is very new supposed to discuss commercial as- and has not yet fully tested to see whether pects: the rest of the newsgroups are for it works correctly technical or academic discussion.) blessed folder / blesd fəυldə/ noun blessed folder black and white / bl k ən wat/ noun black and white the Apple Mac System Folder that con- 1. the use of shades of grey to represent tains files loaded automatically when the colours on a monitor or display 2. an im- Mac is switched on age in which each pixel is either black or blind /bland/ adjective which will not blind white with no shades of grey respond to certain codes black box /bl k bɒks/ noun a device black box blind certificate / bland sə tfkət/ blind certificate that performs a function without the user noun a means of tracking visitors to web- knowing how sites that identifies the user’s system but black level /bl k lev(ə)l/ noun a level black level not his or her name of a video signal that represents absolutely blind dialling / bland daəlŋ/ noun blind dialling no light: total blackness the ability of a modem to dial out even if black matrix /bl k metrks/ noun a black matrix the line appears dead, used on certain pri- CRT monitor tube in which the colour vate lines phosphor dots are surrounded by black for blind keyboard / bland ki bɔ d/ blind keyboard increased contrast noun a keyboard whose output is not dis- black writer /bl k ratə/ noun a print- black writer played but is stored directly on disk er in which toner sticks to the points hit by B-line counter / bi lan kaυntə/ B-line counter the laser beam when the image drum is noun an address register that is added to a scanned ć A black writer produces sharp reference address to provide the location edges and graphics, but large areas of to be accessed black are muddy. blinking / blŋkŋ/ noun a flashing ef- blinking blank cell /bl ŋk sel/ noun an empty blank cell fect caused by varying the intensity of a cell in a spreadsheet displayed character blank character /bl ŋk k rktə/ blank character blit /blt/ noun (in computer graphics) blit noun a character code that prints a space the act of moving a block of bits from one blank disk /bl ŋk dsk/ noun a disk blank disk memory location to another. Full form bit that does not have data stored on it block transfer. Also called bit blit blanking interval / bl ŋkŋ ntəvəl/ blanking interval blitter / bltə/ noun an electronic compo- blitter noun the period during which a screen dis- nent designed to process or move a bit- plays nothing, in between two images or mapped image from one area of memory during the picture beam flyback to another ć The new blitter chip speeds blank instruction /bl ŋk n blank instruction up the graphics display. str kʃən/ noun an instruction in a pro- bloatware / bləυtweə/ noun a compu- bloatware gram that is only there to satisfy language ter program that has many, often unneces- syntax or to make up a block length sary features, which take up so much blank string /bl ŋk strŋ/ noun same blank string memory that the computer does not work as null string as well as it should blank tape /bl ŋk tep/ noun a tape blank tape blob /blɒb/ noun a field in a database blob that does not have data stored on it record that can contain a large quantity of blast /blɑ st/ verb 1. to write data into a blast binary data, usually a bitmap image. Full programmable ROM device 2. to free sec- form binary large object tions of previously allocated memory or block /blɒk/ noun 1. a number of stored block resources records treated as a single unit 2. a wide blast-through blast-through alphanumerics alphanumerics printed bar / blɑ st θru lfənju merks/ plural block capitals / blɒk k pt(ə)lz/ plu- block capitals noun characters that can be displayed on a ral noun capital letters, e.g. A,B,C ć Write
  • 48. Computing.fm Page 42 Friday, December 19, 2003 7:16 PMblock character check 42your name and address in block letters. block marker / blɒk mɑ kə/ plural block markerAlso called block letter noun each of two markers inserted at theblock character check / blɒkblock character check start and finish of a section of data or text k rktə tʃek/ noun full form of BCC to indicate a special block which can thenblock code /blɒk kəυd/ noun an errorblock code be moved or deleted or copied as a singledetection and correction code for block unitdata transmission block move / blɒk mu v/ verb 1. to block moveblock-copy / blɒk kɒpi/ verb 1. to du-block-copy move selected word-processed text fromplicate a block of data to another section of one area of a document to another 2. tomemory 2. to copy a selected area of move the contents of an area of memory toword-processed text from one part of a another area of memorydocument to another block operation /blɒk ɒpə reʃ(ə)n/ block operationblock cursor /blɒk k sə/ noun a cur-block cursor noun a process carried out on a block ofsor in the shape of a solid rectangle that datafills a character position block parity /blɒk p rəti/ noun a par- block parityblock-delete / blɒk d li t/ verb to de-block-delete ity error check on a block of data block protection /blɒk prə tekʃən/ block protectionlete a selected area of word-processed textblock device /blɒk d vas/ noun a de-block device noun prevention of the splitting of a se-vice that manipulates many bytes of data at lected block of word-processed text by anonce ć The disk drive is a block device that automatic page breakcan transfer 256bytes of data at a time. block retrieval /blɒk r tri v(ə)l/ noun block retrievalblock diagram /blɒk daə r m/block diagram the accessing of blocks of data stored innoun a graphical representation of a sys- memory block synchronisation / blɒk block synchronisationtem or program operationblock error rate /blɒk erə ret/ nounblock error rate sŋkrəna zeʃ(ə)n/ noun the correctthe number of blocks of data that contain timing of start, stop and message bits ac-errors compared with the total number cording to a predefined protocoltransmitted block transfer /blɒk tr nsf / noun block transferblock gap /blɒkblock gap p/ noun a stretch of the moving of large numbers of recordsblank magnetic tape between the end of around in memory blog /blɒ / verb to create or run a weblog blogone block of data and the start of the nextin backing store (NOTE: blogging – blogged)block header /blɒk hedə/ noun a sec-block header blogosphere / blɒ ə sfə/ noun the blogospheretion of information at the start of a file de- area of the World Wide Web in whichscribing content organisation or character- bloggers communicate with each otheristics (informal )block ignore character / blɒk  nɔblock ignore character blogware / blɒ weə/ noun computer blogware k rktə/ noun a symbol at the start of a software tools for creating a weblogblock indicating that it contains corrupt bloop /blu p/ verb to pass a magnet over bloopdata a tape to erase signals which are not need-blocking factor /blɒkŋ f ktə/ nounblocking factor edthe number of records in a block blow /bləυ/ verb to program a PROM de- blowblock input processing / blɒkblock input processing vice with data. Also called burn (NOTE: npυt prəυsesŋ/ noun an input system blew – blown)that requires a whole error-free block to be Blue Book Ethernet / blu bυk Blue Book Ethernetreceived before it is processed i θənet/ noun a version of Ethernet de-block length /blɒk leŋθ/ noun theblock length veloped by DEC, Intel and Xeroxnumber of records or fields or characters in blueprint / blu prnt/ noun a copy of blueprinta block of data an original set of specifications or designblock letters / blɒk letəz/ plural nounblock letters in graphical formsame as block capitals blue-ribbon program / blu rbən blue-ribbon programblock list / blɒk lst/ noun a list of theblock list prəυ r m/ noun a perfect program thatblocks and records as they are organised in runs first time, with no errors or bugsa file Bluetooth / blu tu θ/ a trade name for a Bluetoothblock mark / blɒk mɑ k/ noun a codeblock mark short-range radio communications systemthat indicates the end of a block that is designed to provide a simple way
  • 49. Computing.fm Page 43 Friday, December 19, 2003 7:16 PM 43 Boolean variable for computer, Internet and input devices to bomb /bɒm/ noun a routine in a program bomb communicate (NOTE: For example, a designed to crash the system or destroy palm-top computer could transfer infor- data at a particular time í verb (of soft- mation to a mobile phone using a Blue- ware) to fail (informal ) ć The program tooth link. The technology was devel- bombed, and we lost all the data. oped by a group of computer and tele- book /bυk/ noun a multimedia title. ı eb- book communications companies that ook (NOTE: The name comes from the included Ericsson, IBM, Intel, Nokia and fact that most multimedia titles are ar- Toshiba.) ranged as a series of different pages, blur /bl / noun an image in which the blur which together form a book.) edges or colours are not clear í verb to bookmark / bυkmɑ k/ noun a code in- bookmark make the edges or colours of an image serted at a particular point in a document fuzzy ć The image becomes blurred when that allows the user to move straight to that you turn the focus knob. (NOTE: blurring – point at a later date blurred) book palette / bυk p lət/ noun a set book palette BMP / bi em pi / noun a three-letter ex- BMP tension to a filename that indicates that the of colours that is used in a particular mul- file contains a bitmapped graphics image timedia application (NOTE: Two different ć This paint package lets you import BMP applications could use different palettes, files. ı GIF, JPEG, TIFF and each must load its own palette other- wise the colours will appear corrupted.) bn abbr billion bn Boolean algebra / bu liən ld brə/ Boolean algebra BNC connector / bi en si kə nektə/ BNC connector noun a cylindrical metal connector with a noun a set of rules that define, simplify copper core that is at the end of coaxial ca- and manipulate logical functions, based on ble and is used to connect cables together statements which are true or false. ‘ AND, (NOTE: It attaches by pushing and twist- NOT function, OR. Also called Boolean ing the outer cylinder onto two locking logic Boolean connective / bu liən kə Boolean connective pins.) BNC T-piece connector / bi en si BNC T-piece connector nektv/ noun a symbol or character in a ti pi s kə nektə/ noun a T-shaped metal Boolean operation that describes the ac- connector used to connect an adapter card tion to be performed on the operands to the ends of two sections of RG-58 ‘thin’ Boolean data type / bu liən detə Boolean data type coaxial cable, used in many Ethernet net- tap/ noun same as Boolean variable work installations Boolean logic / bu liən lɒd k/ noun Boolean logic BNF / bi en ef/ noun a system of writ- BNF same as Boolean algebra ing and expressing the syntax of a pro- Boolean operation / bu liən ɒpə Boolean operation gramming language. Full form Backus- reʃ(ə)n/ noun a logical operation on a Naur-Form number of operands, conforming to board /bɔ d/ noun a flat insulation mate- board Boolean algebra rules rial on which electronic components are Boolean operation table / bu liən Boolean operation table mounted and connected body / bɒdi/ noun 1. the main section of body ɒpə reʃ(ə)n teb(ə)l/ noun a table text in a document 2. the main part of a showing two binary words, or operands, program the operation and the result Boolean operator / bu liən Boolean operator body type / bɒdi tap/ noun a default body type font and point size that is used for the main ɒpəretə/ noun a logical operator such as section of text in a document AND, NOT and OR Boolean search / bu liən s tʃ/ noun Boolean search bof, BOF abbr beginning of file bof boilerplate / bɔləplet/ noun a final boilerplate a search that uses the AND and OR func- document that has been put together using tions Boolean value / bu liən v lju / noun Boolean value standard sections of text held in a word- processor each of two values, either true or false boilerplating / bɔləpletŋ/ noun the boilerplating Boolean Boolean variable variable / bu liən putting together of a final document out of veəriəb(ə)l/ noun a binary word in which various standard sections of text each bit represents true or false, using the bold face / bəυld fes/ noun a thicker bold face digits 1 or 0. Also called Boolean data and darker form of a typeface type
  • 50. Computing.fm Page 44 Friday, December 19, 2003 7:16 PMboot 44boot /bu t/ verb to execute a set of in- in ROM when a computer is switched on.bootstructions automatically in order to reach a Also called bootingrequired state border / bɔ də/ noun 1. an area around borderbootable / bu təb(ə)l/ adjective refer- printed or displayed text 2. a thin bounda-bootablering to a storage device that holds the com- ry line around a button or field or a graphicmands to boot up a computer and load the imageoperating system (NOTE: The main hard border style / bɔ də stal/ noun an at- border styledisk normally is a bootable device as is tribute that determines the type of borderthe floppy disk drive A:.) around a button or field, e.g. a single line,boot block / bu t blɒk/ noun the first a shadow or a double lineboot blocktrack, track 0, on a boot disk of an IBM- borrow / bɒrəυ/ noun an operation in borrowcompatible floppy disk. Also called boot certain arithmetic processes such as sub-record traction from a smaller numberboot disk / bu t dsk/ noun a specialboot disk Bose-Chandhuri-Hocquenghem Bose-Chandhuri-Hocquenghem codedisk that contains a bootstrap program and code noun full form of BCH codethe operating system software ć After you bot1 /bɒt/, BOT abbr beginning of tape botswitch on the computer, insert the boot bot2 /bɒt/ noun a robot utility program botdisk. that helps a user or another applicationbooting / bu tŋ/ noun same as boot up carry out a particular task – e.g. a searchbootingbootleg / bu t le / noun an illegal copybootleg bot will help a user search the Internet byof recorded material submitting the query to several engines at once; a link bot will check that all the hy-BOOTP / bi əυ əυ ti pi / noun an In-BOOTP perlinks on a website are correctternet protocol used by a diskless worksta-tion to find out its IP address, then load its BOT marker / bɒt mɑ kə/ noun a sec- BOT markeroperating system from a central server. tion of material that marks the start of theFull form bootstrap protocol. ı IP recording area of magnetic tape(NOTE: This protocol allows a workstation bottom up method / prəυ r mŋ/, bottom up methodto start up and load all its software over bottom up programming noun a meth-the network: a normal workstation would od in which low-level instructions areload its operating system software stored combined to form a high-level instruction,on an internal floppy or hard disk drive.) which can then be further combinedboot partition /bu t pɑ tʃ(ə)n/ nounboot partition bounce /baυns/ noun 1. a multiple key bouncea partition on a hard disk that contains the contact caused by a faulty switch 2. anbootstrap and operating system electronic mail message that could not be correctly delivered and is returned to theboot record / bu t rekɔ d/ noun sameboot record senderas boot block boundary / baυnd(ə)ri/ noun a line or boundaryboot sector /bu t sektə/ noun a part ofboot sector marker that indicates the limits of some-a disk that contains instructions that are thingread by the computer when it is first boundary protection / baυnd(ə)ri boundary protectionswitched on or reset (NOTE: The instruc- prə tekʃən/ noun a function designed totions tell the computer how to load the prevent any program writing into a re-operating system from the disk.) served area of memorybootstrap, bootstrap loader noun a boundary punctuation / baυnd(ə)ribootstrap boundary punctuationset of instructions that are executed by the p ŋktʃu eʃ(ə)n/ noun punctuation thatcomputer before a program is loaded, usu- marks the beginning or end of a fileally to load the operating system once the boundary boundary register register / baυnd(ə)ricomputer is switched on. Compare loader red stə/ noun a register in a multi-userbootstrap memory / bu tstr pbootstrap memory system that contains the addresses for the mem(ə)ri/ noun permanent memory limits of one user’s memory allocationwithin a terminal or microcomputer, that bounding box / baυndŋ bɒks/ noun a bounding boxallows a user to customise the attributes, rectangle that determines the shape andbooting the system and loading programs position of an image that has been placedbootstrap protocol / bu tstr pbootstrap protocol in a document or on screen prəυtəkɒl/ noun full form of BOOTP Boyce-Codd normal form / bɔs Boyce-Codd normal formboot up /bu t p/ noun automatic exe- kɒd nɔ məl fɔ m/ noun ‘ normal form.boot upcution of a set of instructions usually held Abbr BCNF
  • 51. Computing.fm Page 45 Friday, December 19, 2003 7:16 PM 45 breakpoint symbol bozo bit / bəυzəυ bt/ noun (in an Ap- bozo bit cause the jump will only take place if the con- ple Macintosh system) an attribute bit that dition is met. prevents a file being copied or moved branch cable /brɑ ntʃ keb(ə)l/ noun branch cable BPI, bpi noun the number of bits that can BPI a cable that runs from a main cable to a be recorded per inch of recording medium. node Full form bits per inch branch instruction /brɑ ntʃ n branch instruction BPP / bi pi pi / noun the number of BPP str kʃən/ noun a conditional program bits assigned to store the colour of each instruction that provides the location of the pixel. One bit provides black or white, four next instruction in the program, if a condi- bits give 16 colour combinations, eight tion is met bits give 256 colour combinations. Full branchpoint / brɑ ntʃpɔnt/ noun a branchpoint form bits per pixel point in a program where a branch can take bps / bi pi es/ noun the number of bits bps place that can be transmitted per second ć Their branch table / brɑ ntʃ teb(ə)l/ noun branch table transmission rate is 60,000 bits per second a table that defines where to jump to in a (bps) through a parallel connection. Full program depending on the result of a test form bits per second breach /bri tʃ/ noun a failure to carry breach Bps / bi pi es/ noun the number of Bps out the terms of an agreement ˽ breach of bytes that can be transmitted per second. warranty the supplying of goods which Full form bytes per second do not meet the standards of the warranty bps rate / bi pi es ret/ noun the rate bps rate applied to them at which information is sent, equal to the breadboard / bredbɔ d/ noun a device breadboard number of bits transmitted or received per that allows prototype electronic circuits to second be constructed easily without permanent bps rate adjust / bi pi es ret ə bps rate adjust connections or soldering d st/ noun the ability of a modem to ad- break /brek/ noun an action performed, break just the speed of its serial port automatical- or a key pressed, to stop the execution of a ly so as to match the communications program speed Break key / brek ki / noun a special Break key BRA / bi ɑ e/ noun a basic ISDN serv- BRA key on an IBM-compatible keyboard that ice that provides two data channels capa- halts the execution of a program when it is ble of carrying data at a rate of 64Kbps to- pressed at the same time as the Control key gether with a signalling channel used to ć I stopped the problem by pressing Ctrl- carry control signals at 16Kbps. Full form Break. basic rate access breakout box / brekaυt bɒks/ noun a breakout box braces / bresz/ plural noun curly braces device that displays the status of lines bracket characters ( {} ) used in some pro- within an interface, cable or connector ć gramming languages to enclose a routine The serial interface doesn’t seem to be bracket / br kt/ noun a printing sign to bracket working – use the breakout box to see show that an instruction or operation is to which signals are present. be processed separately í verb ˽ to breakpoint / brekpɔnt/ noun a sym- breakpoint bracket together to print brackets round bol inserted into a program which stops its several items to show that they are treated execution at that point to allow registers, in the same way and separated from the variables and memory locations to be ex- rest of the text amined (NOTE: Breakpoints are often branch /brɑ ntʃ/ noun 1. a possible path branch used when debugging a program.) or jump from one instruction to another 2. breakpoint halt / brekpɔnt hɔ lt/ breakpoint halt a line linking one or more devices to the noun same as breakpoint instruction main network ć The faulty station is on breakpoint instruction / brekpɔnt breakpoint instruction this branch. í verb to jump from one sec- n str kʃən/ noun a halt command insert- tion of a program to another, often using a ed in a program to stop its execution tem- test or decision with two or more possible porarily. This allows the programmer to results that lead to two different points in examine data and registers while debug- the program ging a program. COMMENT: In BASIC, the instruction GOTO makes the system jump to the line indicated; breakpoint symbol / brekpɔnt breakpoint symbol this is an unconditional branch. The instruc- smb(ə)l/ noun a special character used tion IF…THEN is a conditional branch, be- to provide a breakpoint in a debugging
  • 52. Computing.fm Page 46 Friday, December 19, 2003 7:16 PMbreakup 46program. The program allows breakpoint Briefcase utility / bri fkes ju tlti/ Briefcase utilitysymbols to be inserted, then executes the noun (in Windows) a special utility that al-program until it reaches one, then halts. lows you to keep files stored on a laptopbreakup / brek p/ noun (in video) loss and a desktop PC up to datebreakupor distortion of a signal brightness / bratnəs/ noun the inten- brightnessB register /bi red stə/ noun 1. an ad- sity of the light emitted by an image on aB registerdress register that is added to a reference screen ć A control knob allows you to ad-address to provide the location to be ac- just brightness and contrast. brightness range / bratnəs rend / brightness rangecessed 2. a register used to extend the ac-cumulator in multiplication and division noun the variation in the intensity of theoperations light emitted by somethingBRI / bi ɑ a/ noun one part of the brilliant / brljənt/ adjective (of light orBRI brilliantISDN service that provides two data trans- colour ) very bright and shiningfer channels, also called bearer channels, bring up / brŋ p/ verb to start a com- bring upthat can transmit data at 64Kbit/second puter systemand one control channel that can transfer British Approvals Board for Tele- British Approvals Board for Telecommunicationsextra control information at 16Kbit/sec- communications / brtʃ ə pru vəlzond. Full form basic rate interface bɔ d fɔ telikəmkju n keʃ(ə)nz/ nounbricks-and-mortar / brks ən mɔ tə/bricks-and-mortar full form of BABTadjective referring to businesses that oper- British Standards Institute / brtʃ British Standards Instituteate using buildings such as shops and st ndədz nsttju t/ noun full form ofwarehouses, as opposed to operating only BSI (UK)or mainly via the Internet. Compare broadband / brɔ db nd/ noun (in local broadbandclicks-and-mortar area networks or communications) abridge /brd / verb to use bridgeware tobridge transmission method that combines sever-help transfer programs and data files to an- al channels of data onto a carrier signalother system (NOTE: A bridging product is and can carry the data over long distances.available for companies with both gener- Compare baseband. Also called wide-ations of machines.) í noun 1. a device bandthat connects two networks together and COMMENT: The three most popular broadbandallow information to flow between them. ı communication devices are ISDN, cable mo-router, brouter (NOTE: Bridges function dems and ADSL, which is part of the wider DSL standard. Each country has differentat the data link layer of the OSI network prevalent standards and pricing models. Formodel.) 2. a process of ensuring that piec- example, ISDN provides a digital link that canes of computer equipment match, so that transfer data at the rate of 64Kbps; it dials anpower losses between them are kept to a access number and provides a link when re- quired. ADSL, in contrast, provides a directminimum 3. hardware or software that al- connection that appears to be ‘always on’ us-lows parts of an old system to be used on a ing a network adapter to link the computer tonew system the Internet provider. ADSL normally supports ‘Lotus Development and IMRS are jointly develop- a transfer speed of up to 2Mbps. broadband communication de- broadband communication device ing a bridge linking their respective spreadsheet and client server reporting tools. It will allow users of vice / brɔ db nd kə mju n keʃ(ə)n IMRS’ Hyperion reporting tool to manipulate live data from Lotus Improv.’ [Computing] d vas/ noun a communication channel and device that allow a computer to con-bridgeware / brd weə/ noun hard-bridgeware nect to the Internet at a very high speed,ware or software used to make the transfer often several thousand times faster than afrom one computer system to another eas- dial-up modem connected to a telephoneier, by changing e.g. file format and trans- linelation broadband ISDN / brɔ db nd a es broadband ISDNbridging / brd ŋ/ noun the use ofbridging di en/ noun a high-speed data transferbridgeware to help transfer programs and service that allows data and voice to bedata files to another system transmitted over a wide area network. COMMENT: A bridge connects two similar net- works: a gateway connects two different net- Abbr B-ISDN broadcast / brɔ dkɑ st/ noun (in a net- broadcast works. To connect two Ethernet networks, use a bridge. work) a message or data sent to a group ofbridging product / brd ŋ prɒd kt/ users í verb to distribute information overbridging productnoun same as bridge a wide area or to a large audience ć He
  • 53. Computing.fm Page 47 Friday, December 19, 2003 7:16 PM 47 buffer broadcast the latest news over the WAN. of the brush (in pixels) and the colour it (NOTE: broadcasts – broadcasting – produces. broadcast) brush style / br ʃ stal/ noun the width brush style broadcast message / brɔ dkɑ st and shape of the brush tool in a paint pack- broadcast message mesd / noun a message sent to everyone age ć To fill in a big area, I select a wide, on a network ć Five minutes before we square brush style. shut down the LAN, we send a broadcast brute force method / bru t fɔ s brute force method message to all users. meθəd/ noun a problem-solving method broadcast network / brɔ dkɑ st which depends on computer power rather broadcast network netw k/ noun a network for sending than elegant programming techniques data to a number of receivers BS abbr backspace BS broadcast quality / brɔ dkɑ st broadcast quality BSAM abbr basic sequential access BSAM kwɒlti/ noun a quality of video image or method signal that is the same as that used by pro- BSC / bi es si / noun an old standard BSC fessional television stations ć We can use for medium/high speed data communica- your multimedia presentation as the ad- tion links. Full form binary synchro- vert on TV if it’s of broadcast quality. nous communications brochure site / brəυʃə sat/ noun a BSI / bi es a/ noun an organisation that brochure site BSI simple, often one-page, website that ad- monitors design and safety standards in vertises a company’s products and gives its the UK. Full form British Standards In- contact details stitute brouter / bru tə/ noun a device that BTAM / bi ti e em/ noun a method of brouter BTAM combines the functions of a router and providing access for read or write opera- bridge to connect networks together ć The tions to a remote device. Full form basic brouter provides dynamic routing and can telecommunications access method bridge two local area networks. ı bridge, btree / bi tri / noun same as binary tree btree router bubble-help / b b(ə)l help/ noun a sin- bubble-help brown-out / braυn aυt/ noun a power brown-out gle line that appears on screen to describe failure caused by a low voltage level rather what you are pointing at than no voltage level bubble jet printer / b b(ə)l d et bubble jet printer browse /braυz/ verb 1. to view data in a browse prntə/ noun ‘ ink-jet printer database or online system 2. to search bubble memory / b b(ə)l mem(ə)ri/ bubble memory through and access database material noun a method of storing binary data using without permission the magnetic properties of certain materi- browser / braυzə/ noun a software pro- browser als, allowing very large amounts of data to gram that is used to navigate through web- be stored in primary memory pages stored on the Internet. A browser bubble memory cassette / b b(ə)l bubble memory cassette program asks the Internet server to send it mem(ə)ri kə set/ noun a bubble memory a page of information, stores, decodes and device on a removable cartridge similar to displays the page, and will jump to other an audio cassette that can be inserted into pages if you click on hyperlinks. ı HTML, a controller card to provide removable NetScape, IE memory COMMENT: A browser program asks the Inter- net server (called the HTTP server) to send it bubble sort / b b(ə)l sɔ t/ noun a sort- bubble sort a page of information; this page is stored in ing method which repeatedly exchanges the HTML layout language that is decoded by various pairs of data items until they are in the browser and displayed on screen. The order browser displays any hotspots and will jump to another page if the user clicks on a hyper- bucket / b kt/ noun a storage area con- bucket link. taining data for an application browsing / braυzŋ/ noun the activity buffer / b fə/ noun 1. a circuit that iso- browsing buffer of moving through sites on the Internet, a lates and protects a system from damaging list of files or a multimedia title in no par- inputs from driven circuits or peripherals. ticular order. You control which page you ı driver 2. a temporary storage area for move to next and what you view. data waiting to be processed í verb to use brush /br ʃ/ noun a tool in paint pack- a temporary storage area to hold data until brush age software that draws pixels on screen ć the processor or device is ready to deal The paint package lets you vary the width with it
