Composed 1862. Had piano and voice lessons but never intended to pursue a musical career but when she went to an army camp in Washington and heard the song “John Brown’s Body” and the verse “his soul is marching on” she refined it into what we know today. The basis for the refrain “Glory Hallelujah” is from camp meeting hymns
Battle Hymn of the Republic
Was first published as a poem in Atlantic Monthly
Is a tribute in some ways to John Brown and was inspired by the song “John Brown’s Body”
Juliet Ward Howe lived +90 years , from 1819-1910.
George F. Root
George had formal musical training, but set out deliberately to pursue music as a career
Wrote “The Battle Cry for Freedom”
His music was used throughout the war and the confederates used the tune in their own parodies of the song: our Dixie forever/ she’s never at a loss/ down with the eagle up with the cross/
The song sold 350,000 copies
Root and Mason established the Normal Musical Institute for Teachers.
Daniel Decatur Emmett
Wrote the song “I Wish I Was in Dixie’s Land” also known as “Dixie’s” it is sometimes used as a novelty car horn
Emmett was a northerner but his song is most loved by the south. But before the war was also popular in the north.
Lincoln mentioned “Dixie” in one of his speeches
Wrote “The Bonnie Blue Flag” which was the second most popular confederate song, listen for the cheer an extra musical element .
Five of the confederate states flew flags with white stars in a blue field as described by the lyrics
The union parodied the song to praise the “good old flag that bears the stripes and stars”
The Publisher A. E. Blackmar was arrested by a union general and fined $500, also anyone heard singing or humming the tune was to be fined $25
A military regiment band usually consisted of brass and/or drums because the fragile woodwind instruments didn’t hold up to the rigors of combat and camp life. They had limited tonal range because they were mostly fife, bugle and drums.
The term for making sounds on a drum is rudiments
Bugles borrowed European tradition of notes from a harmonic series . Coronet = saxhorn
Soldiers often brought guitars, fiddles or banjos when they enlisted for entertainment and to feel closer to home
Brass Bands were issued higher quality instruments, and flourished, but due to cost the war departments began to forbid them…musters
How many regiments make up a brigade? Three
“ Taps” , written by Dan Butterfield in 1862 and was first used by The Army of the Potomac
Signals by a bugle told the soldiers what to do. Reveille was used to wake soldiers up.
Rouges March was played when deserters rejoined the regiment.
Quicksteps was played before a battle
Performing for Dress Parade was the most important occasion for military bands.
Confederate Bands vs. Union Bands
Unlike union bands the confederates always had to serve as soldiers, union band members could be medics, burial/trench diggers, cooks.
An estimated 3,000 union bands and only 125 confederate bands.
Brass Band School was established in 1853
Civil war bands sought matched sets of instruments because of the differences in tone of mismatched sets.
Soldiers music may be issued broadsides single sheet of music for a song, or songsters pocket size booklet with multiple songs, also known as the soldiers companion.
Brodhead Brass Band
Founded in 1857
Its members enlisted in the 3 rd Wisconsin Regiment.
Un Ballo in Maschera Quickstep
A work by Claudio Grafulla, the leader of the 7 th Regiment Band of New York
The title means “A Masked Ball”
It was a three-act opera by the nineteenth-century Italian Giuseppe Verdi
Premiered in America in 1861 at the New York Academy of Music
A Masked Ball continued
A quickstep is a march genre in duple meter, performed faster than ceremonial marches
Known for light, chordal accompaniment and the sectional form consisting of repeated eight-bar phrases
The Vacant Chair
Written by Henry S. Washburn
Reflects the anguish of the thousands of families who faced family gatherings without loved ones (lyrics reflect the conflict and toll of war)
Written in honor of eighteen-year-old Lt. John William Grout of the 15 th Mass. Infantry who died at the battle of Balls Bluff
First published in Worcester (Mass) Spy
When Johnny Comes Marching Home
Composed by Patrick Gilmore
Popular with both North and South troops
Was dedicated to the Army and Navy of the Union
Song was developed from the Irish air, “Johnny We Hardly Knew Ye.”
The minor tonality of piece combined with brisk tempo provides a slightly melancholy tone for text, which is optimistic about the eventual return of a loved one
Hutchinson Family Singers
Toured Europe in mid-1840s, very popular they could earn $1,000.00 per event.
They sang in 4-part harmony, they were the first protest band singing for the abolition cause and later temperance , followed by women’s suffrage.
They sought to perform before integrated audiences and knew Fredrick Douglas well.
The song Granite Slate nearly became another National Anthem