  • 54. Computing.fm Page 48 Friday, December 19, 2003 7:16 PMbuffered input/output 48 COMMENT: Buffers allow two parts of a compu- built-in message / blt n mesd / built-in message ter system to work at different speeds, e.g. a noun a message generated by a system or high-speed central processing unit and a slower line printer. authoring language in response to an ac-buffered input/output / b fəd npυtbuffered input/output tion such as a mouse click aυtpυt/ noun the use of a temporary stor- bulk erase /b lk  rez/ verb to erase a bulk eraseage area on input or output ports to allow complete disk in one actionslow peripherals to operate with a fast bulk storage medium / b lk bulk storage mediumCPU stɔ rd mi diəm/ noun a medium thatbuffered memory / b fəd mem(ə)ri/buffered memory is able to store large amounts of data in anoun a type of memory that allows in- convenient size and formstructions or data to be entered before the bulk update terminal / b lk pdet bulk update terminalprocessor has finished processing the ones t mn(ə)l/ noun a device used by an in-it is currently dealing with formation provider to prepare videotextbuffering / b fərŋ/ noun using buffersbuffering pages off-line, then transmit them rapidlyto provide a link between slow and fast de- to the main computervices bullet / bυlt/ noun a symbol, often a bulletbuffer length / b fə leŋθ/ noun thebuffer length filled circle b or square ࡯, placed in frontnumber of data item that can be stored in a of a line of text and used to draw attentionbuffer while waiting for the processor to to a particular line in a list ‘For a bullet chart use four to six bullet points and noattend to them more than six to eight words each’ [Computing]buffer register / b fə red stə/ nounbuffer register bulleted adjective marked with a bullet bulletedtemporary storage for data read from or in front of the line of text ć a bulleted listbeing written to main memory bulletin board / bυltn bɔ d/, bulletin bulletin boardbuffer size / b fə saz/ noun the totalbuffer size board system noun an online forum usednumber of characters that can be held in a to exchange e-mails, chat and access soft-buffer ware. Abbr BBSbug /b / noun an error in a computerbug bundle / b nd(ə)l/ noun 1. a number of bundleprogram which makes it run incorrectly optic fibres gathered together 2. a package(informal ) containing a computer together with soft-buggy / b i/ noun a small computer-buggy ware or accessories offered at a specialcontrolled vehicle (NOTE: The plural is price ć The bundle now includes a PCbuggies.) with CD-rewriter, digital camera andbug patch / bbug patch p tʃ/ noun 1. a tempo- scanner for just £599. í verb to market atrary correction made to a program 2. a a special price a package that contains asmall correction made to software by a computer together with a range of soft-user on the instructions of the software ware or accessoriespublisher bundled software / b nd(ə)ld bundled softwarebuild /bld/ noun a particular version of abuild sɒftweə/ noun software included in theprogram ć This is the latest build of the price of a computer systemnew software. bureau / bjυərəυ/ noun an office that bureaubuilding block / bldŋ blɒk/ noun a specialises in keyboarding data or process-building blockself-contained unit that can be joined to ing batches of data for other small compa-others to form a system nies ć The company offers a number of bu-built-in / blt n/ adjective already in-built-in reau services, such as printing and datacluded in a system ć The built-in adapter collection. ‘IMC has a colour output bureau that puts imagescard makes it fully IBM compatible. Oppo- onto the uncommon CD-ROM XA format.’ [Com-site add-on puting]built-in check / blt n tʃek/ noun anbuilt-in check burn /b n/ verb 1. same as blow 2. to burnerror detection and validation check car- copy data onto a CD-ROM or DVD-ROMried out automatically on received data burned-in time code / b nd n tam burned-in time codebuilt-in font / blt n fɒnt/ noun a fontbuilt-in font kəυd/ noun time code information in-stored permanently within a peripheral, cluded in the video signal as an image thatnormally a printer is visible on any TV or monitor. Abbrbuilt-in function / blt n f ŋkʃ(ə)n/built-in function BITCnoun a special function already imple- burner / b nə/ noun a device which burnermented in a program burns in programs onto PROM chips
  • 55. Computing.fm Page 49 Friday, December 19, 2003 7:16 PM 49 bus unit burn in /b n n/ verb 1. to mark a tele- burn in bus data lines / b s detə lanz/ plu- bus data lines vision or monitor screen after displaying a ral noun wires, each of which carries one high-brightness image for too long 2. to bit of a data word write data into a PROM chip bus driver /b s dravə/ noun high bus driver burn-in / b n n/ noun a heat test for burn-in power transistors or an amplifier that can electronic components provide enough power to transmit signals burn out / b n aυt/ noun excess heat burn out to a number of devices or incorrect use that causes an electronic bus extender / b s iks tendə/, bus bus extender circuit or device to fail extension card /b s k stenʃən kɑ d/ burst /b st/ noun a short isolated se- burst noun 1. device that extends an 8-bit bus to quence of transmitted signals accommodate 16-bit add-in cards 2. spe- burster / b stə/ noun a machine used to burster cial board (used by repair engineers) that separate the sheets of continuous fanfold moves an add-in board up to a position that paper is easier to work on burst mode / b st məυd/ noun data burst mode business computer / bzns kəm business computer transmission using intermittent bursts of pju tə/ noun a powerful small computer data which is programmed for special business bursty / b sti/ adjective transmitted in bursty tasks short uneven bursts, rather than a smooth business package / bzns p kd / business package continuous stream noun same as business system bus /b s/ noun 1. a communication link bus business system / bzns sstəm/ business system consisting of a set of leads or wires which connects different parts of a computer noun a set of programs adapted for busi- hardware system, and over which data is ness use, comprising e.g. payroll, invoic- transmitted and received by various cir- ing and customers file bus master /b s mɑ stə/ noun a de- bus master cuits in the system. Also called highway 2. a central source of information that sup- vice that controls the bus whilst transmit- plies several devices ting (NOTE: Bus master status can move bus address lines / b s ə dres lanz/ bus address lines between sending stations.) bus master adapter / b s mɑ stə ə bus master adapter plural noun wires, each of which carries one bit of an address word d ptə/ noun an adapter card that fits in a bus arbitration /b s ɑ b treʃ(ə)n/ bus arbitration EISA or MCA expansion slot in a PC, and noun the protocol and control of transmis- that can take control of the main bus and sion over a bus that ensures fair usage by transfer data to the computer’s main mem- several users ory independently of the main processor ć ‘The slot controller detects when a new board is in- The bus master network adapter provides serted, it activates power up and assigns a bus arbi- much faster data throughput than the old tration and card slot ID to the board.’ [Computing] adapter. bus bar / b s bɑ / noun an electrical bus bar bus network /b s netw k/ noun a bus network conductor or group of electrical conduc- network of computers where the machines tors used as a connector in a circuit, espe- are connected to a central bus unit which cially as a bus in a computer system transmits the messages it receives bus board / b s bɔ d/ noun a PCB con- bus board bus slave / b s slev/ noun a data sink bus slave taining conducting paths for all the com- puter signals for the address, data and con- that receives data from a bus master bus structure /b s str ktʃə/ noun the bus structure trol buses bus clock / b s klɒk/ noun the speed at bus clock way in which buses are organised, i.e. which data is transferred along the main whether serial, parallel or bidirectional bus topology / b s tə pɒləd i/ noun a bus topology bus in a computer (NOTE: This is not al- ways the same speed as the processor network topology in which all devices are speed.) connected to a single cable which has ter- bus clock speed / b s klɒk spi d/ bus clock speed minators at each end ć Ethernet is a net- noun the frequency of the clock that gov- work that uses the bus topology. erns the main bus in a computer bus unit /b s ju nt/ noun (within a bus unit bus control lines / b s kən trəυl bus control lines microprocessor ) the place where instruc- lanz/ plural noun wires, each of which tions flow between the main memory and carries one bit of a control word the processor
  • 56. Computing.fm Page 50 Friday, December 19, 2003 7:16 PMbusy 50busy / bzi/ adjective (of a signal ) indi-busy bytecode / batkəυd/ noun a form of bytecodecating that a device is not ready to receive Java instructions that can be executed in adata Java Virtual Machine. When a program-button / b t(ə)n/ noun 1. a switch on abutton mer develops a program written in Java,mouse or joystick that carries out an action the Java compiler converts the instructionsć Use the mouse to move the cursor to the into a bytecode form that can then be runicon and start the application by pressing on any computer that supports the Virtualthe mouse button. 2. a square shape dis- Machine software. ı Java, virtual ma-played that will carry out a particular ac- chinetion if selected with a pointer or keyboard byte machine /bat mə ʃi n/ noun a byte machineć There are two buttons at the bottom of variable word length computerthe status window, select the left button to byte manipulation /bat mə npjυ byte manipulationcancel the operation or the right to contin- leʃ(ə)n/ noun the process of moving, ed-ue. iting and changing the contents of a bytebutton bar / b t(ə)n bɑ / noun a line ofbutton bar byte mode / bat məυd/ noun a way of byte modesmall buttons along the top of the screen, transmitting data one byte at a timejust below the menu bar, in many applica- byte-orientated protocol / bat byte-orientated protocoltions such as Microsoft Word, Works and ɔ riəntetd prəυtəkɒl/ noun a commu-Excel. Each button on the bar contains an nications protocol that transmits data asicon that helps describe its function and is characters rather than as a bit-streamequipped with bubble-help. byte serial mode / bat səriəl byte serial modeBYAM abbr between you and me məυd/ noun same as byte serial trans-BYAMBYKT abbr but you know/knew thatBYKT missionbypass / ba pɑ s/ noun an alternativebypass byte serial transmission / bat byte serial transmissionroute around a component or device, usu- səriəl tr nz mʃ(ə)n/ noun the trans-ally a faulty one, so that it is not used ć mission of bytes of data sequentially, dur-There is an automatic bypass around any ing which individual bits can be sent in afaulty equipment. serial or parallel waybyte /bat/ noun a group of usually eightbyte bytes-per-inch /batz pə/ noun a bytes-per-inchbits or binary digits that a computer oper- measure of the data storage capacity ofates on as a single unit magnetic tapebyte address / bat ə dres/ plural nounbyte address bytes per second / bats p bytes per secondthe location of data bytes in memory sekənd/ noun full form of Bps
  • 57. Computing.fm Page 51 Friday, December 19, 2003 7:16 PM C C1 symbol the hexadecimal number cabling diagram / keb(ə)lŋ C cabling diagram equivalent to decimal 12 daə r m/ noun a drawing showing C2 noun a high level programming lan- C where the main cable runs through an of- guage developed mainly for writing struc- fice, and where the connection points to it tured systems programs (NOTE: The C lan- are cache /k ʃ/ noun a section of memory cache guage was originally developed for and with the UNIX operating system.) used to store a temporary copy of selected C++ / si pl s pl s/ noun a high-level C++ data for faster access. Also called cache programming language based on its prede- memory í verb to file or store in a cache cessor, C, but providing object-oriented ć This CPU caches instructions so im- programming functions proves performance by 15 percent. cache controller /k ʃ kən trəυlə/ cache controller CA abbr certificate authority CA noun a set of logic circuits that determines CAAT abbr certificate authority adminis- CAAT when to store data in the high-speed cache tration tool memory, when to access data in the cache cable / keb(ə)l/ noun a flexible con- cable and when to access data stored in the slow- ducting electrical or optical link ć The ca- er storage device ble has the wrong connector for this print- cache hit / k ʃ ht/ noun data retrieved cache hit er. from cache memory rather than from the cable connector / keb(ə)l kə nektə/ cable connector storage device noun a connector at either end of a cable cache memory / k ʃ mem(ə)ri/ noun cache memory cable matcher / keb(ə)l m tʃə/ cable matcher same as cache noun an impedance matching device that CAD /k d/ noun the use of a computer CAD allows non-standard cable to be used with and graphics terminal to help a designer in a particular device his work ć All our engineers design on cable modem / keb(ə)l məυdem/ cable modem CAD workstations. Full form computer- noun a device that links a computer to the aided design, computer-assisted de- Internet via an existing cable television sign line. This system provides high speed ac- ‘John Smith of CAD supplier CAD/CAM Limited cess to the Internet by sharing the coaxial has moved into sales with responsibilities for the cable that is used to distribute cable televi- North of England. He was previously a technical support specialist.’ [Computing] sion signals. CAD/CAM noun interaction between CAD/CAM cable plant / keb(ə)l plɑ nt/ noun all cable plant computers used for designing and those the cables, connectors and patch panels for manufacturing a product within a building or office caddy / k di/ noun ‘ CD caddy caddy cable tester / keb(ə)l testə/ noun test cable tester CAE / si e i / noun the use of a compu- CAE equipment used to find breaks or faults or cracks in cabling ter to help an engineer solve problems or calculate design or product specifications. cabling / keblŋ/ noun cable as a mate- cabling Full form computer-aided engineering, rial ć Using high-quality cabling will al- computer-assisted engineering low the user to achieve very high data CAI / si e a/ noun the use of a compu- CAI transfer rates. ‘It has won a £500,000 contract to supply a struc- ter to assist in teaching a subject. Full form tured voice and data cabling system to the bank and computer-aided instruction, compu- its stockbrocking subsidiary.’ [Computing] ter-assisted instruction
  • 58. Computing.fm Page 52 Friday, December 19, 2003 7:16 PMCAL 52CAL / si e el/ noun the use of a compu- call duration /kɔ l djυ reʃ(ə)n/ nounCAL call durationter to assist pupils to learn a subject. Full the length of time spent between startingform computer-aided learning, com- and ending a call ć Call duration dependsputer-assisted learning on the complexity of the transaction.calculated field / k lkjυ letd fi l d/ called party /kɔ ld pɑ ti/ noun the per-calculated field called partynoun a field within a database record that son or station to which a call is madecontains the results of calculations per- caller / kɔ lə/ noun a person who tele- callerformed on other fields phones or requests a callCalculator / k lkjυ letə/ a software call handler /kɔ l h ndlə/ noun ‘Calculator call handlerutility that is supplied with Windows, handlerworks just like a normal calculator and is calling / kɔ lŋ/ noun a signal to request callingstarted by double-clicking on the Calcula- attention, sent from a terminal or device totor icon in the Accessories group the main computercalendar program / k lndə calling sequence / kɔ lŋ si kwəns/calendar program calling sequence prəυ r m/ noun a software diary utility noun a series of program commands re-that allows a user to enter and keep track of quired to direct execution to or back fromappointments a subroutinecalibrate / k lbret/ verb to adjust a call instruction /kɔ l n str kʃən/calibrate call instructionmonitor or joystick so that it is responding noun a programming instruction that di-correctly and accurately to the signals or rects control to a routine (NOTE: Before themovements call, the program counter contents arecalibration / k lə breʃ(ə)n/ noun thecalibration saved to show the return instructionprocess of comparing the signal from an where to return to in the main program,input with a known scale to provide a and control is passed back once the rou-standardised reading tine has finished.)call /kɔ l/ verb to transfer control from a call logger /kɔ l lɒ ə/ noun a devicecall call loggermain program to a separate program or which keeps a record of telephone callsroutine call scheduling / kɔ l ʃedju lŋ/ call schedulingcall accepted signal /kɔ l ək septd/, noun (in a fax server ) the process of ar-call accepted signalcall accept signal /kɔ l ək sept/ noun a ranging calls so that long-distance calls aresignal sent by a device showing that it is made at off-peak timeswilling to accept a caller’s data call up / kɔ l p/ verb to ask for infor- call upcallback / kɔ lb k/ noun a security sys- mation from a backing store to be dis-callbacktem that is used to reduce the risk of any played ć All the customers addresses wereunauthorised user connecting to your com- called up.puter if you have installed dial-in network- CAM / si e em/ noun the use of a com- CAMing . With callback, you use your commu- puter to control machinery or assist in anications software and modem to dial the manufacturing process. Full form compu-remote computer and enter your name and ter-aided manufacture, computer-as-password. The remote computer then sisted manufacturing í abbr contenthangs up the telephone line and calls you addressable memoryback on a preset telephone number. Cambridge ring / kembrid rŋ/ Cambridge ringcall back modem / kɔ l b kcall back modem noun a local area networking standard məυdem/ noun a modem that, on an- used for connecting several devices andswering a call, immediately hangs up and computers together in a ring with simplecalls the user back to establish a connec- cable linkstion. It is used to provide better security campus environment / k mpəs n campus environmentthan a normal dial-up modem. varənmənt/ noun a large area or loca-call control signal / kɔ l kən trəυlcall control signal tion that has lots of users connected by s n(ə)l/ noun the signal necessary to es- several networks, such as a university ortablish and end a call hospitalcall discrimination /kɔ l d skrm campus network / k mpəscall discrimination campus network neʃ(ə)n/ noun a feature of a modem that netw k/ noun a network that connectsallows it to check if an incoming telephone together the smaller local area networks incall is from a fax machine, another compu- each department within a building or uni-ter with a modem or from a person versity site
  • 59. Computing.fm Page 53 Friday, December 19, 2003 7:16 PM 53 cardinal number cancel / k nsəl/ verb to stop a process cancel tronic device that allows a user to add titles or instruction before it has been fully exe- or captions to a video sequence cuted capture / k ptʃə/ verb 1. to take data capture cancelbot / k ns(ə)lbɒt/ noun a com- cancelbot into a computer system ć The software al- puter program that cancels unwanted arti- lows captured images to be edited. ˽ cap- cles sent to an Internet newsgroup by a ture a printer port to redirect data intend- particular user ed for a local printer port over a network to cancel cancel character character / k ns(ə)l a shared printer ˽ capture a screen to k rktə/ noun a control code used to in- store the image that is currently displayed dicate that the last data transmitted was in- on the screen in a file ć In Windows, you correct can capture the current screen as a graph- cancellation / k nsə leʃ(ə)n/ noun cancellation ics image by pressing the PrintScreen key the action of stopping a process which has on the keyboard. 2. (in a Token-Ring net- been started work) to remove a token from the network canonical canonical schema schema /kə nɒnkl in order to transmit data across the net- ski mə/ noun a model of a database that work carbon copy / kɑ bən kɒpi/ noun full carbon copy is independent of hardware or software available form of cc capability list / kepə bləti lst/ noun carbon ribbon / kɑ bən rbən/ noun a carbon ribbon capability list a list of operations that can be carried out thin plastic ribbon, coated with black ink, capacitance /k p stəns/ noun the capacitance used in printers. Compare fibre ribbon card /kɑ d/ noun a sheet of insulating card ability of a component to store electrical charge material on which electronic components capacitative /kə p stətv/, capaciti- capacitative can be mounted tive adjective that has capacitance ‘A smart card carries an encryption chip, which cod- ifies your ID and password prior to their being trans- capacitor /kə p stə/ noun an elec- capacitor mitted across a network.’ [Computing] tronic component that can store charge CardBus / kɑ db s/ a high-speed, up to CardBus capacitor storage /kə p stə capacitor storage 33MHz, version of the original PCMCIA stɔ rd / noun a device that uses the ca- PC Card standard that allows 32-bits of pacitative properties of a material to store data to be transferred in one operation data compared to the 16-bit capability of the capacity /kə p sti/ noun the amount original PC Card standard capacity of storage space available in a system or on card cage / kɑ d ked / noun a metal card cage a disk supporting frame for circuit boards capitalisation / k pt(ə)la zeʃ(ə)n/, capitalisation card chassis /kɑ d ʃ si/ noun same card chassis capitalization noun function of a word- as card frame processor to convert a line or block of text card edge connector / kɑ d ed kə card edge connector into capitals nektə/ noun a series of metal tracks end- capitals / k pt(ə)lz/, caps plural noun capitals ing at the edge and on the surface of a cir- letters in their large form, A,B,C,D, etc., as cuit board, allowing it to be plugged into opposed to lower-case letters, a,b,c,d, etc. an edge connector to provide an electrical ć The word BASIC is always written in path for data transmission caps. card extender / kɑ d ik stendə/ noun card extender caps lock / k ps lɒk/ noun a key on a caps lock a card containing only conducting tracks, keyboard that allows all characters to be inserted between a motherboard connector entered as capitals ć The LED lights up and an expansion board, allowing the ex- when caps lock is pressed. pansion board to be worked on and exam- capstan / k pstən/ noun a spindle of a ined easily, outside the card cage capstan tape player or tape backup unit that keeps card frame / kɑ d frem/ noun a frame card frame the tape pressed against the magnetic containing a motherboard into which read/write head or pinch roller printed circuit boards can be plugged to caption / k pʃən/ noun a descriptive provide a flexible system caption text that appears at the top of a window, in cardinal number / kɑ dn(ə)l cardinal number white text on a blue background n mbə/ noun a positive whole number ć caption generator / k pʃən 13, 19 and 27 are cardinal numbers, –2.3 caption generator d enəretə/ noun a computer or elec- and 7.45 are not.
  • 60. Computing.fm Page 54 Friday, December 19, 2003 7:16 PMcardioid microphone 54cardioid microphone / kɑ diɔdcardioid microphone carrier signalling / k riə s nəlŋ/ carrier signalling makrəfəυn/ noun a highly sensitive mi- noun a simple form of data transmission incrophone that is used to pick up sound in a which a carrier signal is switched on andspecific area, not used for general noise re- off according to binary datacording carrier system / k riə sstəm/ noun carrier systemcardioid response / kɑ diɔd rcardioid response a method of transmitting several different spɒns/ noun the heart-shaped response signals on one channel by using differentcurve of an antenna or microphone when a carrier frequenciessignal source is moved around it carrier wave / k riə wev/ noun a carrier wavecard reader /kɑ d ri də/ noun a devicecard reader waveform used as a carrierwhich reads data from the magnetic strip carry / k ri/ noun an extra digit due to carryon the back of a identity or credit card an addition result being greater than thecaret / k rət/ noun symbol ‘^’ that is of-caret number base used ć When 5 and 7 areten used to mean the Control key added, there is an answer of 2 and a carrycarpal tunnel syndrome / kɑ p(ə)lcarpal tunnel syndrome which is put in the next column, giving 12. t n(ə)l sndrəυm/ noun same as repet- carry bit / k ri bt/ noun an indicator carry bititive strain injury that a carry has occurredcarriage / k rd / noun the mechanicalcarriage carry complete signal / k ri kəm carry complete signalsection of a printer that correctly feeds or pli t s n(ə)l/ noun a signal from anmoves the paper that is being printed adder circuit indicating that all carry oper-carriage control / k rd kən trəυl/carriage control ations have been completednoun a set of codes that control the move- carry flag / k ri fl / noun same as carry flagments of a printer carriage ć Carriage carry bitcontrol codes can be used to move the pa- carry look ahead / k ri lυk ə hed/ carry look aheadper forward two lines between each line of noun a high-speed adder that can predict iftext. a carry will be generated by a sum and addcarriage return / k rd r t n/ nouncarriage return it in, removing the delay found in an addera code or key to indicate the end of an in- with ripple-through carryput line and to move the cursor to the start carry time / k ri tam/ noun the period carry timeof the next line. Abbr CR of time taken to transfer a carry digit to thecarriage return key / k rd r t ncarriage return key next higher digit position ki / noun a key that moves a cursor or cartesian coordinates /kɑ ti ziən cartesian coordinatesprinthead to the beginning of the next line kəυ ɔ dnəts/ plural noun a positionalon screen or in printing system that uses two axes at right anglescarrier / k riə/ noun a continuous high-carrier and represents a point within these axes byfrequency waveform that can be modulat- means of two numbers that give the point’sed by a signal position on each axis. Compare axis, po-carrier detect / k riə d tekt/ noun acarrier detect lar coordinatessignal generated by a modem to inform the cartesian structure /kɑ ti ziən cartesian structurelocal computer that it has detected a carrier str ktʃə/ noun a data structure whosefrom a remote modem. Abbr CD size is fixed and the elements are in a line-carrier frequency / k riə ar ordercarrier frequency fri kwənsi/ noun the frequency of the cartridge / kɑ trd / noun a removable cartridgecarrier signal before it is modulated cassette, containing a disk or tape or pro-carrier sense multiple access-col-carrier sense multiple access-collision avoidance gram or data, usually stored in ROMlision avoidance / k riə sens cartridge drive / kɑ trd drav/ noun cartridge drive m ltip(ə)l kses kə l (ə)n ə vɔdəns/ a drive which uses a disk or tape in a car-noun full form of CSMA-CA tridgecarrier sense multiple access-col-carrier sense multiple access-collision detection cartridge fonts / kɑ trd fɒntz/ plu- cartridge fontslision detection / k riə sens ral noun fonts contained in a ROM car- m ltip(ə)l kses kə l (ə)n d tridge which can be plugged into a printer, tekʃ(ə)n/ noun full form of CSMA-CD providing a choice of new typefacescarrier signal / k riə s n(ə)l/ noun acarrier signal cartridge ribbon / kɑ trd rbən/ cartridge ribboncontinuous high-frequency waveform that noun a printer ribbon in a closed cartridgecan be modulated by a signal ć He’s not CAS / si e es/ noun a standard devel- CASusing a modem – there’s no carrier signal oped by Intel and DCA to allow communi-on the line. cation software to control a fax modems.
  • 61. Computing.fm Page 55 Friday, December 19, 2003 7:16 PM 55 catastrophic error Full form communicating applications cassette recorder /kə set r kɔ də/ cassette recorder specification noun a machine to transfer audio signals cascade carry /k sked k ri/ noun onto magnetic tape cascade carry a carry generated in an adder from an input cassette tape /kə set tep/ noun nar- cassette tape carry signal row reel of magnetic tape housed in a solid cascade connection /k sked kə cascade connection case for protection (NOTE: Using cassette nekʃ(ə)n/ noun a number of devices or tape allows data to be stored for future circuits arranged in series, the output of retrieval. It is used instead of a disk sys- one driving the input of the next tem on small computers or as a slow, se- cascade control /k sked kən trəυl/ cascade control rial access, high-capacity back-up medi- noun a set of several control units, each um for large systems.) controlling the next cast /kɑ st/ noun 1. (in a programming cast cascaded star /k skedd stɑ / noun cascaded star language) an instruction that converts data a setup in which the nodes in a star topol- from one type to another ć To convert the ogy network are connected to more than variable from an integer to a character one hub to provide a backup in case of a type, use the cast command. 2. (in a multi- problem media presentation or animation) each cascading menu /k skedŋ cascading menu individual part of a multimedia presenta- menju / noun a secondary menu that is tion or animation. The members of a cast displayed to the side of the main pull- can be individual images, sound clips or down menu text. cascading style sheet /k skedŋ cast-based animation / kɑ st bes cascading style sheet cast-based animation stal ʃi t/ noun a method of describing n meʃ(ə)n/ noun a type of animation the font, spacing and colour of text within in which everything is an object and has its a webpage and storing this information in defined movement, colour and shape, and a style sheet that can be applied to any text the actions of each object are controlled by within the page. Abbr CSS a script cascading windows /k skedŋ cascading windows cast member /kɑ st membə/ noun a cast member wndəυz/ plural noun (in a GUI) multiple single object, e.g. text, an image or an ani- windows that are displayed overlapping so that only the title bar at the top of each mated object, within a cast used in a pres- window is showing entation CAT /k t/ noun 1. the use of a computer CAT case /kes/ noun 1. ˽ upper case capital case letters ć He corrected the word ‘coMpu- to demonstrate to and assist pupils in ter’, replacing the upper case M with a learning a skill. Full form computer-aid- lower case letter. 2. a programming com- ed training, computer-assisted train- mand that jumps to various points in a pro- ing 2. the use of a computer to test equip- gram depending on the result of a test ment or programs to find any faults. Full case branch / kes brɑ ntʃ/ noun a case branch form computer-aided testing, compu- branch to a part of a program that is de- ter-assisted testing catalogue / k t(ə)lɒ / noun a list of catalogue pendent upon the result of a test case change / kes tʃend / noun a case change contents or items in order ˽ disk cata- key used to change from upper to lower logue, directory list of files stored on a case on a keyboard magnetic disk ć The entry in the disk cat- case sensitive /kes sensətv/ adjec- case sensitive alogue is removed when the file is deleted. tive referring to a command or operation í verb to make a catalogue of items stored that will only work when the characters are ć All the terminals were catalogued, with entered in a particular case ć The pass- their location, call sign and attribute ta- word is case sensitive. ble. catastrophe /kə t strəfi/ noun a seri- catastrophe case sensitive search / kes case sensitive search sensətv s tʃ/ noun a search function ous fault, error or breakdown of equip- that succeeds only if both the search word ment, usually leading to serious damage and the case of the characters in the search and shutdown of a system word match catastrophic error / k təstrɒfk catastrophic error cassette /kə set/ noun a hard container erə/ noun an error that causes a program cassette used to store and protect magnetic tape to crash or files to be accidentally erased
  • 62. Computing.fm Page 56 Friday, December 19, 2003 7:16 PMcatastrophic failure 56catastrophic failure / k təstrɒfkcatastrophic failure are visible when the controllable electron feljə/ noun a complete system failure or beam strikes the phosphor, causing it to glow. cathode ray tube storage / k θəυd cathode ray tube storagecrashCategory 1 / k tə (ə)ri w n/ nounCategory 1 re tju b stɔ rd / noun a cathode ray(part of the EIA/TIA 568 specification) a tube with a long-persistence phosphorstandard that defines an older-style un- screen coating that retains an image for ashielded twisted-pair cable, unsuitable for long time CAV / si e vi / noun a CD-ROM that CAVdata transmission, that is formed by loose-ly twisting two insulated wires together to spins at a constant speed. The size of eachreduce noise and interference data frame on the disc varies so as to main-Category 2 / k tə (ə)ri tu / nounCategory 2 tain a regular data throughput of one frame(part of the EIA/TIA 568 specification) a per second. Full form constant angularstandard that defines a type of unshielded velocity CB abbr call back CBtwisted-pair cable that can be used to CBI / / abbr computer-based instruction CBItransmit data at rates up to 4MHzCategory 3 / k tə (ə)ri θri / noun CBL / si bi el/ noun education or learn-Category 3 CBL(part of the EIA/TIA 568 specification) a ing using special programs running on astandard that defines a type of unshielded computer. Full form computer-basedtwisted-pair cable that can be used to learningtransmit data at rates up to 10MHz. This CBMS / si bi em es/ noun the use of a CBMStype of cable is the minimum standard of computer system to allow users to sendcable required for a 10BaseT network and receive messages from other users,(NOTE: The standard suggests that the ca- usually in-house. Full form computer-ble should have three twists per foot of ca- based message system. ı BBSble.). CBT / si bi ti / noun the use of a com- CBTCategory 4 / k tə (ə)ri fɔ / nounCategory 4 puter system to train students. Full form(part of the EIA/TIA 568 specification) a computer-based trainingstandard that defines a type of unshielded cc / si si / noun a feature of electronic cctwisted-pair cable that is the minimum mail software that allows you to send astandard of cable required for data trans- copy of a message to another user (see)mission rates up to 16Mbit/second on a Full form carbon copyToken Ring network CCA abbr cardholder certificate authority CCACategory 5 / k tə (ə)ri fav/ nounCategory 5 CCD abbr charge-coupled device CCD(part of the EIA/TIA 568 specification) a CCD memory / si si di mem(ə)ri/ CCD memorystandard that defines a type of cable thatcan carry data transmitted at up to noun capacitors used with MOS transis-100MHz and is suitable for FDDI over tors to store data, allowing either serial orcopper wire, 100BaseT or other high- random access CCIR 601 / si si a ɑ sks əυ w n/ CCIR 601speed networkscategorycategory wiring wiring / k tə (ə)ri noun a recommended standard for defin- waərŋ/ noun one of five levels of stand- ing digital video CCITT / si si a ti ti / noun an interna- CCITTards defined by the Electronics IndustryAssociation/Telecommunications Industry tional committee that defines communica-Association (EIA/TIA) that defines the tions protocols and standards. Full formtype of cable or wire used in a network Comité Consultatif International Télé-catena /kə ti nə/ noun 1. a chained listcatena phonique et Télégraphique CCP / si si pi / noun software which CCPconsisting of a number of items 2. a seriesof characters in a word interfaces between a user’s terminal andcatenate / k tənet/ verb to join to-catenate system BIOS. Full form command con-gether two or more sets of data sole processorcathode ray tube / k θəυd re tju b/ CD1 /si di / noun a system instruction in CDcathode ray tubenoun full form of CRT MS-DOS and UNIX that moves you COMMENT: Cathode ray tubes are used in tra- around a directory structure ć Type in CD ditional-style television sets, computer moni- DOCS to move into the DOCS subdirecto- tors and VDUs. A CRT consists of a vacuum ry. Also called CHDIR. Full form change tube, one end of which is flat and coated with directory phosphor, while the other end contains an CD2 /si di / abbr compact disc CD electron beam source. Characters or graphics
  • 63. Computing.fm Page 57 Friday, December 19, 2003 7:16 PM 57 CD-ROM mode 1 CD32 / si di θ ti tu / noun a unit CD32 CD quality / si di kwɒlti/ adjective CD quality with a processor and CD-ROM drive de- able to provide recording quality similar to veloped by Commodore that uses its Ami- a compact disc. The term normally refers ga computer to equipment that can store 16-bit samples CD-audio / si di ɔ diəυ/ noun a CD-audio at a sample rate of over 44,000 samples per standard that defines how music can be second. ć A sound card in a computer stored in digital form, i.e. as a series of might have several modes of operation: numbers, on a compact disc low-quality for general use that does not CD-bridge / si di brd / noun an ex- CD-bridge use up too much memory and CD quality tension to the CD-ROM XA standard that recording mode for final recordings. allows extra data to be added so that the CD-R / si di ɑ / noun technology that CD-R disc can be read on a CD-i player allows a user to write data to and read from CD caddy / si di k di/ noun a flat CD caddy a CD-R disc ć A CD-R disc can be played plastic container that is used to hold a in any standard CD-ROM drive but needs compact disc a special CD-R drive to write data to the CD-DA abbr compact disc digital audio CD-DA disc. Full form recordable CD (NOTE: also called Red Book audio) C: drive / si drav/ noun the main hard C: drive CD-E / si di i / noun a format that al- CD-E disk drive, denoted by the letter C in many lows data to be saved to and erased from a operating systems, including DOS, Win- compact disc dows and OS/2. ı floppy disk, hard disk COMMENT: Normally, a PC has two or three CD+G / si di pl s d i /, CD+Graph- CD+G disk drives within its casing. The convention is ics / si di pl s r fks/ noun CD for- to provide one floppy disk, called ‘A:’ and one mat that adds a text track to an audio disc hard disk called ‘C:’. If you have a second – used to store song title information floppy disk, this is called ‘B:’ and a CD-ROM drive is normally ‘D:’. When talking about the CD-i / si di a/ noun hardware and soft- CD-i different disk drives, you say ‘Drive A’ for the ware standards that combine sound, data, floppy drive, but normally write ‘A:’. If you are video and text onto a compact disc and al- using DOS, when your PC starts up it will nor- mally show what’s called the C-prompt (which low a user to interact with the software looks like ‘C: your screen); this means you stored on a CD-ROM. The standard de- are currently looking at the hard disk. If you fines encoding, compression and display want to change to drive A to read data from a functions. floppy disk, enter ’A:’ and press return. CD-I / si di a/ noun set of enhance- CD-I CD-ROM / si di CD-ROM rɒm/ noun a small ments to the normal CD-ROM standard, plastic disc that is used as a high capacity developed by Philips, and aimed for home ROM storage device that can store 650Mb use. The system uses its own special hard- of data; data is stored in binary form as ware console with speakers, joystick and a holes etched on the surface which are then connection to a television screen to display read by a laser the images. The special feature of CD-I is ‘’Customers’ images will be captured, digitised, and stored on optical disk or CD-ROM, and produced if that it allows you to interact with what you queries arise about responsibility for ATM transac- see on the television screen and choose op- tions.’’ [Computing] tions or respond to questions or a game. CD-ROM drive / si di rɒm/ noun a CD-ROM drive CD-i digital audio / si di a CD-i digital audio mechanical device that spins a compact dd t(ə)l ɔ diəυ/ noun a format that en- disc and reads data stored on the surface of ables a CD-i disc to record audio in digital the disc using a tiny laser beam format in one of four ways, either mono or CD-ROM Extended Architecture CD-ROM Extended Architecture stereo and at two different sample rates / si di rɒm k stendd ɑ ktektʃə/ CD-i digital imaging / si di a CD-i digital imaging noun an extended CD-ROM format that dd t(ə)l md ŋ/ plural noun the defines how audio, images and data are compression method used to store images stored on a CD-ROM disc. Abbr CD- and video frames on a CD-i disc ROM/XA CD-i sector / si di a sektə/ noun a CD-i sector CD-ROM Extensions / si di rɒm/ CD-ROM Extensions unit of storage on a CD-i disc that can store plural noun the software required to allow 2352 bytes an operating system to access a CD-ROM CD Player / si di pleə/ noun a utility CD Player drive supplied with Windows that allows a user CD-ROM mode 1 / si di rɒm məυd/ CD-ROM mode 1 to play back audio CDs in the PC’s CD- noun the standard, original method of stor- ROM drive ing data in the High Sierra file format
  • 64. Computing.fm Page 58 Friday, December 19, 2003 7:16 PMCD-ROM mode 2 58CD-ROM mode 2 / si di rɒm məυd/CD-ROM mode 2 rows are normally numbered and the col-noun the higher-capacity storage format umns use the letters of the alphabet.that stores data in the space used in mode cellar / selə/ noun a temporary storage cellar1 for error correction (NOTE: Neither for data or registers or tasks, in whichmode 1 nor mode 2 can play audio and items are added and retrieved from thesimultaneously read data, hence the XA same end of the list in a LIFO orderextension.) cell definition /sel defə nʃ(ə)n/ noun cell definitionCD-ROM player / si di rɒm/ noun aCD-ROM player (in a spreadsheet) a formula that is con-disc drive that allows a computer to read tained in a celldata stored on a CD-ROM; the player uses cell format /sel fɔ m t/ noun (in a cell formata laser beam to read etched patterns on the spreadsheet) the way in which the resultsurface of the CD-ROM that represent data or data in a cell is displayed ć The cell for-bits mat is right-aligned and emboldened.CD-ROM Re-Writable / si di rɒmCD-ROM Re-Writable Cello / tʃeləυ/ noun a web browser ap- Cellore/ noun a disc technology that can read a plication. ı browserstandard CD-ROM, write to a CD-R or cell protection /sel prə tekʃən/ noun cell protectionwrite data many times to the same CD-R a function that prevents the contents of aCD-ROM/XA abbr CD-ROM ExtendedCD-ROM/XA particular cell or range of cells from beingArchitecture changedCDRTOS / si di ɑ ti əυ es/ noun anCDRTOS cell reference cell reference variable variable / seloperating system used to run a CD-i hard- ref(ə)rəns veəriəb(ə)l/ noun a registerware platform that contains the reference locating a cer-CD-RW / si di ɑ d b(ə)lju / noun aCD-RW tain cell that is being operated oncompact disc that can have its contents cell relay /sel ri le/ noun a way of cell relayerased and something else recorded onto it transmitting packets of information over amany times broadband network, such as BroadbandCDTV / si di ti vi / noun a CD-ROMCDTV ISDN. The ATM system, e.g., transfersstandard developed by Commodore that data by moving cells of data betweencombines audio, graphics and text. This nodes in a wide area network.standard is mainly intended as an interac- cellular phone / seljυlə fəυn/ noun cellular phonetive system for home use, with the player same as mobile phoneconnected to a television and also able to central computer / sentrəl kəm central computerplay music CDs. pju tə/ noun same as host computerCD-V / si di vi / noun a format, now noCD-V centralised computer network centralised computer networklonger used, for storing 5 minutes of video / sentrə lazd kəm pju tə/, centralizeddata on a 3-inch disc in analog form computer network noun a network withCD-video / si di vdiəυ/ noun a com-CD-video processing power provided by a centralpact disc used to store and play back video computerimages centralised data centralised data processing processingCD-WO / si d b(ə)l ju əυ/ noun a / sentrə lazd detə/, centralized dataCD-WOCD-ROM disc and drive technology that processing noun data processing facili-allows a user to write data to the disc once ties located in a centralised place that canonly. It is useful for storing archived docu- be accessed by other usersments or for testing a CD-ROM before it is central memory / sentrəl mem(ə)ri/ central memoryduplicated. noun full form of CMcel /sel/ noun a single frame in an anima-cel central processing central processing element elementtion sequence / sentrəl prəυsesŋ elmənt/ noun acell /sel/ noun 1. a single function orcell short, i.e. 2, 4 or 8 bit, word length modulenumber in a spreadsheet program 2. a sin- that can be used to produce large wordgle memory location, capable of storing a CPU’s using bit slice techniques. Abbrdata word, accessed by an individual ad- CPEdress 3. (in a transmission system such central processing unit, central central processing unitas ATM) a fixed-length packet of data, e.g. processor noun full form of CPUa cell in the ATM system contains 53 central terminal / sentrəl t mn(ə)l/ central terminalcell address /sel ə dres/ noun (in acell address noun a terminal which controls communi-spreadsheet) a code that identifies the po- cations between a central or host computersition of a cell by row and column. The and remote terminals
  • 65. Computing.fm Page 59 Friday, December 19, 2003 7:16 PM 59 chain printer centre / sentə/ verb 1. to align the centre the certificates issued and used by a certif- read/write head correctly on a magnetic icate authority are stored disk or tape 2. to place a piece of text in the certificate of approval /sə tfkət əv certificate of approval centre of the paper or display screen ć ə pru v(ə)l/ noun a document showing Which key do you press to centre the head- that an item has been approved officially ing? certificate walker /sə tfkət wɔ kə/ certificate walker centre channel / sentə tʃ n(ə)l/ centre channel noun a software program that reads digital noun (in a multichannel sound system) certificates and displays their contents the audio channel that carries sound infor- CGI / si d i a/ noun a standard that de- CGI mation that will be played back by a loud- fines how a webpage can call programs or speaker placed in the centre of a room, in scripts stored on an Internet server to carry front of the listener out functions and exchange information centre operator / sentə ɒpəretə/ centre operator with the program, e.g., to provide a search noun a person who looks after central function. Full form common gateway computer operations interface. ı Perl centre text / sentə tekst/ noun an op- centre text CGM / si d i em/ noun a device-inde- CGM tion in a word-processing or DTP package pendent file format that provides one that changes the formatting of a line of text method of storing an image as objects. Full so that is in the centre of the page or frame form computer graphics metafile Centronics interface /sen trɒnks Centronics interface chain /tʃen/ noun 1. a series of files or chain ntəfes/ noun a parallel printer interface data items linked sequentially 2. a series of devised by Centronics Inc instructions to be executed sequentially í Centronics port /sen trɒnks pɔ t/ Centronics port verb to link files or data items in series by noun a standard that defines the way in storing a pointer to the next file or item at which a parallel printer port on a PC oper- each entry ć More than 1,000 articles or ates chapters can be chained together when CERN /s n/ noun the research laborato- CERN printing. ı catena ry in Switzerland where the world wide chain code / tʃen kəυd/ noun a series chain code web was originally invented. Full form of words, each word being derived from Conseil Européen pour la Recherche the previous word, usually by being shift- Nucléaire ed one bit CERT /s t/ abbr computer emergency CERT chained file / tʃend fal/ noun a file chained file response team in which an entry will contain data and an certificate /sə tfkət/ noun a unique certificate address to the next entry that has the same set of numbers that identifies a person or data content . It allows rapid retrieval of all company and is used to prove the person’s identical data records. identity chained list / tʃend lst/ noun a list in chained list COMMENT: A certificate is normally used to which each element contains data and an provide security over the Internet for secure e- mail or secure website transactions. A trusted address to the next element in the list chained record /tʃend rekɔ d/ noun chained record company, such as VeriSign (www.veri- sign.com) or Thawte (www.thawte.com) is- a data record in a chained file sues the certificate once it is satisfied that the chaining / tʃenŋ/ noun the execution chaining person or company is legitimate, authentic and who they claim to be. The company can of a very large program by executing small now use this certificate to prove its identity, segments of it at a time. This allows pro- create secure messages or setup a secure website to accept payments online. grams larger than memory capacity to be certificate authority /sə tfkət ɔ certificate authority run. θɒrti/ noun an independent server or chaining search / tʃenŋ s tʃ/ noun chaining search company on the Internet that supplies or a search of a file of elements arranged in a validates a special digital certificate to chained list chain list / tʃen lst/ noun a list of data chain list prove that another company is genuine (NOTE: The certificate authority issues a with each piece of information providing special encrypted number that complies an address for the next consecutive item in with the X.509 standard and is encrypted the list with a public-key encryption system.) chain printer /tʃen prntə/ noun a chain printer certificate database /sə tfkət certificate database printer whose characters are located on a detəbes/ noun a database in which all continuous belt
  • 66. Computing.fm Page 60 Friday, December 19, 2003 7:16 PMchange directory 60change directory / tʃend dachange directory channel synchroniser / tʃ n(ə)l channel synchroniser rekt(ə)ri/ noun full form of CD, CHDIR sŋkrənazə/, channel synchronizerchange dump / tʃend d mp/ noun achange dump noun an interface between a central com-printout of all the locations whose contents puter and peripherals, providing a channel,have been changed during a program run channel command interpretation and sta-change file / tʃend fal/ noun a filechange file tus signals from the peripheralscontaining records that are to be used to channel-to-channel connection channel-to-channel connectionupdate a master file / tʃ n(ə)l tə tʃ n(ə)l kə nekʃ(ə)n/change over / tʃend əυvə/ verb tochange over noun a direct link between the main I/Oswitch from one computer system to an- channels of two computers, allowing highother speed data transferchanger / tʃend ə/ noun a devicechanger chapter / tʃ ptə/ noun a section of a chapterwhich changes one thing for another main program that can be executed in its own right, without the rest of the main pro-change record /tʃend rekɔ d/ nounchange record gram being requireda record containing new data which is tobe used to update a master record char /tʃɑ / noun (in programming) a data char type which defines a variable as containingchange tape / tʃend tep/ noun achange tape data that represents a character using themagnetic tape containing recent changes ASCII codeor transactions to records which is used to character / k rktə/ noun a graphical characterupdate a master file symbol which appears as a printed or dis-channel / tʃ n(ə)l/ noun a physicalchannel played mark such as one of the letters ofconnection between two points that allows the alphabet, a number or a punctuationdata to be transmitted, e.g. a link between marka CPU and a peripheral í verb to send sig- character assembly / k rktə ə character assemblynals or data via a particular path sembli/ noun a method of designingchannel adapter / tʃ n(ə)l ə d ptə/channel adapter characters with pixels on a computernoun an interfacing device allowing dif- screenferent channels to be interconnected character-based / k rktə best/ ad- character-basedchannel bank / tʃ n(ə)l b ŋk/ noun achannel bank jective referring to a screen design that iscollection of a number of channels, and drawn using ASCII characters rather thancircuits to switch between them graphical windowschannel capacity / tʃ n(ə)l kə character blink / k rktə blŋk/ nounchannel capacity character blink p sti/ noun the maximum rate for data a character whose intensity is switched ontransmission over a channel and off as an indicatorchannel command / tʃ n(ə)l kəchannel command character block / k rktə blɒk/ noun character block mɑ nd/ noun an instruction to a channel the pattern of dots that will make up aor control unit, providing control informa- character on a screen or printertion such as data selection or routes character byte / k rktə bat/ noun a character bytechannel isolation / tʃ n(ə)l asəchannel isolation byte of data containing the character code leʃ(ə)n/ noun the separation of channels and any error check bitsmeasured as the amount of crosstalk be- character check / k rktə tʃek/ noun character checktween two channels (NOTE: Low crosstalk a check to ensure that a character code pro-is due to good channel isolation.) tocol and format are correctchannelling / tʃ nəlŋ/ noun a protec-channelling character code / k rktə kəυd/ noun character codetive pipe containing cables or wires a system where each character is repre-channel map / tʃ n(ə)l m p/ noun (in sented by a unique number ć The ASCIIchannel mapthe Windows MIDI Mapper utility) a list code is the most frequently used characterthat shows if a MIDI channel is being redi- coding system.rected to another channel character density / k rktə densti/ character densitychannel overload / tʃ n(ə)l noun the number of characters that can bechannel overload əυvələυd/ noun the transmission of data stored or displayed per unit areaat a rate greater than the channel capacity character display / k rktə d sple/ character displaychannel queue / tʃ n(ə)l kju / nounchannel queue noun a device that displays data in alpha-1. a queue of requests to use a channel 2. a numeric formqueue of data that has yet to be sent over a character fill / k rktə fl/ noun the character fillchannel writing of one character to every location
  • 67. Computing.fm Page 61 Friday, December 19, 2003 7:16 PM 61 chat room within an area of memory, a process used character representation / k rktə character representation for clearing and resetting the memory reprzen teʃ(ə)n/ noun the combination character generator / k rktə character generator of bits used for each character code d enəretə/ noun a ROM that provides character character rounding rounding / k rktə the display circuits with a pattern of dots raυndŋ/ noun the process of making a which represent the character block ć The displayed character more pleasant to look ROM used as a character generator can be at, within the limits of pixel size, by mak- changed to provide different fonts. ing sharp corners and edges smooth character interleaving / k rktə character interleaving character set / k rktə set/ noun a list character set ntə li vŋ/ noun a form of time division of all the characters that can be displayed multiplexing for asynchronous protocols or printed characteristic / k rktə rstk/ noun characteristic characters per inch / k rktəz p r characters per inch 1. the value of exponent in a floating point ntʃ/ plural noun the number of printed number ć The floating point number 1.345 characters that fit within the space of one x 103, has a characteristic of 3. 2. a meas- inch ć You can select 10 or 12 cpi with the urement or property of a component green button. Abbr cpi characteristic overflow characters per second / k rktəz characteristic overflow characters per second / k rktərstk əυvəfləυ/ noun an ex- pə sekənd/ noun the number of charac- ponent value of a floating point number ters that are transmitted or printed per sec- that is greater than the maximum allowa- ond ble character string / k rktə strŋ/ character string character key / k rktə ki / noun character key noun same as alphanumeric string same as alphanumeric key ‘This explains a multitude of the database’s prob- character machine / k rktə mə character machine lems – three-letter months are treated like character ʃi n/ noun a computer in which the strings instead of as dates.’ [Computing] number of bits which make up a word is character stuffing / k rktə st fŋ/ character stuffing variable, and varies according to the type noun the addition of blank characters to a of data file to increase its length to a preset size Character Map / k rktə m p/ noun Character Map charge /tʃɑ d / noun 1. a quantity of charge a utility that is provided with Windows to electricity 2. the number of, excess of or allow you access the full range of 256 lack of electrons in a material or compo- characters that make up every font rather nent í verb to supply a device with an than the limited range that you can access electric charge from the keyboard charge-coupled device / tʃɑ d charge-coupled device character matrix / k rktə metrks/ character matrix k p(ə)ld d vas/ noun an electronic de- noun the pattern of dots that makes up a vice operated by charge. Abbr CCD displayed character charge-coupled device memory charge-coupled device memory character mode / k rktə məυd/ character mode /tʃɑ d k p(ə)ld d vas/ noun a set of noun (of a display adapter ) a mode that capacitors used, with MOS transistors, to can only display the characters defined in store data, allowing serial and random ac- the built-in character set cess character-orientated character-orientated / k rktə chart /tʃɑ t/ noun a diagram showing in- chart ɔ riəntetd/ adjective referring to a formation as a series of lines or blocks computer that addresses character loca- chassis / ʃ si/ noun a metal frame that chassis tions rather than words houses the circuit boards together with the character printer / k rktə prntə/ character printer wiring and sockets required in a computer noun a device, e.g. a daisy wheel printer, system or other equipment. ı rack that prints characters one at a time chat /tʃ t/ verb to send and receive mes- chat character recognition / k rktə character recognition sages, in real time, with other users on the rekə nʃ(ə)n/ noun a system that opti- Internet cally reads written or printed characters chat group / tʃ t ru p/ noun a group chat group into a computer, using various algorithms of people, often with a common interest, to ensure that characters are correctly rec- who exchange messages online ognised chat room / tʃ t ru m/ noun an area of chat room character repertoire / k rktə repə character repertoire a website where visitors can exchange twɑ / noun a list of all the characters that messages with other visitors in real time. can be displayed or printed Special software displays the name of the
  • 68. Computing.fm Page 62 Friday, December 19, 2003 7:16 PMCHCP 62visitor as he or she types in a message to check register /tʃek red stə/ noun a check registerall the other visitors, allowing them to temporary storage for received data before‘talk’ to each other. it is checked against the same data re-CHCP / si atʃ si pi / noun (in MS-CHCP ceived via another path or methodDOS and OS/2 operating systems) a sys- checksum /tʃek təυt(ə)l/, check total checksumtem command that selects which code noun a program that checks that data re-page to use trieved from memory is correct, summingCHDIR / si atʃ di a ɑ / abbr changeCHDIR it and comparing the sum with a storeddirectory. ‘ CD value ć The data must be corrupted if thecheapernet / tʃi pənet/ noun same ascheapernet checksum is different.thin-Ethernet (informal ) child process, child program noun a child processcheck bit / tʃek bt/ noun one bit of acheck bit routine or program called by another pro-binary word that is used to provide a parity gram which remains active while the sec-check ond program runscheck box / tʃek bɒks/ noun a smallcheck box child window /tʃald wndəυ/ noun a child windowbox displayed with a cross inside it if the window within a main window. The small-option has been selected, or empty if the er window cannot be moved outside theoption is not selected ć Select the option boundary of the main window and isby moving the cursor to the check box and closed when the main window is closed.pressing the mouse button. chip /tʃp/ noun a device consisting of a chipcheck character /tʃek k rktə/ nouncheck characteran additional character inserted into trans- small piece of a crystal of a semiconductormitted data to serve as an error detection onto which are etched or manufactured acheck, its value being dependent on the number of components such as transistors,text resistors and capacitors, which togethercheck digit /tʃek dd t/ noun an addi-check digit perform a function chip architecture /tʃp ɑ k tektʃə/ chip architecturetional digit inserted into transmitted text tomonitor and correct errors noun the design and layout of componentscheckerboardingcheckerboarding / tʃekə bɔ dŋ/ on a chip chip card / tʃp kɑ d/ noun a plastic chip cardnoun (on a virtual page) a form of memo-ry organisation that results in only odd card with a memory and microprocessorpages, spread-out pages or segments of device embedded in it, so that it can bememory being filled, leaving unusable used for electronic funds transfer or iden-gaps in between and wasting memory tification of a usercheck indicator /tʃek nd ketə/check indicator chip count / tʃp kaυnt/ noun number chip countnoun a hardware or software device that of chips on a PCB or in a deviceshows that received text is not correct and ‘Where the display is provided by an LCD system,a check has failed high levels of performance must be achieved withchecking program /tʃekŋ the lowest cost, smallest chip count and lowest pow-checking program er consumption.’ [Computing] prəυ r m/ noun software that finds er- chip select / tʃp s lekt/ noun a single chip selectrors in program or data syntax, format andcoding line on a chip that will enable it to functioncheck key / tʃek ki / noun a series ofcheck key when a signal is present. Abbr CS (NOTE:characters derived from a text used to ICs often do not function, even whencheck for and correct errors power is applied, until a CS signal is pro- vided.)check mark / tʃek mɑ k/ noun an indi-check mark chip select line / tʃp s lekt lan/ chip select linecator in a check box that shows if thecheck box has been selected; often a cross noun a connection to a chip that will ena-or tick ble it to function when a signal is presentcheck number /tʃek n mbə/ nouncheck number ć The data strobe line is connected to thesame as check digit latch chip select line.check point / tʃek pɔnt/ noun a point chip set / tʃp set/ noun a set of chips chip setcheck pointin a program where data and program sta- that together will carry out a functiontus can be recorded or displayed CHKDSK / tʃekdsk/ noun (in MS- CHKDSKcheck point dump / tʃek pɔntcheck point dump DOS) a system command that runs a check d mp/ noun a printout of data and pro- on the status of a disk drive and installedgram status at a check point RAM
  • 69. Computing.fm Page 63 Friday, December 19, 2003 7:16 PM 63 circuit breaker choiceboard / tʃɔsbɔ d/ noun a pro- choiceboard CIF / si a ef/ abbr common intermedi- CIF gram used on the Internet that allows con- ate format sumers and online companies to commu- CIF videophone / si a ef CIF videophone nicate in real time vdiəυfəυn/ noun an ISDN standard for choke /tʃəυk/ noun ‘ inductor video image transmission over a telephone choke Chooser / tʃu zə/ an operating system link which displays colour images at a res- Chooser utility supplied with the Apple Macintosh olution of 352x288 pixels. This standard that allows a user to select the type of uses two ISDN B channels. CIM / si a em/ noun 1. the coordinated CIM printer, network and other peripherals that are connected use of microfilm for computer data storage chop /tʃɒp/ ‘ binary search and the method of reading the data. Full chop chord keying / kɔ d ki ŋ/ noun the ac- chord keying form computer input microfilm 2. the tion of pressing two or more keys at the coordinated use of computers in every as- same time to perform a function pect of design and manufacturing. Full COMMENT: As an example, to access a second form computer-integrated manufac- window, you may need to press control and turing F2; pressing shift and character delete keys at cine-oriented / sni ɔ rientd/ adjec- cine-oriented the same time will delete a line of text. tive (in a film or video clip) referring to an chroma / krəυmə/ noun a measure of chroma image that is oriented parallel to the out- colour hue and saturation. Also called side edge of the medium chrominance cipher / safə/ noun a system that trans- cipher chroma key / krəυmə ki / noun (in vid- chroma key forms a message into an unreadable form eo) a special effect in which an object is with a secret key ć Always use a secure ci- photographed against a normally blue pher when sending data over a telephone background, which is then replaced with line. (NOTE: The message can be read another image to give the impression that normally after it has passed through the the object appears against the image. To cipher a second time to decrypt it.) give the appearance of flying, e.g., record cipher key / safə ki / noun a secret se- cipher key a video sequence of a person against a blue quence of characters used with a cipher background, then electronically replace system to provide a unique ciphertext this blue colour, the chroma key with foot- cipher system / safə sstəm/ noun a cipher system age of sky. ı colour key formula used to transform text into a secret chrominance / krəυmnəns/ noun chrominance form same as chroma ciphertext / safətekst/ noun data out- ciphertext chrominance signal / krəυmnəns chrominance signal put from a cipher. Opposite plaintext s n(ə)l/ noun the section of a colour monitor signal containing colour hue and CIR / si a ɑ / noun a CPU register that CIR saturation information stores the instruction that is currently be- ing executed. Full form current instruc- chunk /tʃ ŋk/ noun a basic part of a chunk tion register RIFF file that consists of an identifier circuit / s kt/ noun a connection be- circuit (chunk ID) and data tween the electronic components that per- CIDR / si a di ɑ / noun a system of or- CIDR form a function ganising IP addresses that is more compact circuit analyser / s kt nəlazə/ circuit analyser and efficient than the older system, adding noun a device that measures voltage or a slash and a new IP Prefix number that current or impedance or signal in a circuit represents a number of individual address- circuit board / s kt bɔ d/ noun an in- circuit board es. For example, the old system used an IP address such as ‘’ whereas sulating board used to hold components CIDR would replace this with which are then connected together electri- ‘’. The IP Prefix number 12 cally to form a circuit represents 4,096 unique addresses, and the ‘The biggest shock was to open up the PC and find the motherboard smothered in patch wires (usually a lower the number the more addresses are sign that a design fault in the printed circuit board represented. was rectified at the last minute).’ [Computing] CIE / si a i / noun the international circuit breaker / s kt brekə/ noun CIE circuit breaker group that defines colour and illumination a device which protects equipment by cut- standards. Full form Commission Inter- ting off the electrical supply when condi- national de l’Éclairage tions are abnormal
  • 70. Computing.fm Page 64 Friday, December 19, 2003 7:16 PMcircuit capacity 64circuit capacity / s kt kə p sti/ CIS / si a es/ noun a scanner in whichcircuit capacity CISnoun the information-carrying capacity of the detectors, a flat bar of light-sensitivea particular circuit diodes, touch the original, without anycircuit card / s kt kɑ d/ noun same lens that might distort the image. Full formcircuit cardas circuit board contact image sensorcircuit design / s kt d zan/ noun CISC / si a es si / noun a type of CPU CISCcircuit designthe layout of components and interconnec- design whose instruction set contains ations in a circuit number of long, complex instructions thatcircuit diagram / s kt daə r m/circuit diagram make program writing easier, but reducenoun a graphical description of a circuit ć execution speed. Full form complex in-The CAD program will plot the circuit di- struction set computer. Compare RISC CIT abbr computer-integrated telephony CITagram rapidly.circuit switching / s kt swtʃŋ/ CIX abbr commercial Internet exchange CIXcircuit switchingnoun a method of describing a type of cladding / kl dŋ/ noun protective ma- claddingcommunication system in which a path terial surrounding a conducting core ć Iffrom sender to receiver is created when re- the cladding is chipped, the fibre-optic ca-quired rather than using a permanent, fixed ble will not function well.line. The normal telephone system is an claim frame / klem frem/ noun (in an claim frameexample of a circuit switching network. FDDI protocol network) a special framecircular buffer / s kjυlə b fə/ noun that is used to determine which station willcircular buffera computer-based queue that uses two initialise the networkmarkers, for top and bottom of the line of clamper / kl mpə/ noun a circuit which clamperstored items. The markers move as items limits the level of a signal from a scanningare read from or written to the stack. head or other input device to a maximumcircular file / s kjυlə fal/ noun a data before this is converted to a digital value.circular filefile that has no visible beginning or end, Clampers are used to cut out noise andeach item points to the location of the next spikes.item with the last pointing back to the first clapper / kl pə/ noun the mechanical clappercircularity / s kjυ l rti/ noun a fault part of a dot matrix printer that drives thecircularitythat makes reasoning illogical, because the printing needles onto the ribbon to print aarguments that are supposed to lead to a character on the paperconclusion are only valid if the conclusion class /klɑ s/ noun (in programming lan- classitself is true guage) a definition of what a particularcircular list / s kjυlə lst/ noun a list software routine will do or what sort ofcircular listin which each element contains data and data a variable can holdan address to the next element in the list Class 1 / klɑ s w n/, Class 2 / klɑ s Class 1with the last item pointing back to the first tu / noun a set of standards that definecircular reference / s kjυlə how a to control a fax modem using soft-circular reference ref(ə)rəns/ noun (in a spreadsheet) an ware, using extensions to the Hayes ATerror condition that occurs when two equa- command set used for data modems. Classtions in two cells reference each other 2 expects the modem to carry out morecircular shift / s kjυlə ʃft/ noun the work in managing fax communications.circular shiftrotation of bits in a word with the previous Class 1 units can often be upgradedlast bit inserted in the first bit position through software.circulate / s kjυ let/ verb to go round class interval /klɑ s ntəv(ə)l/ noun class intervalcirculatein a circle, and return to the first point the range of values that can be contained incirculating register / s kjuletŋcirculating register a class red stə/ noun a shift register whose out- clean /kli n/ adjective containing no er- cleanput is fed back into its input to form a rors ć I’ll have to start again – I justclosed loop erased the only clean copy.circulating storage / s kjuletŋ clean copy /kli n kɒpi/ noun a copy clean copycirculating storage stɔ rd / noun a storage device that which is ready for keyboarding and doesmaintains stored data as a series of pulses not have many changes to itthat move along the length of the medium, clean machine /kli n mə ʃi n/ noun a clean machinebeing regenerated and re-input when they computer that contains only the minimumreach the end of ROM-based code to boot its system
  • 71. Computing.fm Page 65 Friday, December 19, 2003 7:16 PM 65 Clipper chip from disk, any languages required must be to a network that can send instructions to a loaded separately server and display results clean page / kli n ped / noun a page clean page client application / klaənt client application pl of memory that has not been changed keʃ(ə)n/ noun an application that can ac- since it was read cept linked or embedded objects from a clean room / kli n ru m/ noun an area clean room server application or an application that is where hard disks, wafers and chips are used in a client-server system manufactured. The air inside a clean room client area / klaənt eəriə/ noun (in a client area has been filtered to ensure that no dust or GUI) an area inside a window that can be particles are present that could damage a used to display graphics or text chip. client-server architecture / klaənt client-server architecture clear /klə/ verb 1. to wipe out or erase or clear s və ɑ ktektʃə/ noun a distribution of set to zero a computer file or variable or processing power in which a central server section of memory ć Type CLS to clear the computer carries out the main tasks in re- screen. 2. to release a communications sponse to instructions from terminals or link when transmissions have finished workstations, the results being sent back clearance / klərəns/ noun authority to clearance across the network to be displayed on the access a file ć You do not have the re- terminal that sent the instruction. The cli- quired clearance for this processor. ent, i.e. the terminal or workstation, does Clearing House Interbank Pay- Clearing House Interbank Payment System not need to be able to directly access the ment System / klərŋ haυs data stored on the server. nor does it need ntəb ŋk pemənts sstəm/ noun an to carry out a lot of processing. electronic system for international dollar client-server network / klaənt client-server network payments and currency exchanges s və netw k/ noun a method of organ- clear to send / klə tə send/ noun full clear to send ising a network in which one central dedi- form of CTS cated computer, the server, looks after click /klk/ noun the act of pressing a click tasks such as security, user accounts, print- mouse button or a key on a keyboard ć You ing and file sharing, while clients, the ter- move through text and graphics with a minals or workstations connected to the click of the button. í verb to press and re- server, run standard applications client-side / klaənt sad/ adjective re- client-side lease a key or a button on a keyboard or the mouse ć Use the mouse to enlarge a frame ferring to data or a program that runs on by clicking inside its border. the client’s computer rather than on the click rate / klk ret/ noun a figure rep- click rate server, e.g. a JavaScript program runs on resenting the number of times that a partic- the user’s web browser and is a client side ular site in an Internet advertisement is vis- application ited, and calculated as a percentage of the clip /klp/ verb to select an area of an im- clip number of times that the advertisement is age that is smaller than the original clip-art /klp ɑ t/ noun a set of pre- clip-art viewed clicks-and-mortar / klks ən mɔ tə/ clicks-and-mortar drawn images or drawings that a user can noun referring to businesses that use both incorporate into a presentation or graphic the Internet and physical shops to sell their ć We have used some clip-art to enhance products. Compare bricks-and-mortar our presentation. clickstream / klkstri m/ noun a record clickstream clipboard / klp bɔ d/ noun a tempo- clipboard of how often and for what purpose a user rary storage area for data ć Copy the text clicks on something with the mouse while to the clipboard, then paste it back into a navigating the Internet new document. Clipper chip / klpə tʃp/ noun an elec- Clipper chip ‘…the only way of achieving it would be to monitor the clickstreams of every single UK user of the net.’ tronic component, e.g. an integrated cir- [The Guardian] cuit, or chip, that was designed in accord- click through / klk θru / noun the act click through ance with the instructions of the US Gov- of clicking on a banner advertisement and ernment to provide a data encryption jumping to the advertiser’s website feature for computers, Internet traffic, tel- click through rate / klk θru ret/ click through rate ephones, and television programmes. In noun full form of CTR the original scheme the US Government client / klaənt/ noun (in a network) a client held the master key to the chip and so workstation or PC or terminal connected could decrypt and read any encrypted mes-
  • 72. Computing.fm Page 66 Friday, December 19, 2003 7:16 PMclock 66sages. This angered many groups con- played at the bottom of the televisioncerned with freedom of speech and the US screenGovernment has since redesigned the orig- closed loop / kləυzd lu p/ noun a closed loopinal scheme and suggested an alternative. computer control operation in which dataclock /klɒk/ noun a circuit that generates is fed back from the output of the control-clockpulses used to synchronise equipment í led device to the controlling loopverb to synchronise signals or circuits with closed routine /kləυzd ru ti n/ noun closed routinea clock pulse one section of code at a location, that isclock cycle /klɒk sak(ə)l/ noun the used by all calls to the routineclock cycleperiod of time between two consecutive closed subroutine /kləυzd s bru closed subroutineclock pulses ti n/ noun same as closed routineclock doubler / klɒk d b(ə)lə/ noun a closed user group / kləυzd ju zəclock doubler closed user groupcomponent that doubles the speed of the ru p/ noun full form of CUGmain system clock ć The new CPU from close file / kləυs fal/ noun to execute a close fileIntel has an optional clock doubler that computer instruction to shut down accesswill double performance. to a stored fileclocked signals /klɒkd s n(ə)lz/clocked signals close menu option / kləυz menju close menu optionplural noun signals that are synchronised ɒpʃ(ə)n/ noun a menu option, normallywith a clock pulse under the File menu, that will shut the doc-clock frequency /klɒk fri kwənsi/clock frequency ument that is currently open, but will notnoun the frequency of the main clock that exit the application. If you have not savedsynchronises a computer system ć The the document, the application will warnmain clock frequency is 10MHz. you before it closes the document and giveclock pulse / klɒk p ls/ noun a regular you the chance to save any changes.clock pulsepulse used for timing or synchronising cloud /klaυd/ noun a part of a computer cloudpurposes network, which data passes through, that isclock rate / klɒk ret/ noun the numberclock rate either unknown or behaves unpredictablyof pulses that a clock generates every sec- CLS / si el es/ noun (in MS-DOS) a sys- CLSond tem command to clear the screen, leavingclock speed / klɒk spi d/ noun same as the system prompt and cursor at the top,clock speedclock rate left-hand corner of the screenclock track / klɒk tr k/ noun a line of cluster / kl stə/ noun 1. one or moreclock track clustermarks on a disk or tape, which provides sectors on a hard disk that are used to storedata about the read head location a file or part of a file 2. a number of termi-clone /kləυn/ noun a computer or circuit nals, stations, devices or memory loca-clonethat behaves in the same way as the origi- tions, grouped together in one place andnal it was copied from ć They have copied controlled by a cluster controllerour new personal computer and brought cluster controller / kl stə kən cluster controllerout a cheaper clone. trəυlə/ noun a central computer that con- ‘On the desktop, the IBM/Motorola/Apple triumvi- trols communications to a cluster of devic- rate is planning to energise a worldwide clone indus- es or memory locations try based on the PowerPC chip.’ [Computing] clustering / kl stərŋ/ noun a series of clusteringclose /kləυz/ verb to shut down access toclose elements, occurring in a sequential linea file or disk drive within a hash tableCLOSE /kləυz/ noun (in a programmingCLOSE ‘…these include IBM networking and clusteringlanguage) a command that means the pro- hardware and software’ [Personal Computer World]gram has finished accessing a particular CLUT / si el ju ti / noun a table of CLUTfile or device numbers used in Windows and graphicsclosed bus system / kləυzd b s programs to store the range of coloursclosed bus system sstəm/ noun a computer with no expan- used in an image. Full form colour look-sion bus, which makes it very difficult for up table. ı palettea user to upgrade CLV / si el vi / noun a disk technology CLVclosed captioning / kləυzd in which the disk spins at different speedsclosed captioning k pʃənŋ/ noun a system that transfers according to the track that is being ac-text information with a video signal, so cessed. Full form constant linear veloc-that the text data can be decoded and dis- ity
  • 73. Computing.fm Page 67 Friday, December 19, 2003 7:16 PM 67 coincidence function CM / si em/ noun an area of memory CM cobweb site / kɒbweb sat/ noun a cobweb site whose locations can be directly and imme- website that has not been updated for a diately addressed by the CPU. Full form long time central memory code /kəυd/ noun a sequence of compu- code CMI abbr computer-managed instruction ter instructions í verb to write a program CMI CMIP / si em a pi / noun a protocol of- in a programming language CMIP ficially adopted by the ISO that is used to code area /kəυd eəriə/ noun a section code area carry network management information of main memory in which program in- across a network. Full form common structions are stored management information protocol code bit / kəυd bt/ noun the smallest code bit CMIP over TCP, CMIS over TCP full CMIP over TCP signalling element used by the physical form of CMOT layer of an OSI model network for trans- CMIS / si em a es/ noun a powerful CMIS mission network management system. Full form CODEC / kəυdek/ noun a device which CODEC common management information encodes a signal being sent or decodes a specification signal received. Full form coder/decoder CML abbr computer-managed learning CML code conversion /kəυd kən v ʃ(ə)n/ code conversion CMOS / si em əυ pi / noun an integrat- noun rules used to change characters cod- CMOS ed circuit design and construction method ed in one form to another that uses a pair of complementary p- and code element /kəυd elmənt/ noun a code element n-type transistors. Full form complemen- voltage or signal used to represent binary tary metal oxide semiconductor digits ‘Similarly, customers who do not rush to acquire code group / kəυd ru p/ noun a spe- code group CMOS companion processors for their mainframes cial sequence of five code bits that repre- will be rewarded with lower prices when they finally do migrate.’ [Computergram] sent an FDDI symbol COMMENT: The CMOS package uses very low code line / kəυd lan/ noun one written code line power but is relatively slow and sensitive to or displayed computer program instruc- static electricity as compared to TTL integrat- tion ed circuits. Its main use is in portable comput- ers where battery power is being used. code page / kəυd ped / noun (in MS- code page CMOT / si em əυ ti / noun the use of CMOT DOS) a table that defines the characters CMIP and CMIS network management that are produced from each key ć In order protocols to manage gateways in a TCP/IP to enter Swedish characters from an Eng- network. Full form CMIP over TCP, lish keyboard, you have to change the sys- CMIS over TCP tem code page. CMYK / si em wa ke/ noun (in graph- CMYK coder / kəυdə/ noun a device which en- coder ics or DTP) a method of describing a col- codes a signal our by its four component colours. Full coder/decoder / kəυdə di kəυdə/ coder/decoder form cyan-magenta-yellow-black noun full form of CODEC CNC / si en si / noun automatic opera- CNC code segment /kəυd se mənt/ noun code segment tion of a machine by computer. Full form (in an IBM-compatible PC) an area of computer numeric control. ı numeri- memory assigned to hold the instructions cal control that form a program coalesce / kəυə les/ verb to merge two coalesce coding / kəυdŋ/ noun the act of putting coding or more files a code on something co-axial cable /kəυks/, coax noun a co-axial cable coding form / kɒdŋ fɔ m/ noun same coding form cable made up of a central core, surround- as coding sheet ed by an insulating layer then a second coding sheet / kɒdŋ ʃi t/ noun a spe- coding sheet shielding conductor. Compare twisted- cial printed sheet used by programmers to pair cable (NOTE: Co-axial cable is used write instructions for coding a certain type for high frequency, low loss applications of program including thin Ethernet network cabling coincidence circuit / elmənt/, coin- coincidence circuit and Arcnet network cabling.) cidence element noun same as coinci- COBOL / kəυbɒl/ noun a programming COBOL dence gate language mainly used in business applica- coincidence function /kəυ coincidence function tions. Full form common ordinary busi- nsd(ə)ns f ŋkʃən/ noun same as AND ness-oriented language function
  • 74. Computing.fm Page 68 Friday, December 19, 2003 7:16 PMcoincidence gate 68coincidence gate /kəυ nsd(ə)nscoincidence gate for example, in your office, but you would et/, coincidence circuit, coincidence need to install a high-speed link to the Internet and maintain the computer and its software. Aelement noun a gate that produces a logi- more cost-effective solution is co-location:cal output depending on various input co- moving the server to a specialist site, oftenincidences. An AND gate requires the co- provided by an ISP, who takes on the job ofincidence in time of all logically true in- supporting the high-speed link and the com- puter.puts. ı AND colour balance / k lə b ləns/ noun colour balancecoincidence operation /kəυcoincidence operation nsd(ə)ns ɒpəreʃ(ə)n/ noun same as the adjustment of the red, green and blueAND operation primary colours to produce a pure white colour. When a colour monitor is config-COL abbr computer-oriented languageCOL ured, a colour sensor is placed on thecold boot / kəυld bu t/ noun the act ofcold boot screen and the red, green and blue electronswitching on a computer, or the act of re- gun settings are adjusted to produce a purestarting a computer by switching it off and white colour.then on again. Compare warm boot colour bits / k lə bts/ plural noun the colour bitscold fault / kəυld fɔ lt/ noun a compu-cold fault number of data bits assigned to a pixel toter fault or error that occurs as soon as it is describe its colour. One bit provides twoswitched on colours, two bits give four colours andcold standby /kəυld st ndba/ nouncold standby eight bits allow 256 colour combinations.a backup system that will allow the equip- colour cell / k lə sel/ noun the smallest colour cellment to continue running but with the loss area on a CRT screen that can display col-of any volatile data. Compare hot stand-by, warm standby our information colour cycling / k lə saklŋ/ noun a colour cyclingcold start /kəυld stɑ t/ noun the act ofcold startswitching on a computer or to run a pro- process that changes the colours in a pal-gram from its original start point ette over a period of time, normally used to create a special effect or animationcollating sequence /kə letŋcollating sequence colour depth / k lə depθ/ noun the colour depth si kwəns/ noun a sequence of charactersordered according to their codes number of different colours that can becollator /kə letə/ noun 1. a piece ofcollator displayed by any single pixel in a display,software that collates data 2. a device that which is determined by the number of col-collates punched cards our bits in each pixel colour display / k lə d sple/ noun a colour displaycollect /kə lekt/ verb to receive or cap-collectture data display device able to represent characterscollect transfer /kə lekt tr ns f /collect transfer or graphics in colour colour key / k lə ki / noun an image colour keyverb to load a register with bits from anumber of different locations manipulation technique used to superim-collision /kə l (ə)n/ noun an event thatcollision pose one image on another. It is often usedoccurs when two electrical signals meet with two video sources to create special ef-and interfere with each other over a net- fects. One image is photographed against awork, normally causing an error coloured background, the matte, whencollision detection /kə l (ə)n dcollision detection then has another image superimposed on it tekʃ(ə)n/ noun the detecting and report- to produce a combined picture. ı chromaing of the coincidence of two actions or key colour look-up table / k lə lυk p colour look-up tableeventsco-location /kəυ ləυ keʃ(ə)n/ noun anco-location teb(ə)l/ noun full form of CLUT colour monitor / k lə mɒntə/ noun a colour monitorarrangement whereby a computer used asan Internet server is located at a specialist screen that has a demodulator that showssite that is designed to support and main- information in colour ć The colour moni-tain servers on behalf of their customers tor is great for games. COMMENT: If you want to set up a website, you colour palette / k lə p lət/ noun the colour palette might start by renting web space from your ISP or web hosting provider. If your website selection of colours that are currently be- grows in popularity or requires complex or se- ing used in an image cure e-commerce facilities, you might find it colour printer / k lə prntə/ noun a colour printer effective to rent or purchase a server compu- ter dedicated to serving your website – you printer that can produce hard copy in col- could locate this server computer anywhere, our
  • 75. Computing.fm Page 69 Friday, December 19, 2003 7:16 PM 69 combo box colour saturation / k lə s tʃə which each column is one field of a record colour saturation reʃ(ə)n/ noun the purity of a colour sig- and each row a separate record nal com /kɒm/ suffix a suffix that means that com colour separation / k lə sepə the Internet domain name is a company, colour separation reʃ(ə)n/ noun the process of separating a usually one based in the USA ć www.am- colour image into its constituent colours in azon.com is the website address of the US order to produce printing plates for colour version of the Amazon Internet bookshop. printing. Full colour printing needs four- COM / si əυ em/ noun 1. a standard de- COM colour separation to produce four printing fined by Microsoft to standardise the way plates for the cyan, magenta, yellow and an application can access an object. Full black inks that together create a colour im- form component object model (NOTE: age. This is a rival standard to CORBA.) 2. the colour standard / k lə st ndəd/ process of recording the output from a colour standard noun one of three international standards, computer directly onto microfilm. Full NTSC, PAL and SECAM, used to describe form computer output on microfilm how colour TV and video images are dis- COM1 / kɒm w n/ noun a name used in COM1 played and transmitted PCs to represent the first serial port on the colour temperature colour temperature / k lə computer. There are normally two serial temprtʃə/ noun the hue or shade of the ports, COM1 and COM2, in a PC, al- colour white seen if pure carbon is heated though it can support four. Some PCs have to a particular temperature measured in a mouse plugged into the first serial port Kelvin. The standard for many TV and and the modem plugged into the second video systems is a colour temperature of port. ı AUX. Also called COM port, COM 6500K, known as Illuminant D65. device colour tool / k lə tu l/ noun a utility or colour tool COMAL / kəυb l/ noun a structured COMAL icon in a graphics or DTP application that programming language similar to BASIC. allows the user to create custom colours by Full form common algorithmic lan- specifying the CMYK or RGB values and guage then draw or fill an area with this colour comb filter /kəυm fltə/ noun an elec- comb filter column / kɒləm/ noun a series of char- column tronic device used to separate the luma, Y, acters, numbers or lines of text printed one and chroma, C, signals from a composite under the other ć to add up a column of video signal. ı S-Video, Y/C figures combinational combinational circuit circuit / kɒmbneʃən(ə)l s kt/ noun an elec- columnar graph /kə l mnə rɑ f/ columnar graph tronic circuit consisting of a number of noun a graph on which values are shown connected components as vertical or horizontal bars combinational combinational logic logic columnar working /kə l mnə columnar working / kɒmbneʃən(ə)l lɒd k/ noun a logic w kŋ/ noun a method of working that function made up from a number of sepa- shows information in columns rate logic gates column balance / kɒləm b ləns/ column balance combined head /kəm band hed/ combined head noun (in a word-processor or DTP sys- noun a transducer that can read or write tem) a method of making sure that the data from the surface of a magnetic storage ends of two columns of text are level medium such as a floppy disk column guide / kɒləm ad/ noun (in /kəm band column guide combined combined station station a DTP application) a vertical line that in- steʃ(ə)n/ noun a high-level data link dicates the position and width of a column control station that processes commands column indicator / kɒləm ndketə/ column indicator and responses noun (in word-processing software) the combined symbol matching /kəm combined symbol matching status bar at the bottom of the screen that band smbəl m tʃŋ/ noun full form displays in which column the cursor is po- of CSM sitioned combi player / kɒmbi pleə/ noun a combi player column parity / kɒləm p rti/ noun a column parity hardware drive that can read two or more parity check on every punched card or tape different CD-ROM formats column combo box / kɒmbəυ bɒks/ noun a combo box column report / kɒləm r pɔ t/ noun a box that displays a number of different in- column report method of viewing data in columns, in put and output objects
  • 76. Computing.fm Page 70 Friday, December 19, 2003 7:16 PMCOM device 70COM device / kɒm d vas/ noun sameCOM device command file /kə mɑ nd fal/ noun a command fileas COM1 sequence of frequently used commandsCOM file / kɒm fal/ noun (in operatingCOM file stored in a filesystems for the PC) a file with the three- command file processor /kə mɑ nd command file processorletter extension .com to its name that indi- fal prəυsesə/ noun a device that exe-cates that the file contains a machine code cutes a user’s command file, allowing thein binary format and so can be executed by user to create a customised simple operat-the operating system. ing environment or to carry out a series of frequently used commandscomic-strip oriented / kɒmk strpcomic-strip oriented ɔ rientd/ adjective referring to a film command interface /kə mɑ nd command interfaceimage that is oriented at right angles to the ntəfes/ noun the cue and prompts usedouter edge of the film. Compare cine-ori- by a program to inform and accept fromented user-required inputs. This can be user- friendly, like a WIMP environment, or notComité Consultatif InternationaleComité Consultatif Internationale de TéIégraphie et Téléphonie so friendly, like a question mark.de TéIégraphie et Téléphonie noun command interpreter /kə mɑ nd n command interpreterfull form of CCITT t prtə/ noun a program within an oper-comma / kɒmə/ noun a symbol (,) that iscomma ating system that recognises a set of sys-often used to separate data or variables or tem commands and controls the processor,arguments screen and storage devices accordingly ćcomma-delimited file / kɒmə di When you type in the command ‘DIR’, thecomma-delimited file lmtd fal/ noun data file in which each command interpreter asks the disk drivedata item is separated by a comma ć All for a list of files and instructs the monitordatabases can import and export to a com- to display the list.ma-delimited file format. command key /kə mɑ nd ki / noun command keycommand /kə mɑ nd/ noun 1. an elec-command (on an Apple Macintosh) a special keytrical pulse or signal that will start or stop that gives access to various special func-a process 2. a word or phrase which is rec- tions, similar in effect to the Control keyognised by a computer system and starts or on an IBM PCterminates an action ć interrupt command command language /kə mɑ nd command language l ŋ wd / noun a programming lan-command chain /kə mɑ nd tʃen/command chain guage made up of procedures for variousnoun list of commands (in a file) executed tasks, that can be called up by a series ofsequentially by a batch mode system commandscommand code /kə mɑ nd kəυd/command code command line /kə mɑ nd lan/ noun command linenoun a binary code that starts or stops an 1. a program line that contains a commandinstruction or action in a CPU instruction 2. a command prompt and sys-COMMAND.COM /kə mɑ nd kɒm/COMMAND.COM tem commandnoun (in MS-DOS) a program file that ‘This gives Unix a friendly face instead of the terri-contains the command interpreter for the fyingly complex command-line prompts that make most users reach for their manuals.’ [Computing]operating system. This program is alwaysresident in memory and recognises and command line argument /kə mɑ nd command line argumenttranslates system commands into actions. lan ɑ jυmənt/ noun additional itemsć MS-DOS will not work because you de- entered following a command ć Use theleted the COMMAND.COM file by mis- command ‘DIR’ to view the files on disk,take. add the command line argument ‘A:’ to view the files on drive A:.command console processor /kəcommand console processor command line interface /kə mɑ nd command line interface mɑ nd kɒnsəυl prəυsesə/ noun full lan ntəfes/ noun a user interface inform of CCP which the user controls the operating sys-command control language /kəcommand control language tem or program by typing in commands; mɑ nd kən trəυl l ŋ wd / noun a e.g., DOS is a command line interfaceprogramming language that allows equip- command line operating system command line operating systemment to be easily controlled /kə mɑ nd lan ɒpəretŋ sstəm/ nouncommand-driven program /kəcommand-driven program a computer system software that is con- mɑ nd drv(ə)n prəυ r m/ noun a trolled by a user typing in commands, as inprogram which requires the user to enter MS-DOS, rather than allowing a user toinstructions at every stage control the system through images
  • 77. Computing.fm Page 71 Friday, December 19, 2003 7:16 PM 71 common command command message message /kə mɑ nd commercial Internet exchange /kə commercial Internet exchange mesd / noun (in MCI) a character or m ʃ(ə)l ntənet ks tʃend / noun a symbol that represents an MCI command connection point for commercial Internet command mode /kə mɑ nd məυd/ service providers command mode noun the operating mode of a modem in Commission International de Commission International de l’Eclairage which the user or communications soft- l’Eclairage full form of CIE ware can send instructions to the modem common algorithmic language common algorithmic language that it will then try and execute. The stand- / kɒmən l ərðmk l ŋ wd / noun ard method of switching a modem to com- full form of COMAL mand mode is to type or send it the three common business orientated lan- common business orientated language characters ‘+++’. The modem will reply guage / kɒmən bzns ɔ riəntetd with an ‘OK’ message and is ready to exe- l ŋ wd / noun a programming lan- cute configuration or other commands. guage mainly used in business applica- command prompt /kə mɑ nd tions. Abbr COBOL command prompt prɒmpt/ noun a symbol displayed by the common carrier / kɒmən k riə/ common carrier operating system to indicate that a com- noun a private company that supplies data mand is expected and voice communications services for a command register /kə mɑ nd fee to anybody command register red stə/ noun a register that stores the common channel signalling common channel signalling instruction that is to be carried out or that / kɒmən tʃ n(ə)l s n(ə)lŋ/ noun the is being processed use of one channel as a communications command state /kə mɑ nd stet/ command state link to a number of devices or circuits noun the state of a modem in which it is common common gateway interface gateway interface ready to accept commands / kɒmən etwe ntəfes/ noun full command string /kə mɑ nd strŋ/ command string form of CGI common hardware / kɒmən common hardware noun (in MCI) a character string that con- tains all the information to carry out an hɑ dweə/ noun hardware items that can MCI command. The string ends with a null be used for a variety of tasks character and is split by MCI into the com- common common intermediate format intermediate format mand message and data structure. / kɒmən ntəmi diət fɔ m t/ noun a command command window window /kə mɑ nd standard for video images that displays an wndəυ/ noun an area of the screen that image 352 pixels wide and 288 pixels always displays the range of commands high. Abbr CIF common language / kɒmən common language available ć The command window is a sin- gle line at the bottom of the screen. l ŋ wd / noun a set of data or program command window history /kə command window history instructions in a standardised form that can mɑ nd wndəυ hst(ə)ri/ noun a list of be understood by other processors or com- previous commands entered in the com- pilers/interpreters mand window ć The user can define the common management informa- common management information protocol size of the command window. tion protocol / kɒmən m nd mənt nfə meʃ(ə)n prəυtəkɒl/ noun full comment / kɒment/ noun a helpful comment form of CMIP note in a program to guide the user ć The lack of comments is annoying. common management informa- common management information specification tion specification / kɒmən comment field / kɒment fi ld/ noun a comment field m nd mənt nfə meʃ(ə)n section of a command line in an assembly spesfkeʃ(ə)n/ full form of CMIS language program that is not executed, but common object request broker ar- common object request broker architecture provides notes and comments chitecture / kɒmən əb d ekt r kwest comment out / kɒment aυt/ noun a comment out brəυkə ɑ ktektʃə/ noun a standard de- method of temporarily disabling a com- fined by the Object Management Group to mand by enclosing it in a comment field standardise the way an application can ac- commerce / kɒm s/ ‘ e-commerce commerce cess an object. Abbr CORBA. Compare commerce server / kɒm s s və/ COM commerce server noun web software that supports the main common ordinary business-ori- common functions of an online shop including man- ented language / kɒmən ɔ d(ə)n(ə)ri aging the shopping cart and dealing with bzns ɔ riəntd l n wd / noun full the credit card payment processing form of COBOL
  • 78. Computing.fm Page 72 Friday, December 19, 2003 7:16 PMcommon 72common real-time applicationscommon group of devices such as terminals andlanguage / kɒmən rəl tam pl printers that are interconnected with a cen- keʃ(ə)nz l n wd / noun full form of tral computer, allowing the rapid and sim-CORAL ple transfer of datacommon software / kɒmən communications network proces-common software communications network processor sɒftweə/ noun useful routines that can be sor /kə mju nkeʃ(ə)nz netw kused by any program prəυsesə/ noun a processor that providescommon storage area / kɒməncommon storage area various types of interfacing and manage- stɔ rd eəriə/ noun a memory or stor- ment, e.g. buffering or code conversion,age area used by more than one program ć between a computer and communicationsThe file server memory is mainly common link controlstorage area, with a section reserved for communications package /kə communications packagethe operating system. mju n keʃ(ə)nz p kd / noun acommunicating applicationscommunicating applications specification package of software that allows a user tospecification /kə mju nketŋ control a modem and use an online service plkeʃ(ə)n spə sfk/ noun full form communications port /kə mju n communications portof CAS keʃ(ə)nz pɔ t/ noun a socket or physicalcommunicating word processorcommunicating word processor connection allowing a device to communi-/kə mju nketŋ w d prəυsesə/ noun catea word processor workstation which is communications protocol /kə communications protocolable to transmit and receive data mju n keʃ(ə)nz prəυtəυkɒl/ nouncommunications buffer /kə mju ncommunications buffer the parameters that define how the transfer keʃ(ə)nz b fə/ noun a terminal or mo- of information will be controlled ć Thedem that is able to store transmitted data communications protocol for most dial-upcommunicationscommunications channel channel /kə online services is eight-bit words, no stop mju n keʃ(ə)nz tʃ n(ə)l/ noun a bit and even parity.physical link over which data can be trans- communications communications scanner scanner /kəmitted mju n keʃ(ə)nz sk nə/ noun a piececommunications computer /kəcommunications computer of line-monitoring equipment that checks mju n keʃ(ə)nz kəm pju tə/ noun a for data request signalscomputer used to control data transmis- communications server /kə mju n communications serversion in a network keʃ(ə)nz s və/ noun a computer withcommunications control unit /kəcommunications control unit a modem or fax card attached that allows mju nkeʃ(ə)nz kən trəυl ju nt/ users on a network to share the use of thenoun an electronic device that controls modemdata transmission and routes in a network communications software /kə communications softwarecommunications executive /kəcommunications executive mju n keʃ(ə)nz sɒftweə/ noun soft- mju n keʃ(ə)nz  zekjυtv/ noun the ware that allows a user to control a modemmain set of programs that ensure that pro- and use an online servicetocol, format and device and line handlers community /kə mju nti/ noun same communityare correct for the type of device or line in as virtual communityuse comp /kɒmp/ noun a type of newsgroup compcommunications interface adapt-communications interface adapter that provides discussion about computerser /kə mju nkeʃ(ə)nz ntəfes ə and computer programming d ptə/ noun an electronic circuit that al- compact code / kɒmp kt kəυd/ noun compact codelows a computer to communicate with a the minimum number of program instruc-modem tions required for a taskcommunications link /kə mju ncommunications link compact disc / kɒmp kt dsk/ noun compact disc keʃ(ə)nz lŋk/ noun the physical path a small plastic disc that contains audio sig-that joins a transmitter to a receiver nals in digital form etched onto the sur-communications link control /kəcommunications link control face. Abbr CD mju nkeʃ(ə)nz lŋk kən trəυl/ noun a compact disc-digital compact disc-digital audio audioprocessor that provides various handshak- / kɒmp kt dsk dd t(ə)l ɔ diəυ/ing and error detection functions for a noun a standard that defines how musicnumber of links between devices can be stored in digital form, i.e. as a seriescommunicationscommunications network network /kə of numbers, on a compact disc. Abbr CD- mju n keʃ(ə)nz netw k/ noun a DA. Also called CD-audio
  • 79. Computing.fm Page 73 Friday, December 19, 2003 7:16 PM 73 compiler language compact disc erasable / kɒmp kt compatibility box /kəm p tə blti compact disc erasable compatibility box dsk  rezəb(ə)l/ noun a format that al- bɒks/ noun caret mark, caret sign a lows data to be saved to and erased from a window or session in an operating system compact disc. Abbr CD-E that can execute programs written for a compact compact disc-interactive disc-interactive different, but related, operating system ć / kɒmp kt dsk ntər ktv/ noun full OS/2 has a compatibility box to allow it to form of CD-I run DOS applications. compact disc player / kɒmp kt compatible /kəm p tb(ə)l/ adjective compatible compact disc player dsk pleə/ noun a machine that reads used to describe two hardware or software the digital data from a CD and converts it devices that function correctly together í back to its original form noun a hardware or software device that compact disc ROM / kɒmp kt dsk functions correctly with other equipment compact disc ROM rɒm/ noun same as CD-ROM ć The com- ć Buy an IBM PC or a compatible. pact disc ROM can store as much data as ‘…this was the only piece of software I found that a dozen hard disks. wouldn’t work, but it does show that there is no such thing as a totally compatible PC clone’ compact disc write once compact disc write once [Personal Computer World] / kɒmp kt dsk rat w ns/ noun CD- compilation / kɒmp leʃ(ə)n/ noun compilation ROM disc and drive technology that al- the translation of an encoded source pro- lows a user to write data to the disc once gram into machine readable code only. Full form CD-WO ‘This utility divides the compilation of software into compact Flash /kəm p kt fl ʃ/ compact Flash pieces and performs the compile in parallel across noun a tiny memory expansion device that available machines on the network.’ [Computer- gram] uses Flash-ROM to store up to 512Mb of compilation error / kɒmp leʃ(ə)n compilation error data, often used in MP3 music players and digital cameras. Abbr CF erə/ noun an error occurring during pro- compacting algorithm / kɒmp ktŋ compacting algorithm gram compilation time compilation time / kɒmp leʃ(ə)n compilation time l ə rð(ə)m/ noun a formula for reduc- ing the amount of space required by text tam/ noun the length of time it takes for compact model / kɒmp kt mɒd(ə)l/ compact model a computer to compile a program compile /kəm pal/ verb to convert a compile noun a memory model in the Intel 80x86 family of CPUs that allows only 64Kb of high-level language program into a ma- space for the code of a program, but 1Mb chine code program that can be executed of space for the program’s data by itself companding /kɒm p ndŋ/ noun two compile and go /kəm pal ən əυ/ compile and go companding processes which reduce or compact data noun a computer program not requiring before transmission or storage then restore operator interaction that will load, compile packed data to its original form. Full form and execute a high-level language pro- compressing and expanding gram COMPAQ / kɒmp k/ a US personal compile phase /kəm pal fez/ noun COMPAQ compile phase computer company, founded in 1983, that the time during a program run, when the was the first manufacturer to produce a instructions are compiled clone to the IBM PC compiler, compiler program noun a compiler comparator /kəm p rətə/ noun a log- comparator piece of software that converts an encoded ical device whose output is true if there is program into a machine code program ć a difference between two inputs The new compiler has an in-built editor. compatibility /kəm p t blti/ noun Compare interpreter compatibility the ability of two hardware or software de- compiler diagnostics /kəm palə compiler diagnostics vices to function together (NOTE: Compat- daə nɒstks/ plural noun a function in ibility of hardware and software, which a compiler that helps a programmer find means that those of one manufacturer or faults in the program code ć Thorough organisation conform to the standards of compiler diagnostics make debugging another, allows programs and hardware easy. to be interchanged without modification.) compiler language /kəm palə compiler language ‘The manufacturer claims that this card does not re- quire special drivers on the host machine… and l ŋ wd / noun a high-level language therefore has fewer compatibility problems.’ [Com- such as C or pascal that will convert a puting] source program that follows the language
  • 80. Computing.fm Page 74 Friday, December 19, 2003 7:16 PMcomplement 74syntax into a machine code version, then component video /kəm pəυnənt component videorun it vdiəυ/ noun a method of transmittingcomplement / kɒmplment/ noun 1. video information, used in professionalcomplementan inversion of a binary digit ć The com- video systems, that has separate signals forplement is found by changing the 1s to 0s the luminance and two chrominance chan-and 0s to 1s. 2. the result after subtracting nels to avoid interferencea number from one less than the radix í COM port / kɒm pɔ t/ noun same as COM portverb to invert a binary digit COM1complementary metal oxide semi- / kɒmpəztcomplementary metal oxide semiconductor composite circuit composite circuitconductor / kɒmplment(ə)ri met(ə)l s kt/ noun an electronic circuit made ɒksad semikən d ktə/ noun full form up of a number of smaller circuits andof CMOS componentscomplementary operation composite display / kɒmpəzt dcomplementary operation composite display/ kɒmplment(ə)ri ɒpə reʃ(ə)n/ noun a sple/ noun a video display unit that ac-logical operation that results in the logical cepts a single composite video signal andNOT of a function can display an infinite number of colourscomplementation / kɒmplmən or shades of greycomplementation teʃ(ə)n/ noun a number system used to composite monitor / kɒmpəzt composite monitorrepresent positive and negative numbers mɒntə/ noun a colour monitor that re-complemented / kɒmplməntd/ ad- ceives one video signal from a graphicscomplementedjective referring to a binary digit that has display adapter, which must then be elec-had a complement performed tronically separated inside the monitorcomplete operation /kəm pli t ɒpə into the red, green and blue colour signalscomplete operation reʃ(ə)n/ noun an operation that retrieves composite video / kɒmpəzt vdiəυ/ composite videothe necessary operands from memory, per- noun a video signal that combines the col-forms the operation and returns the results our signals and the monochrome signaland operands to memory, then reads the into one single signal ć Most TV set andnext instruction to be processed video players expect a composite videocompletion /kəm pli ʃ(ə)n/ noun the feed.completionpoint at which something is complete ć compound device / kɒmpaυnd d compound deviceCompletion date for the new software vas/ noun a Windows MCI multimediapackage is November 15th. device that requires a data filecomplex instruction set computer compound document / kɒmpaυndcomplex instruction set computer compound document/ kɒmpleks n str kʃən set kəm dɒkjυmənt/ noun a document that con- pju tə/ noun full form of CISC tains information created by several othercomplexity measure /kəm pleksti applicationscomplexity measure me ə/ noun a measure of the system re- compound file / kɒmpaυnd fal/ noun compound filesources used in an operation or job a number of individual files grouped to-compliant /kəm plaənt/ adjective that gether in one filecompliantconforms to a particular set of standards ć compound logical compound logical element elementIf you want to read PhotoCD compact / kɒmpaυnd lɒd k(ə)l elmənt/ noundiscs in your computer you must be sure a logical circuit or function that producesthat the CD-ROM drive is PhotoCD or an output from a number of inputsCD-ROM XA compliant. compound statement / kɒmpaυnd compound statementcomponent density /kəm pəυnənt stetmənt/ noun a number of programcomponent density densti/ noun number of electronic com- instructions in one line of program ć Theponents per unit area on a PCB ć Compo- debugger cannot handle compound state-nent density increases with production ex- ments.pertise. compressed compressed video video / kɒmprestcomponent error /kəm pəυnənt erə/ vdiəυ/ noun video signals that have beencomponent errornoun error introduced by a malfunctioning compressed to reduce the data rate re-device or component rather than by incor- quired to transmit the information. Where-rect programming as a normal television picture is transmit-Component Object Model /kəm ted at around 5090Mbits/second, a com-Component Object Model pəυnənt ɒbd ekt mɒd(ə)l/ noun full pressed video signal can be transmitted atform of COM around one tenth of the data rate.
  • 81. Computing.fm Page 75 Friday, December 19, 2003 7:16 PM 75 computer dating compression /kəm preʃ(ə)n/ noun the in which the CPU, terminals, printers and compression process of reducing the size of a file by en- network connections are arranged coding the data in a more efficient form. computer-assisted /kəm pju tər ə computer-assisted For example, if the file contains five letter sstd/ adjective same as computer-aid- ’A’s in line, which take up five bytes of ed space, the compression software could en- computer-assisted design /kəm computer-assisted design code this to 5A which takes two byes of pju tər ə sstd d zan/ noun full form space. of CAD compression ratio /kəm preʃ(ə)n compression ratio computer-assisted engineering computer-assisted engineering reʃiəυ/ noun a ratio of the size of an /kəm pju tər ə sstd end  nərŋ/ original, uncompressed file to the final, noun full form of CAE compressed file that has been more effi- computer-assisted instruction computer-assisted instruction ciently encoded /kəm pju tər ə sstd n str kʃən/ noun CompuServe / kɒmpju s v/ an on- CompuServe full form of CAI line service provider and information serv- computer-assisted learning /kəm computer-assisted learning ice computer /kəm pju tə/ noun a ma- computer pju tər ə sstd l nŋ/ noun full form chine that receives or stores or processes of CAL computer-assisted manufacture computer-assisted manufacture data very quickly using a program kept in its memory /kəm pju tər ə sstd m njυ f ktʃə/ computer-aided /kəm pju tə edd/ computer-aided noun full form of CAM computer-assisted testing /kəm computer-assisted testing adjective that uses a computer to make the work easier. Also called computer-as- pju tər ə sstd testŋ/ noun full form sisted of CAT /kəm computer-assisted training /kəm computer-assisted training computer-aided design computer-aided design pju tər edd d zan/ noun full form of pju tər ə sstd trenŋ/ noun full form CAD of CAT computer-aided engineering /kəm computer-based learning /kəm computer-based learning computer-aided engineering pju tər edd end  nərŋ/ noun full pju tə best l nŋ/ noun full form of form of CAE CBL computer-aided instruction /kəm computer-based message system computer-based message system computer-aided instruction pju tər edd n str kʃən/ noun full /kəm pju tə best mesd sstəm/ form of CAI noun full form of CBMS computer-aided learning /kəm computer-based training /kəm computer-aided learning computer-based training pju tər edd l nŋ/ noun full form of pju tə best trenŋ/ noun full form of CAL CBT computer-aided manufacture /kəm computer bureau /kəm pju tə computer-aided manufacture computer bureau pju tər edd m njυ f ktʃə/ noun bjυərəυ/ noun an office that offers to do full form of CAM work on its computers for companies computer-aided testing /kəm which do not have their own computer-aided testing pju tər edd testŋ/ noun full form of computer code /kəm pju tə kəυd/ computer code CAT noun a programming language that con- computer-aided training /kəm sists of commands in binary code that can computer-aided training pju tər edd trenŋ/ noun full form be directly understood by the central of CAT processing unit, without the need for trans- computer animation /kəm pju tə computer animation lation n meʃ(ə)n/ noun same as animation computer conferencing /kəm computer conferencing computer applications /kəm pju tə computer applications pju tə kɒnf(ə)rənsŋ/ noun the use of a pl keʃ(ə)nz/ plural noun the tasks and number of computers or terminals con- uses that a computer can carry out in a par- nected together to allow a group of users to ticular field or job communicate computer architecture /kəm pju tə computer crime /kəm pju tə kram/ computer crime computer architecture ɑ ktektʃə/ noun 1. the layout and inter- noun theft, fraud or other crimes involving connection of a computer’s internal hard- computers computer dating /kəm pju tə computer dating ware and the logical relationships between CPU, memory and I/O devices 2. the way detŋ/ noun the use of a computer to
  • 82. Computing.fm Page 76 Friday, December 19, 2003 7:16 PMcomputer department 76match single people who may want to get computer-independent language computer-independent languagemarried /kəm pju tə ndpendənt l ŋ wd /computer department /kəm pju tə noun a programming language that willcomputer departmentd pɑ tmənt/ noun a department in a operate on any computer that has a correctcompany that manages the company’s compiler or interpretercomputers computer indexing /kəm pju tə computer indexingcomputer engineer /kəm pju təcomputer engineer ndeksŋ/ noun the use of a computer to end  nə/ noun a person who maintains, compile an index for a book by selectingprograms or designs computer equipment relevant words or items from the textcomputer error /kəm pju tər erə/computer error computer input microfilm /kəm computer input microfilmnoun a mistake made by a computer pju tə npυt makrəυflm/ noun full form of CIMcomputer file /kəm pju tə fal/ noun acomputer file computer-integrated manufactur- computer-integrated manufacturingsection of information on a computer, e.g. ing /kəm pju tə nt retd m njυthe payroll, list of addresses or customer f ktʃərŋ/ noun full form of CIMaccounts computer-integrated system /kəm computer-integrated systemcomputer fraud /kəm pju tə frɔ d/computer fraud pju tə nt retd sstəm/ plural nounnoun the theft of data, dishonest use of a system designed to allow the coordinateddata or other crimes involving computers use of computers and other related equip-computer game /kəm pju tə em/computer game ment in a process ć This firm is a verynoun a game played on a computer, using well-known supplier of computer-integrat-special software ed systems which allow both batch pagina-computer-generated /kəm pju tə tion of very long documents with altera-computer-generated d enəretd/ adjective produced using a tion of individual pages.computer ć They analysed the computer- computer-integrated computer-integrated telephony telephonygenerated image. /kəm pju tə nt retd tə lefəni/ nouncomputer generation /kəm pju təcomputer generation same as CTI d enə reʃ(ə)n/ noun any one in a series computerisation /kəm pjυtəra computerisationof classifications used to define the ad- zeʃ(ə)n/, computerization noun thevances in the field of computing process of introducing a computer system COMMENT: The development of computers has or of changing from a manual to a compu- been divided into a series of ‘generations’. ter system ć Computerisation of the finan- The first generation consisted of computers cial sector is proceeding very fast. constructed using valves and having limited storage. The second generation of computers computerise /kəm pju təraz/, com- computerise were constricted using transistors. The third puterize verb to change from a manual generation used integrated circuits. The system to one using computers ć Our fourth generation, which includes the comput- stock control has been completely compu- ers most often used at present, uses low-cost memory and IC packages. The fifth genera- terised. tion comprises future computers using very computer language /kəm pju tə computer language fast processors, large memory and allowing l ŋ wd / noun a language, formed of human input/output. figures or characters, used to communicatecomputer graphics /kəm pju təcomputer graphics with a computer r fks/ plural noun information repre- computer listing /kəm pju tə lstŋ/ computer listingsented graphically on a computer display noun a printout of a list of items takencomputer graphics metafile /kəmcomputer graphics metafile from data stored in a computer pju tə r fks metəfal/ noun full computer computer literacy literacy /kəm pju təform of CGM lt(ə)rəsi/ noun understanding of the ba-computer illiterate /kəm pju tə computer illiterate sic principles of computers, related ex- ltərət/ adjective unable to understand pressions and concepts, and the ability tocomputer-related expressions or opera- use computers for programming or appli-tions cationscomputer image processing /kəm computer-literate /kəm pju təcomputer image processing computer-literate pju tə md prəυsesŋ/ noun the lt(ə)rət/ adjective able to understand ex-analysis of information in an image, usual- pressions relating to computers and how toly by electronic means or using a compu- use a computerter, also used for recognition of objects in computer logic /kəm pju tə lɒd k/ computer logican image noun (in hardware) the way in which the
  • 83. Computing.fm Page 77 Friday, December 19, 2003 7:16 PM 77 computer word various sections of the CPU, memory and computer printer /kəm pju tə computer printer I/O are arranged prntə/ noun a machine which prints in- computer-managed computer-managed instruction instruction formation from a computer /kəm pju tə m nd d n str kʃən/ computer printout /kəm pju tə computer printout noun the use of a computer to assist stu- prntaυt/ noun a printed copy of infor- dents in learning a subject. Abbr CMI mation from a computer ć The sales direc- computer-managed learning /kəm tor asked for a printout of the agents’ com- computer-managed learning pju tə m nd d l nŋ/ noun the use missions. of a computer to teach students and assess computer program /kəm pju tə computer program their progress. Abbr CML prəυ r m/ noun a series of instructions computer manager /kəm pju tə computer manager to a computer, telling it to do a particular m nd ə/ noun the person in charge of a piece of work ć The user cannot write a computer department computer program with this system. computer name /kəm pju tə nem/ computer programmer /kəm pju tə computer name computer programmer plural noun (in Windows 95 and later ver- prəυ r mə/ noun a person who writes sions of Windows) a series of words that computer programs identify a computer on a network and dis- computer-readable computer-readable /kəm pju tə tinguish it from all other computers on a ri dəb(ə)l/ adjective which can be read network (NOTE: If you are linked to an of- and understood by a computer ć compu- fice network, you will see an icon on your ter-readable codes Desktop called Network Neighborhood. computer run /kəm pju tə r n/ noun computer run Double-click on this and it will display a list of the other computers on the net- the action of processing instructions in a work, and their computer name.) program by a computer computer science /kəm pju tə computer science computer network /kəm pju tə computer network netw k/ noun the shared use of a series saəns/ noun the scientific study of com- of interconnected computers, peripherals puters, the organisation of hardware and and terminals the development of software computer services /kəm pju tə computer services computer numerical control /kəm computer numerical control pju tə nju merk(ə)l kən trəυl/ noun s vsz/ plural noun work using a com- same as numerical control puter, done by a computer bureau computer numeric control /kəm computer stationery /kəm pju tə computer stationery computer numeric control pju tə nju merk kən trəυl/ noun full steʃ(ə)n(ə)ri/ noun paper specially form of CNC made for use in a computer printer computer office system /kəm computer system /kəm pju tə computer system computer office system pju tər ɒfs sstəm/ noun a computer sstəm/ noun a central processor with and related peripherals used for office storage and associated peripherals that tasks such as filing and word processing make up a working computer computer operator /kəm pju tər computer-telephony integration computer operator computer-telephony integration ɒpəretə/ noun a person who operates a /kəm pju tə tə lefəni nt reʃ(ə)n/ computer noun full form of CTI computer organisation /kəm computer time /kəm pju tə tam/ computer organisation computer time pju tər ɔ ənazeʃ(ə)n/, computer noun the time when a computer is being organization noun ‘ computer archi- used, which is paid for at an hourly rate ć tecture Running all those sales reports costs a lot computer output /kəm pju tər in computer time. computer output aυtpυt/ noun the data or information pro- computer virus /kəm pju tə varəs/ computer virus duced after processing by a computer noun a program which adds itself to an ex- computer output on microfilm ecutable file and copies or spreads itself to computer output on microfilm /kəm pju tər aυtpυt ɒn makrəυflm/ other executable files each time an infect- noun full form of COM ed file is run. A virus can corrupt data, dis- computer power /kəm pju tə paυə/ play a message or do nothing. computer power computer word /kəm pju tə w d/ computer word noun a measure of the speed and capacity of a computer (NOTE: Several tests for noun a number of bits, usually 8, 16 or 32, computer power exist, e.g. FLOPS or that make up a standard word within a benchmark timings.) CPU
  • 84. Computing.fm Page 78 Friday, December 19, 2003 7:16 PMcomputing 78computing /kəm pju tŋ/ adjective,computing ously with no action on the part of the user.noun referring to computers í noun work Also called accordion folddone on computers concurrency /kən k rənsi/ noun data concurrencycomputing power /kəm pju tŋcomputing power or a resource that is accessed by more than paυə/ noun a measure of the speed of a one user or application at a timecomputer and its ability to perform calcu- concurrent operating system /kən concurrent operating systemlations k rənt ɒpəretŋ sstəm/ noun operat-computing speed /kəm pju tŋcomputing speed ing system software that allows severalspi d/ noun the speed at which a computer programs or activities to be processed atcalculates the same timeCON /kɒn/ noun (in IBM-PC compatibleCON concurrent processing /kən k rənt concurrent processingsystems) a name used to identify the con- prəυsesŋ/ noun ‘ multitaskingsole, i.e. the keyboard and monitor concurrent programming /kən concurrent programmingconcatenate /kən k tənet/ verb toconcatenate k rənt prəυ r mŋ/ noun the act ofjoin together two or more sets of data running several programs apparently si-concatenated data set /kənconcatenated data set multaneously, achieved by executing small k tənetd detə set/ noun more than sections from each program in turnone file or set of data joined together to condition /kən dʃ(ə)n/ noun 1. the conditionproduce one set state of a circuit or device or register 2. aconcatenation operator /kən k təconcatenation operator series of requirements that have to be met neʃ(ə)n ɒpəretə/ noun an instruction before an action can occur í verb to mod-that joins two pieces of data or variables ify data that is to be transmitted so as totogether meet set parameters ć Condition the rawconceal /kən si l/ verb to hide informa-conceal data to a standard format.tion or graphics from a user, or not to dis- conditional /kən dʃ(ə)n(ə)l/ adjective conditionalplay them ć The hidden lines are con- 1. provided that certain things take placecealed from view with this algorithm. 2. referring to a process that is dependentconcentrate / kɒnsəntret/ verb toconcentrate on the result of anothercombine a number of lines or circuits or conditional branch /kən dʃ(ə)n(ə)l conditional branchdata to take up less space ć The concen- brɑ ntʃ/ noun same as conditionaltrated data was transmitted cheaply. jumpconcentrator / kɒnsəntretə/ noun 1. conditional breakpoint /kən conditional breakpointconcentrator(in a Token-Ring network) a device at the dʃ(ə)nəl brekpɔnt/ noun an insertedcentre of a Token-Ring network, which breakpoint, after which the programmerprovides a logical star topology in which can jump to one of a number of sections,nodes are connected to the concentrator, depending on data or program statusbut which connects each arm of the star as conditional jump /kən dʃ(ə)nəl conditional jumpa physical ring within the device 2. (in an d mp/ noun a programming instructionFDDI network) a node which provides ac- that provides a jump to a section of a pro-cess for one or more stations to the net- gram if a certain condition is met ć Thework 3. (in an 10Base-T Ethernet net- conditional branch will select routine onework) the device at the centre of a star-to- if the response is yes and routine two if no. conditional statement /kən conditional statementpology 10Base-T Ethernet network thatreceives signals from one port and regen- dʃ(ə)nəl stetmənt/ noun a programerates them before sending them out to the instruction which will redirect programother ports 4. (in general networking) a control according to the outcome of andevice in which all the cables from nodes eventare interconnected conditional transfer /kən dʃ(ə)nəl conditional transferconceptual model /kən septʃuəlconceptual model tr nsf / noun same as conditional mɒd(ə)l/ noun a description of a database jumpor program in terms of the data it contains condition code /kən dʃ(ə)n kəυd/ condition codeand its relationships noun a number, or another type of signal,concertina fold / kɒnsə ti nə fəυld/concertina fold that indicates the status of an arithmetic,noun a method of folding continuous pa- logic or input/output operation carried outper, one sheet in one direction, the next previouslysheet in the opposite direction, allowing condition code register /kən condition code registerthe paper to be fed into a printer continu- dʃ(ə)n kəυd red stə/ noun a register
  • 85. Computing.fm Page 79 Friday, December 19, 2003 7:16 PM 79 connection-oriented that contains the state of the CPU after the configure /kən f ə/ verb to select configure execution of the last instruction hardware, software and interconnections conduct /kən d kt/ verb to allow an to make up a special system ć This termi- conduct electrical current to flow through a materi- nal has been configured to display graph- al ć to conduct electricity ics. conduction /kən d kʃən/ noun the configured-in /kən f əd n/ adjective configured-in conduction ability of a material to conduct ć The con- referring to a device whose configuration duction of electricity by gold contacts. state indicates that it is ready and available conductive /kən d ktv/ adjective re- conductive for use configured-off, configured-out ad- configured-off ferring to the ability of a material to con- duct jective referring to a device whose config- conductor /kən d ktə/ noun a sub- conductor uration state indicates that it is not availa- stance such as a metal that conducts elec- ble for use congestion /kən d estʃən/ noun a congestion tricity ć Copper is a good conductor of electricity. ı semiconductor state that occurs when communication or conduit / kɒndjut/ noun a protective conduit processing demands are greater than the pipe or channel for wires or cables ć The capacity of a system conjunct / kɒnd ŋkt/ noun one of the conjunct cables from each terminal are channelled to the computer centre by metal conduit. variables in a logical AND function conferencing / kɒnf(ə)rənsŋ/ noun conjunction /kən d ŋkʃən/ noun a conjunction conferencing discussion between remote users using logical function whose output is true if all computers linked by a modem or a net- inputs are true connect /kə nekt/ verb to link together connect work ‘Small organisations and individuals find it conven- two points in a circuit or communications ient to use online services, offering email, conferenc- network ing and information services.’ [Computing] connect charge /kə nekt tʃɑ d / connect charge confidence level / kɒnfd(ə)ns confidence level noun (in a commercial on-line system) lev(ə)l/ noun the likelihood that a partic- the cost per minute of time when you are ular number will lie within a range of val- connected to the remote system ues connectionless /kə nekʃənləs/ adjec- connectionless CONFIG.SYS /kən f ss/ noun (in CONFIG.SYS tive data transfer that occurs between two MS-DOS) a configuration text file that devices that do not have a fixed or perma- contains commands to set parameters and nent link and so can take different routes load driver software. This file is read auto- between the two devices. ı circuit switch- matically once the PC is switched on and ing the operating system has loaded. ć If you connectionless network protocol connectionless network protocol add a new adapter card to your PC you will have to add a new command to the /kə nekʃənləs netw k prəυtəkɒl/ CONFIG.SYS file. noun an OSI transport protocol that pro- vides an efficient way of routing informa- configuration /kən f jə reʃ(ə)n/ configuration tion around a local area network using a noun the way in which the hardware and datagram to carry the information. Abbr software of a computer system are planned CLNP and set up connection-oriented /kə nekʃ(ə)n connection-oriented ‘He said only Banyan Vines had the network config- uration and administration capabilities required for ɔ rientd/ adjective referring to data implementing an international business plan based transfer that occurs according to a series of on client-server computing.’ [Computing] fixed, pre-defined steps that will create a configuration file /kən f jə reʃ(ə)n configuration file known and reliable path between the two fal/ noun a file that contains data that de- devices. For example, TCP/IP is a connec- scribes how a particular software program tion-oriented protocol that uses a known or device has been configured ć The main modem or network adapter to contact an- Windows configuration file is stored in a other known computer and establish a link file called the Registry. via TCP/IP commands. configuration state /kən f jə connection-oriented network configuration state connection-oriented reʃ(ə)n stet/ noun the state of a compu- services /kə nekʃən ɔ rientd ter that allows it or the system or a pro- netw k s vsz/ plural noun an OSI gram to be configured transport protocol that provides an effi-
  • 86. Computing.fm Page 80 Friday, December 19, 2003 7:16 PMconnective 80cient way of routing information around a constant linear velocity / kɒnstənt constant linear velocitywide area network. Abbr CONS lniə və lɒsti/ noun full form of CLVconnective /kə nektv/ noun a symbolconnective constant ratio code / kɒnstənt constant ratio codebetween two operands that describes the reʃiəυ kəυd/ noun a character represen-operation to be performed tation code that has a constant number ofconnectivity / kɒnek tvti/ noun theconnectivity binary ones per word lengthability of a device to connect with other constrain /kən stren/ verb to set limits constraindevices and transfer information that define the maximum movement of anconnector /kə nektə/ noun a physicalconnector object on screendevice with a number of metal contacts consumables /kən sju məb(ə)lz/ plu- consumablesthat allow devices to be easily linked to- ral noun small cheap extra items requiredgether ć The connector at the end of the in the day-to-day running of a computercable will fit any standard serial port. system, e.g. paper and printer ribbons ćconnector plug /kə nektə pl / nounconnector plug Put all the printer leads and paper with the(in an FDDI network) a device at the end other consumables.of a fibre-optic or copper cable that con- contact / kɒnt kt/ noun the section of contactnects to a receptacle a switch or connector that provides anconnector receptacle /kə nektə rconnector receptacle electrical path when it touches another septək(ə)l/ noun (in an FDDI network) a conductor ć The circuit is not working be-device mounted on a panel that connects to cause the contact is dirty. í verb to try toa plug call a user or device in a networkconnect state /kə nekt stet/ noun theconnect state contact bounce / kɒnt kt baυns/ contact bouncestate of a modem in which it is transferring noun ‘ bounce, de-bouncedata across a communications line contact card / kɒnt kt kɑ d/ noun a contact cardconnect time /kə nekt tam/ noun theconnect time smart card with a chip that can be readlength of time that a user is logged onto an when it is touched by a reading machineinteractive system contact image sensor / kɒnt kt contact image sensorconscious error / kɒnʃəs erə/ nounconscious error md sensə/ noun full form of CISan operator error that is immediately spot- container /kən tenə/ noun something containerted, but cannot be prevented in time that can be set to a value ć The program-consistency check /kən sstənsiconsistency check mer uses this variable as a container, stor-tʃek/ noun a check to make sure that ob- ing the object’s colour.jects, data or items conform to their ex- content / kɒntent/ noun information, contentpected formats ideas, text, images or data that form a let-console / kɒnsəυl/ noun a unit consist-console ter, document, web page, database or booking of a keyboard, VDU, and usually aprinter, which allows an operator to com- content-addressable addressing content-addressable addressingmunicate with a computer system ć The / kɒntent ə dresəb(ə)l ə dresŋ/ nounconsole consists of input device such as a same as associative addressingkeyboard, and an output device such as a content-addressable file / kɒntent content-addressable fileprinter or CRT. ı CON ə dresəb(ə)l fal/ noun a file for storingconstant / kɒnstənt/ noun an item ofconstant data in which each item may be individu-data whose value does not change. Oppo- ally accessedsite variable í adjective which does not content-addressable content-addressable location locationchange ć The disk drive motor spins at a / kɒntent ə dresəb(ə)l ləυ keʃ(ə)n/constant velocity. noun same as content-addressable fileconstant angularconstant angular velocity velocity content-addressable content-addressable memory memory/ kɒnstənt ŋ jυlə və lɒsti/ noun full / kɒntent ə dresəb(ə)l mem(ə)ri/, con-form of CAV tent-addressable storage /ə səυsiətvconstant bit rate / kɒnstənt bt ret/constant bit rate stɔ rd / noun abbr CAM. same as asso-noun a data transfer service that is part of ciative memoryATM and is used to guarantee a certain contention /kən tenʃən/ noun a situa- contentiondata transmission rate over a network even tion that occurs when two or more devicesif there is a lot traffic. Abbr CBR are trying to communicate with the sameconstant length field / kɒnstəntconstant length field piece of equipmentleŋθ fi ld/ noun a data field that always contention bus /kən tenʃ(ə)n b s/ contention buscontains the same number of characters noun a communication control system in
  • 87. Computing.fm Page 81 Friday, December 19, 2003 7:16 PM 81 control change which a device must wait for a free mo- words are not synchronised, but follow on ment before transmitting data immediately one after the other contention delay /kən tenʃ(ə)n d contention delay continuous feed /kən tnjuəs fi d/ continuous feed le/ noun the length of time spent waiting noun a device which feeds continuous sta- for equipment to become free for use tionery into a printer content provider / kɒntent prə content provider continuous labels /kən tnjυəs continuous labels vadə/ noun a company that supplies in- leb(ə)lz/ plural noun removable adhe- formation, e.g. text, news stories, images, sive labels attached to a backing sheet that video, software, for a publication in a web- can be fed into a printer site or other medium continuous loop /kən tnjυəs lu p/ continuous loop content-rich /kən tent rtʃ/ adjective content-rich noun an endless piece of recording or pro- containing a lot of useful information jection tape contents / kɒntents/ plural noun a list contents continuous signal /kən tnjυəs continuous signal of items in a file s n(ə)l/ noun a continuously variable analog signal context / kɒntekst/ noun a particular context continuous stationery /kən tnjυəs continuous stationery way of organising data that is used when steʃ(ə)n(ə)ri/ noun printer stationery transferring it into and out of a business which takes the form of a single long sheet management system continuous tone /kən tnjυəs təυn/ continuous tone context-sensitive / kɒntekst context-sensitive noun an image such as a photograph that senstv/ adjective that relates to the par- uses all possible values of grey or colours, ticular context contouring / kɒntυərŋ/ noun 1. (in a contouring context-sensitive help / kɒntekst context-sensitive help graphics application) a process that con- senstv help/ noun a help message that verts a wire-frame drawing into a solid- gives useful information about the particu- looking object by adding shadows and tex- lar function or part of the program you are ture 2. (in a graphics application) a func- in rather than general information about tion that creates realistic-looking ground, the whole program e.g. in a virtual-reality system, or a surface context-switching / kɒntekst contrast / kɒntrɑ st/ noun 1. the differ- context-switching contrast swtʃŋ/ noun a process in which several ence between black and white or between programs are loaded in memory, but only colours ć The control allows you to adjust one at a time can be executed brightness and contrast. 2. a control knob COMMENT: Unlike a true multitasking system on a display that alters the difference be- which can load several programs into memory tween black and white tones or between and run several programs at once, context- colours switching only allows one program to be run at a time. contrast contrast enhancement filter enhancement filter contiguous file /kən t jυəs fal/ contiguous file / kɒntrɑ st n hɑ nsmənt fltə/ noun a noun a file stored in a series of adjacent special filter put over a monitor to increase disk sectors contrast and prevent eye-strain contiguous graphics /kən t jυəs contiguous graphics control /kən trəυl/ noun 1. a section of control r fks/ plural noun graphic cells or a computer or device that carries out in- characters which touch each other ć Most structions and processes signals 2. condi- display units do not provide contiguous tional program statements 3. a key on a graphics: their characters have a small computer keyboard which sends a control space on each side to improve legibility. character 4. data or a key that controls something contingency plan /kən tnd ənsi contingency plan pl n/ noun a secondary plan that will be control block /kən trəυl blɒk/ noun a control block reserved area of computer memory that used if the first fails to work contains control data continuation page /kən tnjυ continuation page control bus /kən trəυl b s/ noun a set control bus eʃ(ə)n ped / noun a page or screen of of connections to a microcomputer that text that follows on from a main page carry the control signals between CPU, continuity / kɒnt nju ti/ noun a clear continuity memory and input/output devices conduction path between two points control change /kən trəυl tʃend / control change continuous data stream /kən continuous data stream noun (in MIDI) a message sent to a synthe- tnjυəs detə stri m/ noun high-speed siser to instruct it to change a setting, e.g. serial data transmission, in which data to change the volume of a MIDI channel
  • 88. Computing.fm Page 82 Friday, December 19, 2003 7:16 PMcontrol character 82control character /kən trəυl control menu /kən trəυl menju /control character control menu k rktə/ noun a special character that noun (in Microsoft Windows) a menu thatprovides a control sequence allows you to move, resize or close the cur- ‘…there are seven print control characters which can rent window, and that is accessed by press- be placed in a document’ [Personal Computer ing Alt-Space World] control mode /kən trəυl məυd/ noun control modecontrol computer /kən trəυl kəmcontrol computer pju tə/ noun a dedicated computer used the state of a device in which control sig-to control a process or piece of equipment nals can be received to select options orcontrol cycle /kən trəυl sak(ə)l/control cycle functions control panel /kən trəυl p n(ə)l/ control panelnoun the events required to retrieve, de-code and execute an instruction stored in noun 1. a panel with indicators andmemory switches that allows an operator to moni-control data /kən trəυl detə/ nouncontrol data tor and control the actions of a computer ordata that controls the actions of a device peripheral 2. a utility that displays thecontrol-driven /kən trəυl drv(ə)n/control-driven user-definable options such as keyboard,adjective referring to computer architec- country-code and type of mouse control register /kən trəυl red stə/ control registerture where instructions are executed oncea control sequence has been received noun a storage location for control datacontrol field /kən trəυl fi ld/ noun a control ROM /kən trəυl rɒm/ noun control ROMcontrol fieldstorage area for control instructions same as control memorycontrol group /kən trəυl ru p/ nouncontrol group control control sequence sequence /kən trəυla small group which is used to check a si kwəns/ noun a series of codes contain-sample group ing a control character and various argu-control instruction /kən trəυl ncontrol instruction ments, used to carry out a process or str kʃən/ noun a program instruction change mode in a devicethat controls the actions of a device ć The control signals /kən trəυl s n(ə)lz/ control signalsnext control instruction will switch to ital- plural noun electrical signals transmittedics. to control the actions of a circuitcontrol key /kən trəυl ki / noun (oncontrol key control control statement statement /kən trəυlIBM-PC compatible systems) a special stetmənt/ noun 1. a program instructionkey, usually in the lower left corner of the that directs a CPU to provide controllingkeyboard, that provides a secondary func- actions or controls the operation of thetion when pressed with another key ć To CPU 2. a program instruction which di-halt a program, press Ctrl-C – the control rects a program, e.g. to another branchkey and letter C – at the same time. Abbr control structure /kən trəυl control structureCtrl str ktʃə/ noun a set of instructions thatcontrol language /kən trəυlcontrol language are run in a particular circumstance. An l ŋ wd / noun commands that identify IF.THEN statement selects a particularand describe the resources required by a control structure depending on the value ofjob that a computer has to perform a variable.controlled vocabulary /kən trəυldcontrolled vocabulary control systems /kən trəυl sstəmz/ control systemsvəυ k bjυləri/ noun a set of terms orwords used in an indexing language plural noun systems used to check that a computer system is working correctlycontroller /kən trəυlə/ noun a hard-controller control token /kən trəυl təυkən/ control tokenware or software device that controls a pe-ripheral such as a printer, or that monitors noun a special sequence of bits transmit-and directs the data transmission over a lo- ted over a LAN to provide control actions control total /kən trəυl təυt(ə)l/ noun control totalcal area network ‘…a printer’s controller is the brains of the machine. the result of summing certain fields in a It translates the signals coming from your computer computer file to provide error detection into printing instructions that result in a hard copy of control transfer /kən trəυl tr nsf / control transfer your electronic document’ [Publish]control memory /kən trəυl noun the redirection of the CPU when acontrol memory mem(ə)ri/ noun memory which decodes jump or call instruction is encountered control unit /kən trəυl ju nt/ noun control unitcontrol instructions into microinstructionsthat operate the computer or microcontrol- the section of the CPU which selects andler executes instructions
  • 89. Computing.fm Page 83 Friday, December 19, 2003 7:16 PM 83 copy protect control word /kən trəυl w d/ noun a vert it to our system codes. Also called control word word that defines the actions that are to be translation tables followed in a particular process converter /kən v tə/ noun a device or converter convention /kən venʃən/ noun a set of program that translates data from one form convention well-known standards or rules that have to to another ć The converter allowed the old be followed so as to produce hardware or data to be used on the new system. software compatibility convertibility /kən v tə bləti/ noun convertibility conventional memory /kən ability to be changed conventional memory venʃ(ə)n(ə)l mem(ə)ri/ noun (in an convertible /kən v təb(ə)l/ adjective convertible IBM-PC compatible system) the random that can be converted access memory region installed in a PC convertor /kən v tə/ noun another convertor from 0 up to 640Kb. This area of memory spelling of converter can be directly controlled by MS-DOS. cookie / kυki/ noun a tiny file that is cookie Compare high memory, expanded stored on your computer when you con- memory. Also called RAM nect to a remote Internet site using a convergence /kən v d əns/ noun 1. convergence browser. The cookie is used by the remote the combination of two or more different site to store information about your op- technologies producing a new technology. tions which can then be read when you For example, fax machines are the product next visit the site. of the convergence of telephone, scanning cookie file / kυki fal/ noun a file that cookie file and printing technologies. 2. (in a colour contains the cookie data supplied by the monitor ) the accuracy with which the pic- remote Internet site ture beam strikes the three colour dots that cooperative processing /kəυ cooperative processing form each colour pixel ̈ ı picture beam, pixel ɒp(ə)rətv prəυsesŋ/ noun a system in which two or more computers in a distrib- conversation / kɒnvə seʃ(ə)n/ noun conversation uted network can each execute a part of a a form of communication between a com- program or work on a particular set of data puter and its user in which the computer coordinate graph /kəυ ɔ dnət rɑ f/ coordinate graph responds immediately to instructions and questions put to it as if was taking part in a noun a means of displaying one point on a dialogue graph, using two values referring to axes which are usually at right angles to each conversational mode / kɒnvə conversational mode other seʃ(ə)n(ə)l məυd/ noun a method of op- coordinates /kəυ ɔ dnəts/ plural coordinates erating that provides immediate responses to a user’s input. ı interactive mode noun values used to locate a point on a graph or map converse /kən v s/ verb to engage in a converse coordination /kəυ ɔ d neʃ(ə)n/ noun coordination conversation with a computer the process of organising complex tasks conversion /kən v ʃ(ə)n/ noun a conversion coprocessor /kəυ prəυsesə/ noun an coprocessor change from one system to another extra, specialised processor, e.g. an array conversion equipment /kən conversion equipment or numerical processor, that can work with v ʃ(ə)n  kwpmənt/ noun a device that a main CPU to increase execution speed will convert data from one format to an- ‘Inmos is hiring designers to create highly integrated other, which is suitable for another system, transputers and co-processors for diverse computer without changing the content and telecoms systems.’ [Computing] conversion program /kən v ʃ(ə)n copy / kɒp/ verb to make a second doc- copy conversion program prəυ r m/ noun 1. a program that con- ument which is like the first, or to dupli- verts programs written for one computer cate original data ć He copied all the per- into a suitable form for another 2. a pro- sonnel files at night and took them home. gram that converts data format, coding, COPY / kɒpi/ noun an operating system COPY etc. for use in another program command that copies the contents of one conversion tables /kən v ʃ(ə)n conversion tables file to another file on a storage device ć teb(ə)lz/ plural noun a list of source Make a copy of your data using the COPY codes or statements and their equivalent in command before you edit it. another language or form ć Conversion copy protect / kɒpi prə tekt/ noun a copy protect tables may be created and used in con- switch that prevents copies of a disk being junction with the customer’s data to con- made í verb to move a switch to prevent
  • 90. Computing.fm Page 84 Friday, December 19, 2003 7:16 PMcopy protection 84copies of a disk being made ć The pro- Collin Publishing domain name isgram is not copy protected. ‘pcp.co.uk’ ı domaincopy protection / kɒpi prə tekʃən/copy protection counter / kaυntə/ noun a register or var- counternoun the act of preventing copies from be- iable whose contents are increased or de-ing made ć A hard disk may crash because creased by a set amount every time an ac-of copy protection. tion occursCORAL / kɒpi/ noun a computer pro-CORAL counter-rotating ring / kaυntə rəυ counter-rotating ringgramming language used in a real-time etŋ rŋ/ noun two signal paths trans-system. Full form common real-time ap- mitted in opposite directions around a ringplications language networkCORBA / kɔ bə/ abbr common objectCORBA country file / k ntri fal/ noun a file country filerequest broker architecture within an operating system that defines the parameters, e.g. character set and key-core /kɔ / noun the central conductingcore board layout, for different countriessection of a cable coupler / k plə/ noun a mechanical de- couplercore dump / kɔ d mp/ noun a transfercore dump vice that is used to connect three or moreof data from the main memory of a compu- conductorster, usually to an external storage medium Courier / kυriə/ noun a fixed-space or Couriercore memory /kɔ mem(ə)ri/ noun acore memory monospace typefacecentral fast-access memory which stores courseware / kɔ sweə/ noun the soft- coursewarethe programs and data currently in use ware, manuals and video that make up acore program /kɔ prəυ r m/ noun acore program training package or CAL productcomputer program stored in core memory CPA / si pi e/ noun the cost of display- CPAcoresident /kəυ rezd(ə)nt/ adjectivecoresident ing a banner advertisement once to onereferring to two or more programs that are visitor to a website. Full form cost perstored in the main memory at the same action. ı bannertime cpi / si pi a/ noun the number of print- cpicore store / kɔ stɔ / noun a non-vola- ed characters which fit within the space ofcore storetile magnetic storage method used in old one inch. Full form characters per inchcomputers CPM abbr critical path method CPMcorona /kə rəυnə/ noun an electric dis-corona cps / si pi es/ noun the number of char- cpscharge that is used to charge the toner acters printed or processed every second.within a laser printer Full form characters per secondcorona wire /kə rəυnə waə/ noun acorona wire CPU / si pi ju / noun a group of cir- CPUthin wire that charges the powdered toner cuits that performs the basic functions of aparticles in a laser printer as they pass computer. The CPU is made up of threeacross it ć If your printouts are smudged, parts, the control unit, the arithmetic andyou may have to clean the corona wire. logic unit and the input/output unit. Fullcoroutine / kəυru ti n/ noun a sectioncoroutine form central processing unitof a program or procedure that can pass CPU bound / si pi ju baυnd/ adjec- CPU bounddata and control to another coroutine then tive referring to the performance of a com-halt itself puter insofar as it is limited by the numbercorrective maintenance /kə rektvcorrective maintenance of instructions the CPU can carry out. Ef- mentənəns/ noun actions to trace, find fectively, the memory and I/O devices canand repair a fault after it has occurred transfer data faster than the CPU can pro- duce it.corrupt /kə r pt/ adjective that containscorrupt CPU clock / si pi ju klɒk/ noun a CPU clockerrors í verb to introduce errors into data clock inside a processor device that gener-or a program ć Power loss during disk ac- ates a regular signal millions of times eve-cess can corrupt the data. ry second to control operations and datacost analysis / kɒst ə n ləss/ nouncost analysis transfer within the processoran examination in advance of the costs of CPU clock speed / si pi ju klɒk/ CPU clock speeda new product noun the frequency of the CPU clock thatcost per action / kɒst p kʃən/ fullcost per action controls the operations within the proces-form of CPA sorco.uk a domain name suffix that indicates CPU cycle / si pi ju sak(ə)l/ nounco.uk CPU cyclea business based in the UK ć The Peter the period of time taken to fetch and exe-
  • 91. Computing.fm Page 85 Friday, December 19, 2003 7:16 PM 85 cross-reference generator cute an instruction, usually a simple ADD ‘Surprisingly, critical path analysis and project man- instruction, used as a measure of computer agement, frequently the next career step for engi- neers, did not seem to warrant a mention.’ [Comput- speed ing] CPU elements / si pi ju elmənts/ critical path method / krtk(ə)l CPU elements critical path method plural noun the main sections that make up pɑ θ meθəd/ noun the use of analysis a CPU, including the ALU, control unit, and the projection of each critical step in a I/O bus, memory and various registers large project to help a management team. CPU handshaking / si pi ju CPU handshaking Abbr CPM h ndʃekŋ/ noun the process of inter- critical resource / krtk(ə)l r zɔ s/ critical resource facing signals between a CPU and a pe- noun a resource that can only be used by ripheral or I/O device one process at a time CPU time / si pi ju tam/ noun the CPU time crop /krɒp/ verb to reduce the size or crop total period of time that a CPU is used to margins of an image actually process instructions (NOTE: In a crop mark / krɒp mɑ k/ noun (in DTP crop mark file handling program, CPU time might be software) one of the printed marks that minimal, since data retrieval from disk would account for a large part of the pro- show the edge of a page or image and al- gram run. In a mathematical program, low it to be cut accurately cross-assembler /krɒs ə semblə/ cross-assembler the CPU time could be much higher in proportion to the total run time.) noun an assembler that produces machine- CR abbr card reader CR code code for one computer while running on another crash /kr ʃ/ noun a failure of a compo- crash cross-compiler /krɒs kəm palə/ cross-compiler nent or a bug in a program during a run, which halts and prevents further use of the noun an assembler or compiler that com- system piles programs for one computer while COMMENT: It is sometimes possible to recover running on another data from a crashed hard disk before refor- COMMENT: Cross-compilers and assemblers matting, if the crash was caused by a bad sec- are used to compile programs for micros, but tor on the disk rather than contact between are run on larger computers to make the oper- the r/w head and disk surface. ation faster. crash-protected /kr ʃ prə tektd/ crosshair / krɒsheə/ noun (in a draw- crosshair crash-protected adjective that uses a head protection or ing or paint program) a cursor shape that data corruption protection system ć If the looks like a cross disk is crash-protected, you will never lose cross-linked files / krɒs lŋkt falz/ cross-linked files your data. noun an error in MS-DOS in which two crawler / krɔ lə/ noun a computer pro- files claim to be using the same cluster on crawler gram that collects online documents and disk reference links crossover / krɒs əυvə/ noun a change crossover CRC abbr cyclic redundancy check CRC from one system to another ć The crosso- crippled leapfrog test / krp(ə)ld crippled leapfrog test ver to computerised file indexing was diffi- li pfrɒ test/ noun a standard leapfrog cult. crossover circuit / krɒsəυvə s kt/ crossover circuit test that uses a single memory location rather than a changing location noun an electronic circuit which splits an critical error / krtk(ə)l erə/ noun an critical error audio signal into different frequency rang- error that stops processing or crashes the es and assigns these to different size loud- computer speakers in a loudspeaker system cross-platform / krɒs pl tfɔ m/ ad- cross-platform critical fusion frequency / krtk(ə)l critical fusion frequency fju (ə)n fri kwənsi/ noun (on a video, jective available for more than one type of computer or film screen) the rate of dis- computer or operating system cross-post / krɒs pəυst/ verb to send cross-post play of frames of graphics or text that makes them appear flicker-free a single electronic message or article to critical path analysis / krtk(ə)l many different newsgroups at the same critical path analysis pɑ θ ə n ləss/ noun the definition of time cross-reference generator / krɒs cross-reference generator tasks or jobs and the time each requires ar- ranged in order to achieve certain goals. ref(ə)rəns d enəretə/ noun a section Also called PERT – Program Evaluation of an assembler or compiler or interpreter and Review Techniques. that provides a list of program labels, var-
  • 92. Computing.fm Page 86 Friday, December 19, 2003 7:16 PMcrosstalk 86iables or constants with their location CSMA-CA / si es em si e/ noun a CSMA-CAwithin the program method of controlling access to a networkcrosstalk / krɒstɑ k/ noun interference not covered by OSI standards, but used incrosstalkbetween two communication cables or AppleTalk networks. Full form carrierchannels sense multiple access-collisionCRT / si ɑ ti / noun a device used forCRT avoidance CSMA-CD / si es em si di / noun a CSMA-CDdisplaying characters, figures or graphicalinformation, similar to a TV set. Full form network communications protocol thatcathode ray tube prevents two sources transmitting at the COMMENT: Cathode ray tubes are used in tele- same time by waiting for a quiet moment, vision sets, computer monitors and VDUs. A then attempting to transmit. It is used to CRT consists of a vacuum tube, one end of control data transmission over an Ethernet which is flat and coated with phosphor, the other end containing an electron beam network. Full form carrier sense multi- source. Characters or graphics are visible ple access-collision detection when the controllable electron beam strikes CSS abbr cascading style sheet CSS the phosphor, causing it to glow. CTI / si ti a/ noun a system that allows CTIcrunch /kr ntʃ/ verb to process data orcrunchnumbers at high speed normal audio telephone conversations to be transmitted over a computer data net-cruncher, crunching noun ‘ numbercruncher work and controlled by a computer. Fullcruncher, number crunching form computer-telephony integrationcryogenic memory / kraəυd enkcryogenic memory CTM / si ti em/ noun a method of CTM mem(ə)ri/ noun a storage medium oper- charging an advertiser for the display of aating at very low temperatures of around banner advertisement, where the price4ºK to use the superconductive properties covers one thousand visitors clicking onof a material the advertisement and jumping to the ad-cryptanalysis / krptə n ləss/ nouncryptanalysis vertiser’s own website. Full form clickthe study and methods of breaking ciphers through per thousandcryptographic / krptə r fk/ adjec- CTR1 /kən trəυl/ noun the number ofcryptographic CTRtive referring to cryptography visitors who click on a banner advertise-cryptographic algorithm ment on a website and jump to the adver-cryptographic algorithm/ krptə r fk l ərð(ə)m/ noun a set tiser’s own website. Full form clickof rules used to encipher and decipher data through rate. ı CTM (NOTE: A clickcryptographic key / krptə r fk through rate of just a few percent is com-cryptographic key ki / noun a number or code that is used mon, and most advertisers have to paywith a cipher algorithm to personalise the per thousand impressions of their bannerencryption and decryption of data ad.) CTR2 /kən trəυl/, CTRL, Ctrl noun the CTRcryptography / krp tɒ rəfi/ noun thecryptographystudy of encryption and decryption meth- control key, or a key on a computer termi-ods and techniques nal that sends a control character to thecrystal / krstəl/ noun a small slice ofcrystal computer when pressed Ctrl-Alt-Del /kən trəυl ɔ lt d li t/ Ctrl-Alt-Delquartz crystal which vibrates at a certainfrequency, used as a very accurate clock noun a combination of three keys that,signal for computer or other high precision when pressed at once, will cause a PC totiming applications carry out a soft resetcrystal shutter printer / krst(ə)l CTS / si ti es/ noun an RS232C indi- CTScrystal shutter printer ʃ tə prntə/ noun a page printer that cating that a line or device is ready for datauses a powerful light controlled by a liquid transmission. Full form clear to send CU abbr control unit CUcrystal display to produce an image on aphoto-sensitive drum cue /kju / noun a prompt or message dis- cueCSLIP noun a version of the SLIP proto- played on a screen to remind the user thatCSLIPcol that compresses data before it is trans- an input is expectedmitted, resulting in greater data transfer CUG / si ju d i / noun entry to a data- CUGrate base or bulletin board system that is re-CSM / si es em/ noun an efficient opti- stricted to certain known and registeredCSMcal character recognition system. Full users, usually by means of a password.form combined symbol matching Full form closed user group
  • 93. Computing.fm Page 87 Friday, December 19, 2003 7:16 PM 87 cyan-magenta-yellow-black cull /k l/ verb to remove hidden or distant custom-built / k stəm blt/ adjective cull custom-built objects from a three-dimensional scene or made specially for one customer storage space and reduce processing time custom colours / k stəm k ləs/ plu- custom colours cumulative trauma disorder ral noun a range of colours in a palette that cumulative trauma disorder / kju mjυlətv trɔ mə ds ɔ də/ noun are used by an image or application. ı sys- same as repetitive strain injury tem palette curly brackets / k li br ktz/, curly customer engineering / k stəmə curly brackets customer engineering braces plural noun the pair of characters end  nərŋ/ noun maintenance and re- {} used in some programming languages pair of a customer’s equipment to enclose a routine customer service department customer service department current address / k rənt ə dres/ current address / k stəmə s vs d pɑ tmənt/ noun a noun the address being accessed at this department which deals with customers time and their complaints and orders current address register / k rənt ə customise / k stəmaz/, customize customise current address register dres red stə/ noun a CPU register that verb to modify a system to the customer’s stores the address that is currently being requirements ć We used customised com- accessed. Abbr CAR puter terminals. (NOTE: customises – cus- current directory / k rənt da current directory tomising – customised) custom ROM / k stəm rɒm/ noun a custom ROM rekt(ə)ri/ noun a directory within the di- rectory tree which is currently being used ROM produced, usually in small numbers, current drive / k rənt drav/ noun a current drive by a manufacturer to suit a customer’s re- disk drive that is currently being used or quirements cut /k t/ noun 1. the process of removing cut has been selected a piece from a file 2. a piece removed from current instruction register current instruction register a file í verb to remove sections of text / k rənt n str kʃən red stə/ noun from a file to make it shorter (NOTE: cut- full form of CIR ting – cut) cursor / k sə/ noun a marker on a dis- cursor cut and paste / k t ən pest/ noun the cut and paste play device which shows where the next action of taking a section of text or data character will appear from one point and inserting it at another, ‘Probably the most exciting technology demonstrat- often used in word-processors and DTP ed was ScreenCam, which allows users to combine voice, cursor movement and on-screen activities into packages for easy page editing cut over / k t əυvə/ verb to organise cut over a movie which can be replayed.’ [Computing] ‘…further quick cursor movements are available for the transfer of data, functions or users editing by combining one of the arrow keys with the from an old computer system to a new one control function’ [Personal Computer World] COMMENT: Cursors can take several forms, in- in such a way that all the transfer opera- cluding a square of bright light, a bright under- tions take place at the same time and there line or a flashing light. is minimum disruption cursor control keys / k sə kən CUTS abbr Computer Users’ Tape Sys- cursor control keys CUTS trəυl ki z/ plural noun keys on a key- tem board that allow the cursor to be moved in cut sheet feeder / k t ʃi t fi də/ cut sheet feeder different directions noun a mechanism that automatically cursor home / k sə həυm/ noun the feeds single sheets of paper into a printer cursor home movement of the cursor to the top left hand CWP abbr communicating word proces- CWP corner of the screen sor cursor pad / k sə p d/ noun a group cXML / si eks em el/ noun a feature of cursor pad cXML of four arrowed cursor control keys, used the XML webpage markup language that to move the cursor up and down or to the provides a standard way of producing pag- right or left es about products for sale on an online cursor resource / k sə r zɔ s/ noun shop (NOTE: The new features allow de- cursor resource an image that is displayed as a cursor signers to include information about the (NOTE: Programming languages and au- product being displayed and how it can thoring tools normally provide a range of be purchased by the viewer.) cyan-magenta-yellow-black / saən cyan-magenta-yellow-black different cursor images that a developer can use, for example an egg-timer cursor mə d entə jeləυ/ noun full form of when waiting or an arrow when pointing.) CMYK
  • 94. Computing.fm Page 88 Friday, December 19, 2003 7:16 PMcyber- 88cyber- /sabə/ prefix computers and in-cyber- cyberwoozling cyberwoozling / sabə wu z(ə)lŋ/formation systems noun the practice of gathering data fromcyber age / sabə ed / noun the the computer of a visitor to a website with-cyber agepresent age, considered as a period in out his or her knowledge or authorisationwhich computer technology and electronic cycle / sak(ə)l/ noun one completed op- cyclecommunications have become more im- eration in a repeated processportant and more widely used cycle availability / sak(ə)l ə velə cycle availabilitycybercafé / sabə k fe/ noun a place blti/ noun a period of time in a cyclecybercaféthat provides a shop with terminals con- during which data can be accessed ornected to the Internet as well as coffee and transmittedpastries cycle count / sak(ə)l kaυnt/ noun the cycle countcybercast / sabəkɑ st/ noun a broad-cybercast number of times a cycle has been repeatedcast of an event transmitted via the Inter- cycle index / sak(ə)l ndeks/ noun cycle indexnet, in either sound or vision or in both the number of times a series of instructionscyberlaw / sabəl ɔ/ noun the set of has been or has to be repeatedcyberlawlaws that relate to computers, information cycle shift / sak(ə)l ʃft/ verb to shift a cycle shiftsystems and networks, considered as a pattern of bits within a word, with the bitbody or bits shifted off the end being inserted atcybermediary / sabə mi diəri/ nouncybermediary the beginning of the wordan organisation that makes it easier for cycle stealing / sak(ə)l sti lŋ/ noun cycle stealingcustomers and businesses to buy and sell a memory access operation by a peripheralonline, but that does not own the products that halts a CPU for one or more clock cy-or services that are being sold cles while data is being transferred fromcybernate / sabənet/ verb to use com-cybernate memory to the deviceputers to control manufacturing processes cycle time / sak(ə)l tam/ noun the cycle time(NOTE: cybernates – cybernating – cy- time between start and stop of an opera-bernated) tion, especially between addressing acybernetics / sabə netks/ noun thecybernetics memory location and receiving the datastudy of the mechanics of human or elec- cyclic / sklk, saklk/ adjective that is cyclictronic machine movements, and the way in repeated regularlywhich electronic devices can be made to cyclic access / saklk kses/ noun cyclic accesswork and imitate human actions access to stored information that can onlycybershopping / sabə ʃɒpŋ/ nouncybershopping occur at a certain point in a cycleshopping for goods and services on the In- cyclic check / saklk tʃek/ noun an cyclic checkternet error detection method that uses or exam-cyberspace / sabəspes/ noun thecyberspace ines a bit of data every n bits, one bit ex-world in which computers and people in- amined then n bits transmitted, then anoth-teract, normally via the Internet er bit examined and so oncybersquatting / sabə skwɒtŋ/ cyclic code / saklk kəυd/ noun acybersquatting cyclic codenoun act by which someone registers a coding system in which the binary repre-website address, normally a trademark or sentation of decimal numbers changes bybrand name, then tries to sell the name to only one bit at a time from one number tothe rightful owner (NOTE: Although not yet the nextillegal in most countries, court cases al- cyclic decimal code / saklk cyclic decimal codemost always find in favour of the compa- desm(ə)l kəυd/ noun a cyclic code thatny trying to recover its name. For exam- refers to decimal digitsple, if you registered the domain name cyclic redundancy check / sklk r cyclic redundancy check‘windows.com’ then tried to sell this backto Microsoft Corp. you would be guilty of d ndənsi tʃek/ noun an error detectioncybersquatting.) check used in modem communications and many file transfer protocols that lookscyberterrorism / sabə terərz(ə)m/cyberterrorism at one bit in every n bits and compares thisnoun terrorist activities that use the Inter- with the original to see if an error has oc-net to damage complex electronic systems curred in the last n bits. Abbr CRCor the data they contain cyclic shift / saklk ʃft/ noun the ro- cyclic shift ‘There were some instances of war-related hacking over the past few weeks, but nothing that would be tation of bits in a word with the previous considered cyberterrorism.’ [The Guardian] last bit inserted in the first bit position
  • 95. Computing.fm Page 89 Friday, December 19, 2003 7:16 PM 89 data cylinder / slndə/ noun 1. a group of cylinder cypher / safə/ noun another spelling of cypher tracks on a disk 2. the tracks in a multi- cipher disk device that can be accessed without moving the read/write head D D symbol the hexadecimal figure equiva- rupt outputs of a number of devices to a D lent to decimal number 13 CPU DA abbr desk accessory daisy chain recursion / dezi tʃen DA daisy chain recursion DAC / di e si / noun a circuit that out- DAC r k (ə)n/ noun the use of subroutines puts an analog signal that is proportional in a program that call another in the series, to the input digital number, and so converts so that the first routine calls the second a digital input to an analog form ć Speech routine, which calls the third routine, and is output from the computer via a D/A con- so on DAL abbr data access language (see) DAL verter. Full form digital to analog con- verter. Also called D to A converter, d/a DAMA abbr demand assigned multiple DAMA converter access d/a converter / di tυ e kən v tə/ DAO / di e əυ/ noun a programming in- d/a converter DAO noun same as DAC terface provided with many of Microsoft’s daemon / di mən/ noun (in a UNIX sys- database applications that allow the devel- daemon tem) a utility program that performs its job oper to access Jet or ODBC compatible automatically without the knowledge of data sources. Full form data access ob- the user jects daisy chain / dezi tʃen/ noun a meth- dark fibre / dɑ k fabə/ noun an optical daisy chain dark fibre od of connecting equipment with a single fibre that is not carrying a signal, often one cable passing from one machine or device that has just been installed but has not yet to the next, rather than separate cables to been used each device DASD / di e es di / noun a storage me- DASD daisy-chain / dezi tʃen/ verb to con- dium whose memory locations can be di- daisy-chain nect equipment using the daisy chain rectly read or written to. Full form direct method access storage device DAT / di e ti / noun a compact cassette, DAT ‘…you can often daisy-chain cards or plug them into expansion boxes’ [Byte] smaller than an audio cassette, that pro- daisy chain bus / dezi tʃen b s/ daisy chain bus vides a system of recording sound as dig- noun a communications bus that joins one ital information onto magnetic tape with device to the next, each device being able very high-quality reproduction. Full form to receive or transmit or modify data as it digital audio tape (NOTE: It is also used passes through to the next device in line as a high-capacity tape backup system daisy-chaining / dezi tʃenŋ/ noun daisy-chaining that can store 1.3 Gb of data; sound is re- the process of connecting equipment using corded at a sample rate of either 32, 44.1 the daisy chain method ć Daisy-chaining or 48 KHz to provide up to two hours of saves a lot of cable. CD-quality sound.) daisy chain interrupt / dezi tʃen data / detə/ noun a collection of facts daisy chain interrupt data ntər pt/ noun a line joining all the inter- made up of numbers, characters and sym-
  • 96. Computing.fm Page 90 Friday, December 19, 2003 7:16 PMdata access language 90bols, stored on a computer in such a way database machine / detəbes mə database machinethat it can be processed by the computer ˽ ʃi n/ noun a hardware and software com-data area amount of storage space that bination designed for the rapid processingcontains data (rather than instructions) of database information COMMENT: Data is different from information in database management system database management system that it is facts stored in machine-readable / detəbes m nd mənt sstəm/, da- form. When the facts are processed by the computer into a form that can be understood tabase manager / detəbes m nd ə/ by people, the data becomes information. noun full form of DBMSdata access language / detədata access language database database mapping mapping / detəbes kses l ŋ wd / noun a language de- m pŋ/ noun a description of the way inveloped by the Apple Computer Corpora- which the records and fields in a databasetion and used to query a database, based on are relatedSQL. Abbr DAL database schema / detəbes database schemadata access management / detədata access management ski mə/ noun a way in which a database kses m nd mənt/ noun the process is organised and structuredof regulating the users who can access database server / detəbes s və/ database serverstored data noun a piece of database managementdata access objects / detə ksesdata access objects software that runs on a server computer on ɒbjekts/ noun full form of DAO a network and is used in a client-serverdata acquisition / detədata acquisition kw system (NOTE: The user works with client zʃ(ə)n/ noun the process of gathering software that formats and displays datadata about a subject that is retrieved by the server software.)data adapter unit / detə ə d ptə database system / detəbes database systemdata adapter unit ju nt/ noun a device that interfaces a sstəm/ noun a series of programs that al-CPU to one or more communications lows the user to create, modify, managechannels and use a database and that often includesdata administrator / detə əddata administrator features such as a report writer or graphi- mnstretə/ noun a control section of a cal output of datadatabase management system data block / detə blɒk/ noun the set of data blockdata aggregate / detədata aggregate r ət/ all the data required for or from a processnoun a collection of items of data that are data break / detə brek/ noun a mem- data breakrelated ory access operation by a peripheral thatdata analysis / detə ə n ləss/ noundata analysis halts a CPU for one or more cycles whilethe process of extracting information and data is being transferred from memory toresults from data the devicedatabank / detəb ŋk/ noun 1. a largedatabank data buffer / detə b fə/ noun a tem- data bufferamount of data stored in a structured form porary storage location for data received2. a store of personal records in a computer by a device that is not yet ready to process itdatabase / detəbes/ noun an integrat-databaseed collection of files of data stored in a data bus / detə b s/ noun a bus carry- data busstructured form in a large memory, which ing data between a CPU and memory andcan be accessed by one or more users at peripheral devicesdifferent terminals data capture / detə k ptʃə/ noun the data capture ‘This information could include hypertext references act of obtaining data, either by keyboard- to information held within a computer database, or ing or scanning, or often automatically spreadsheet formulae.’ [Computing] from a recording device or peripheral ć Indatabase administrator / detəbesdatabase administrator July this year it signed a two-year out-əd mnstretə/ noun full form of DBA sourcing and disaster-recovery deal … fordatabase engine / detəbes end n/database engine the operation and management of its Bir-noun a program that provides an interface mingham-based data-capture facility.between a program written to access the [Computing]functions of a DBMS and the DBMS data carrier / detə k riə/ noun 1. a data carrierdatabase language / detəbesdatabase language device or medium capable of storing data l ŋ wd / noun any one of a series of 2. a waveform used as a carrier for datalanguages, e.g. data description language, signalsthat makes up a database management sys- data carrier detect / detə k riə d data carrier detecttem tekt/ noun full form of DCD
  • 97. Computing.fm Page 91 Friday, December 19, 2003 7:16 PM 91 data flow data cartridge / detə kɑ trd / noun data / detə concentrator data cartridge data concentrator a cartridge that contains stored data kɒns(ə)ntretə/ noun a means of com- data cassette / detə kə set/ noun a data cassette bining intermittent data from various lines special high-quality tape for storing data and sending it along a single line in one go data chaining / detə tʃenŋ/ noun data chaining data connection / detə kə nekʃ(ə)n/ data connection the process of storing one record that holds noun a link which joins two devices and the address of the next in the list allows data transmission data channel / detə tʃ n(ə)l/ noun a data channel data control / detə kən trəυl/ noun data control communications link able to carry data data management to and from a database signals or processing system data corruption / detə kə r pʃ(ə)n/ data corruption data check / detə tʃek/ noun an error data check noun the introduction of errors into data in reading data due to a fault with the mag- through noise or faulty equipment ć Data netic medium corruption occurs each time the motor is data circuit / detə s kt/ noun a cir- data circuit switched on. cuit which allows bi-directional data com- data delimiter / detə di lmtə/ noun data delimiter munications a special symbol or character that marks data cleaning / detə kli nŋ/ noun data cleaning the end of a file or data item the process of removing errors from data data description language / detə data description language data collection / detə kə lekʃən/ d skrpʃən l ŋ wd / noun full form data collection noun the act of receiving data from various of DDL sources, either directly from a data capture data dictionary/directory / detə data dictionary/directory device or from a cartridge, and inserting it dkʃən(ə)ri da rekt(ə)ri/ noun full form correctly in order into a database of DD/D data collection platform / detə kə data division / detə d v (ə)n/ noun data collection platform data division lekʃən pl tfɔ m/ noun a station that a part of a COBOL program giving full transmits collected data to a central point, definitions of the data types and structures usually via satellite data-driven / detə drv(ə)n/ adjec- data-driven data communications / detə kə tive referring to computer architecture in data communications mju n keʃ(ə)nz/ noun the transmission which instructions are executed, once the and reception of data rather than speech or relevant data has been received images data element / detə elmənt/ noun data element data data communications buffer communications buffer same as data item / detə kə mju n keʃ(ə)nz b fə/ noun data element chain / detə elmənt data element chain a buffer on a receiver that allows a slow pe- tʃen/ noun a group of data elements ripheral to accept data from a fast periph- treated as a single element eral, without slowing either down data encryption / detə n krpʃ(ə)n/ data encryption data communications equipment data communications equipment noun the process of encrypting data using / detə kə mju n keʃ(ə)nz  a cipher system kwpmənt/ noun equipment, e.g. a mo- data encryption standard / detə n data encryption standard dem, that receives or transmits data. Abbr krpʃən st ndəd/ noun full form of DCE DES data data communications network communications network data entry / detə entri/ noun a meth- data entry / detə kə mju n keʃ(ə)nz netw k/ od of entering data into a system, usually noun a number of computers, terminals, using a keyboard but also direct from disks operators and storage units connected to- after data preparation gether to allow data transmission between data error / detə erə/ noun an error data error devices or files or users due to incorrect or illegal data data compacting / detə data field / detə fi ld/ noun a part of a data compacting data field kɒmp ktŋ/ noun the process of reduc- computer instruction that contains the lo- ing the storage space taken by data by cod- cation of the data ing it in a more efficient way data file / detə fal/ noun a file contain- data file data compression / detə kəm ing data, as opposed to a program file ć data compression preʃ(ə)n/ noun a means of reducing the Programs act upon data files. size of blocks of data by removing spaces, data flow / detə fləυ/ noun the move- data flow empty sections and unused material ment of data through a system
  • 98. Computing.fm Page 92 Friday, December 19, 2003 7:16 PMdata flowchart 92data flowchart / detə fləυtʃɑ t/ define the way in which data is transmitteddata flowchartnoun a diagram used to describe a compu- or receivedter or data processing system structure data link layer / detə lŋk leə/ noun data link layerdata flow diagram / detə fləυ the second layer in the ISO/OSI defineddata flow diagram daə r m/ noun full form of DFD network that sends transmits packets ofdata format / detə fɔ m t/ noun thedata format data to the next link and deals with errorset of rules defining the way in which data correction (NOTE: This layer is normallyis stored or transmitted split into two further sub-layers, medium access control and logical link control.)data glove / detə l v/ noun an elec-data glovetronic glove that fits over a user’s hand and data logging / detə lɒ ŋ/ noun auto- data loggingcontains sensors that transmit the position matic data collection data management / detə data managementof the user’s hand and fingers to a compu-ter; used in virtual reality systems m nd mənt/ noun maintenance and upkeep of a databasedatagram / detə r m/ noun a packetdatagramof information in a packet switching sys- data manipulation language / detə data manipulation languagetem that contains its destination address mə npjυ leʃ(ə)n l ŋ wd / noun aand route piece of database software that allows the user to access, store and change data. Abbrdata hierarchy / detə haərɑ ki/data hierarchy DMLnoun a data structure organised hierarchi-cally data medium / detə mi diəm/ noun a data medium medium which allows data to be stored ordata highway / detə hawe/ noun adata highway displayed, e.g. a VDU, magnetic disk orbus carrying the data signals in parallel screenform between the central processing unit data migration / detə ma reʃ(ə)n/ data migrationand memory or external devices noun the process of moving data betweendata independence / detə nddata independence a high priority or on-line device to a low- pendəns/ noun a structure of a database priority or off-line devicewhich can be changed without affecting data mining / detə manŋ/ noun the data miningwhat the user sees task of searching a database in order todata input / detə npυt/ noun datadata input find previously unknown patterns and re-transferred into a computer, from an I/O lationships within the data it contains, e.g.port or peripheral searching a retailer’s database to find cus-data input bus / detə npυt b s/ tomers who share an interest in a particulardata input busnoun full form of DIB 1 activitydata integrity / detə n te rti/ noun ‘Both companies specialise in decision support, sta-data integrity tistical analysis and data mining.’ [The Guardian]the state of data which has not been cor-rupted by damage or errors data name / detə nem/ noun a group data name of characters used to identify one item ofdata interchange format / detədata interchange format data ć Problems occur if an ambiguous ntətʃend fɔ m t/ noun a de facto data name is chosen.standard method of storing spreadsheet data network / detə netw k/ noun a data networkformula and data in a file. Abbr DIF networking system which transmits datadata item / detə atəm/ noun one unitdata item data origination / detə ə data originationof data, e.g. the quantity of items in stock, rd neʃ(ə)n/ noun the conversion ofa person’s name, age or occupation. Also data from its original form to one whichcalled data element can be read by a computerdata jack / detə d k/ noun a plug thatdata jack data path / detə pɑ θ/ noun a bus or set data pathallows a modem to be connected directly of connections over which data is trans-to the telephone system mitteddata level / detə lev(ə)l/ noun a posi- dataplex / detəpleks/ noun multiplex-data level dataplextion of a data item within a database struc- ing of data signalsture data pointer / detə pɔntə/ noun a data pointerdata link / detə lŋk/ noun a connec-data link register containing the location of the nexttion between two devices to allow the item of datatransmission of data dataport / detəpɔ t/ noun a socket for dataportdata link control / detə lŋk kən connecting a laptop computer to the Inter-data link control trəυl/ noun a protocol and rules used to net
  • 99. Computing.fm Page 93 Friday, December 19, 2003 7:16 PM 93 data transfer rate data preparation / detə prepə data preparation data sharing / detə ʃeərŋ/ noun a data sharing reʃ(ə)n/ noun the conversion of data into facility allowing one file or set of data to a machine-readable form, usually by key- be accessed by several users boarding, before data entry data signalling data signalling rate rate / detə data processing / detə prəυsesŋ/ data processing s n(ə)lŋ ret/ noun the total amount of noun the process of selecting and examin- data that is transmitted through a system ing data in a computer to produce informa- per second tion in a special form. Abbr dp, DP data signals / detə s n(ə)lz/ plural data signals data processing manager / detə data processing manager noun electrical or optical pulses or wave- prəυsesŋ m nd ə/ noun a person forms that represent binary data who runs a computer department data sink / detə sŋk/ noun a device in data sink a data terminal which receives data data projector / detə prə d ektə/ data projector noun a device that uses three large col- data source / detə sɔ s/ noun a device data source oured lights, red, green and blue, to project in a data terminal which sends data a colour image output from a computer data space data space transfer protocol transfer protocol onto a large screen / detə spes tr nsf prəυtəkɒl/ noun full form of DSTP data protection / detə prə tekʃən/ data protection noun the procedure of making sure that data station / detə steʃ(ə)n/ noun a data station data is not copied by an unauthorised user point that contains a data terminal and a data circuit Data Protection Act / detə prə Data Protection Act data storage / detə stɔ rd / noun a data storage tekʃən kt/ noun a piece of legislation medium able to store data, especially in passed in 1984 in the UK that requires any large quantities owner of a database that contains personal details to register data stream / detə stri m/ noun a set data stream of data transmitted serially one bit or char- data rate / detə ret/ noun the maxi- data rate acter at a time mum rate at which data is processed or data strobe / detə strəυb/ noun a sig- data strobe transmitted in a synchronous system, usu- nal indicating that valid data is on the data ally equal to the system clock rate bus data record / detə rekɔ d/ noun one data record data structure / detə str ktʃə/ noun data structure record containing data for use with a pro- a number of related items that are treated gram as one by the computer (NOTE: For exam- data reduction / detə r d kʃən/ data reduction ple, in an address book record, the noun the production of compact, useful name, address and telephone number data from raw data form separate entries that would be proc- data register / detə red stə/ noun essed as one by the computer.) data register an area within a CPU used to store data data switching exchange / detə data switching exchange temporarily before it is processed swtʃŋ ks tʃend / noun a device used data reliability / detə r laəblti/ data reliability to direct and switch data between lines noun a measure of the number of data data tablet / detə t blət/ noun ‘ data tablet words with errors compared to the total graphics tablet number of words data terminal / detə data terminal t mn(ə)l/ data retrieval / detə r tri v(ə)l/ noun data retrieval noun a device that is able to display and the process of searching, selecting and transmit or receive data ć A printer is a reading data from a stored file data terminal for computer output. data terminal equipment / detə data terminal equipment data routing / detə ru tŋ/ noun the data routing t mn(ə)l  kwpmənt/ noun full form process of defining the path to be taken by of DTE a message in a network data terminal data terminal ready ready / detə data security / detə s kjυərti/ noun data security t mn(ə)l redi/ noun full form of DTR protection of data against corruption or un- data transaction / detə tr n data transaction authorised users z kʃən/ noun one complete operation on dataset / detəset/ noun US same as dataset data modem (US) data transfer rate / detə tr nsf data transfer rate data set ready / detə set redi/ noun ret/ noun the rate at which data is moved data set ready full form of DSR from one point to another
  • 100. Computing.fm Page 94 Friday, December 19, 2003 7:16 PMdata translation 94data translation / detə tr nsdata translation DBA / di bi e/ noun a person in charge DBA leʃ(ə)n/ noun the conversion of data of running and maintaining a database sys-from one system format to another tem. Full form database administratordata transmission / detə tr nzdata transmission DB connector / di bi kə nektə/ noun DB connector mʃ(ə)n/ noun the process of sending a D-shape connector normally with twodata from one location to another over a rows of pins used to connect devices thatdata link transfer data ć The most common DB con-data type / detə tap/ noun a categorydata type nectors are DB-9, DB-25 and DB-50 withof data which can be stored in a register, 9, 25 and 50 connections respectively. Fulle.g. a string or number form data bus connectordata validation / detə v ldeʃ(ə)n/data validation DBMS / di bi em es/ noun a series of DBMSnoun the process of checking data for er- programs that allow the user to create andrors and relevance in a situation modify databases easily. Full form data-data vetting / detə vetŋ/ noun thedata vetting base management system. Also calledprocess of checking data as it is input, for database managererrors and validity DC abbr direct current DCdata warehouse / detə weəhaυs/data warehouse DCA / di si e/ noun a document for- DCAnoun a database used for analysing the mat defined by IBM that allows docu-overall strategy of a business rather than its ments to be exchanged between computerroutine operations systems. Full form document contentdata word / detə w d/ noun a piece ofdata word architecturedata stored as a single word DCC / di si si / noun a magnetic tape in DCCdata word length / detə w d leŋθ/data word length a compact cassette box that is used to storenoun the number of bits that make up a computer data or audio signals in a digitalword in a computer format. Full form digital compact cas-DAT drive / d t drav/ noun a mechan-DAT drive setteical drive that records data onto a DAT and DCD / di si di / noun an RS232C sig- DCDretrieves data from a tape ć We use a DAT nal from a modem to a computer indicat-drive as the backup device for our net- ing a carrier is being received ć The call iswork. stopped if the software does not receive adate /det/ noun the current day, monthdate DCD signal from the modem. Full formand year stored on your computer ˽ to data carrier detectkeep something up to date to keep adding DCE abbr data communications equip- DCEinformation to something so that it is al- mentways up to date ć We spend a lot of time DCE rate / di si i ret/ plural noun DCE ratekeeping our files up to date. the number of bits of information that adate-time / det tam/ noun the currentdate-time modem can transmit per second over a tel-time and date stored on your computer ephone line, e.g. 36,600 bps (NOTE: This is(NOTE: Each PC has a tiny battery inside not the same as the DTE rate whichit that allows one area of memory to store measures how fast a modem can ex-the current time and date. If you need to change data with another PC and takeschange the time or date in Windows, use into account data compression.)the Control Panel feature.) DCOM / di kɒm/ noun an enhanced ver- DCOMdaughter board / dɔ tə bɔ d/ noun andaughter board sion of the COM specification that allowsadd-on board that connects to a system applications to access objects over a net-motherboard work or over the Internet. Full form dis-daylight saving time / delat sevŋdaylight saving time tributed component object model tam/ noun a scheme that defines changes DC signalling / di si s n(ə)lŋ/ DC signallingin time over the course of a year, which inthe UK involves moving the clocks for- noun a method of communications usingward by one hour at a particular date in pulses of current over a wire circuit, like aspring and backward by one hour at a par- telegraph system DCT abbr discrete cosine transform DCTticular date in the autumn (NOTE: Windows DD abbr double density DDwill automatically detect if the systemtime and date needs to be adjusted and DDC / di di si / noun a machine oper- DDCeither effect it or warn you.) ated automatically by machine. Full formdB abbr decibeldB direct digital control
  • 101. Computing.fm Page 95 Friday, December 19, 2003 7:16 PM 95 decentralised data processing DD/D / di di di / noun a piece of soft- DD/D deallocate /di ləket/ verb to free re- deallocate ware which gives a list of types and forms sources previously allocated to a job, proc- of data contained in a database. Full form ess or peripheral ć When a reset button is data dictionary/directory pressed all resources are deallocated. DDE / di di i / noun 1. the keying in of DDE (NOTE: deallocates – deallocating – data directly onto disk. Full form direct deallocated) data entry 2. a method in which two ac- debit / debt/ noun a bit transmission debit tive programs can exchange data, one pro- rate that is twice the baud rate gram asking the operating system to create deblock /di blɒk/ verb to return a deblock a link between the two programs. Full stored block of data to its original form of form dynamic data exchange individual records DDL / di di el/ noun a part of database DDL de-bounce /di baυns/ noun the proc- de-bounce system software which describes the struc- ess of preventing a single touch on a key ture of the system and data ć Many of from giving multiple key contact DDL’s advantages come from the fact that de-bounce circuit /di baυns s kt/ de-bounce circuit it is a second generation language. Full noun an electronic circuit that prevents a form data description language key contact from producing more than one DDP / di di pi / noun the process of de- DDP signal when pressed riving information from data which is kept debug /di b / verb to test a program debug in different places. Full form distributed and locate and correct any faults or errors data processing ć They spent weeks debugging the system. DDR memory / di di ɑ mem(ə)ri/ DDR memory (NOTE: debugging – debugged) noun the set of electronic memory compo- ‘Further questions, such as how you debug an appli- nents used for RAM storage in computers cation built from multi- sourced software to run on and peripherals. Full form double data multisourced hardware, must be resolved at this rate memory stage.’ [Computing] dead /ded/ adjective referring to a com- dead DEBUG /di b DEBUG / noun an MS-DOS puter or piece of equipment that does not software utility that allows a user to view function the contents of binary files and assemble deaden / ded(ə)n/ verb to make a sound deaden small assembly-language programs debugged program / di b d debugged program or colour less sharp ć Acoustic hoods are used to deaden the noise of printers. prəυ r m/ noun a piece of software that dead halt / ded hɔ lt/ noun a program dead halt works correctly and in which all the mis- instruction from the user or an error that takes have been removed or corrected debugger /di b ə/ noun a piece of debugger causes the program to stop without allow- ing recovery software that helps a programmer find dead key / ded ki / plural noun any one dead key faults or errors in a program of the keys on a keyboard that cause a decade / deked/ noun a set of ten items decade function rather than a character to occur, or events e.g. the shift key decay /d ke/ noun the process of a decay deadlock / ded lɒk/, deadly embrace deadlock sound signal fading away ć With a short / dedli m bres/ noun a situation in decay, it sounds very sharp. which two users want to access the same deceleration time /di selə reʃ(ə)n deceleration time two resources at the same time and one re- tam/ noun the time taken for an access source is assigned to each user, leaving arm to come to a stop after it has moved to neither able to use the other the correct location over the surface of a deadstart / dedstɑ t/ verb same as deadstart hard disk cold boot decentralised computer network decentralised computer network dead time / ded tam/ noun a period of /di sentrə lazd kəm pju tə/, decen- dead time time between two events in which nothing tralized computer network noun a net- happens, to ensure that they do not inter- work where the control is shared between fere with each other ć Efficient job man- several computers agement minimises dead time. decentralised data processing /di decentralised data processing deal /di l/ noun a business agreement or deal sentrə lazd detə/, decentralized contract í verb ˽ to deal with something data processing noun data processing to organise or handle something ć Leave it and storage carried out at each location to the DP manager – he’ll deal with it. rather than in one central location
  • 102. Computing.fm Page 96 Friday, December 19, 2003 7:16 PMdecibel 96decibel / desbel/ noun a unit for meas-decibel stant or variable. Also called declarativeuring the power of a sound or the strength statementof a signal. Abbr dB (NOTE: The decibel declarative language /d kl rətv declarative languagescale is logarithmic.) l ŋ wd / noun a programming lan-deciding factor /d sadŋ f ktə/deciding factor guage, usually in a database application, innoun the most important factor which in- which you enter what you want to achieve,fluences someone’s decision ć The decid- rather than instructionsing factor was the superb graphics. declare /d kleə/ verb to define a com- declaredecimal tabbing / desm(ə)l t bŋ/decimal tabbing puter program variable or to set a variablenoun the process of adjusting a column of equal to a number ć He declared at thenumbers so that the decimal points are ver- start of the program that X was equal totically aligned nine. (NOTE: declares – declaring – de-decimal tab key / desm(ə)l t b ki /decimal tab key clared)noun a key for entering decimal numbers, decode /di kəυd/ verb to translate en- decodeusing a word-processor, so that the deci- coded data back to its original form (NOTE:mal points are automatically vertically decodes – decoding – decoded)aligned decoder /di kəυdə/ noun a program or decoderdecimal-to-binarydecimal-to-binary conversion conversion device used to convert data into another/ desm(ə)l tə banəri kən v ʃ(ə)n/ formnoun the process of converting a decimal decode unit /di kəυd ju nt/ noun a decode unitnumber into a binary digit, i.e. base 10 into part of a microprocessor that translates abase 2 complex instruction into a simple formdecipher /d safə/ verb to convert andecipher that the ALU part of the processor can un-encrypted or encoded message (cipher- derstand and processtext) into the original message (plaintext). decollate / di kə let/ verb to separate decollateOpposite encipher continuous stationery into single sheetsdecision box /d s (ə)n bɒks/ noun adecision box decollator / di kə letə/ noun a ma- decollatorgraphical symbol used in a flowchart to in- chine used to separate continuous station-dicate that a decision is to be made and a ery into single sheets or to split 2-part or 3-branch or path or action carried out ac- part stationery into separate partscording to the result decompilation /di kɒmp leʃ(ə)n/ decompilationdecision circuit /d s (ə)n s kt/decision circuit noun the conversion of a compiled pro-noun a logical circuit that operates on bi- gram in object code into a source languagenary inputs, producing an output accord- ć fast incremental compilation and de-ing to the function set in hardware compilationdecision instruction /d s (ə)n ndecision instruction decompiler / di kəm palə/ noun a decompiler str kʃən/ noun a conditional program computer program that translates basicinstruction that directs control by provid- machine code back into high-level sourceing the location of the next instruction to codebe executed if a condition is met decompress / di kəm pres/ verb 1. to decompressdecision support system /ddecision support system take electronic data that has been com- s (ə)n sə pɔ t sstəm/ noun a suite of pressed and expand it to its normal extentprograms that helps a manager reach deci- 2. to be expanded to its normal extentsions using previous decisions, informa- again after being compressed ć Such filestion and other databases decompress easily.decision table /d s (ə)n teb(ə)l/decision table decompression / di kəm preʃ(ə)n/ decompressionnoun a chart that shows the relationships noun the process of expanding a com-between certain variables and actions pressed image or data file so that it can beavailable when various conditions are met vieweddecision tree /d s (ə)n tri / noun adecision tree decrement / dekrmənt/ verb to sub- decrementgraphical representation of a decision ta- tract a set number from a variable ć Theble showing possible paths and actions if register contents were decremented untildifferent conditions are met they reached zero.declara