Which two parties dominated the political parties of the United States during the Mexican-American War?
Whigs and Democrats
Which state was the first to secede from the Union?
Leaving the decision to the people of a territory as to whether to become a free or slave state was called _______?
Who published The Liberator and was one of the first to call slavery a national sin?
William Lloyd Garrison
Approximately how many African-Americans were liberated as a result of the Civil War?
Due to the fracture in the Whig Party, Lincoln became a member of what political party?
Which side had a decisive victory at Bull Run?
Which Civil War battle was the largest?
How many soldiers lost their lives at Gettysburg?
Approximately how many soldiers lost their lives during the Civil War?
In what way did the Northern states help to support slavery as an economic institution?
What was the general time frame of the Mexican-American War?
Which states or territories came into existence as a result of the Mexican-American War?
Texas, New Mexico, Arizona, California
Which Illinois senator proposed the Kansas-Nebraska Act?
What was the outcome of the Dred Scott decision?
Sanford won. Slaves were property and had no legal rights.
Which Chief Justice ruled against Dred Scott?
Chief Justice Roger Taney
The Missouri Compromise attempted to forbid slavery at latitudes above what degree?
What were the South’s cash crops?
Cotton, tobacco, rice, indigo
Which U.S. Amendment was written to calm northerners and southerners who feared an overpowered central government?
10 th Amendment (elastic clause)
Which Confederate general was offered command of the Union armies by Lincoln?
General Robert E. Lee
Who wrote Uncle Tom’s Cabin ?
Harriet Beecher Stowe
What effect did the Compromises of 1820-1850 have on the Civil War?
1820= Maine-free, Missouri-slave
1850= Texas gets $10 million. Fugitive Slave Act passed. (Any state west of Texas had to be free.) Source
Who did Herman Melville describe as a “meteor of war”?
What revolt resulted in 60 people being killed by black slaves?
What plan was submitted to Congress in 1860 to attempt to stop the war?
Which state was declared neutral at the beginning of the war?
What was the “immediate cause” of the war?
South Carolina seceding (state’s rights)
What year was the Harper’s Ferry raid?
What was the bloodiest battle?
Where was the Confederate capital?
(Two possible answers)
Who commanded the Confederate soldiers at the Battle of Bull Run?
Joseph E. Johnston
What name was given to the Union plan to block Confederate seaports?
Which Union general had success on the western fronts of the war, taking Fort Henry in Tennessee?
Ulysses S. Grant
In which battle does Buells’ troop join Grant’s troops to overwhelm the Confederates?
What was the name of the Confederate gunboat that was purposely destroyed rather than allowed to fall into enemy hands?
Which Union commander in St. Louis proclaimed all slaves owned by Confederates in Missouri were free?
In Ex Parte Merryman which Chief Justice ruled against Lincoln’s suspension of habeas corpus ?
Prior to moving the Confederate capital to Richmond, Virginia where was it located?
What name was given to the Northern Democratic faction that opposed the Civil War?
Who was the commander for the Union at the Battle of Bull Run?
Who served as the Secretary of War during the Pierce administration?
Which side believed Great Britain would come to their aid and help shorten the length of the Civil War?
Who was dubbed the “Young Napoleon” for the Union army and succeeded General Irvin McDowell?
George B. McClellan
On the eve of the Civil War, about what percent of Southerners were employed in agriculture?
Name one major effect of labor shortages in the South during the war.
African-Americans began working in factories.
General George McClellan had military success early in the war in what theater of operation?
Following Antietam, which general was replaced by Lincoln?
George McClellan was replaced by Ambrose E. Burnside
Under which political party would McClellan run for President in 1864?
What stance did McClellan have regarding the status of African Americans during the Civil War?
They should remain in the South. Slavery wasn’t the main issue of the war, preservation of the Union was.
Had McClellan run for the Presidency in 1868, whom would he had to beat to get the Democratic nomination?
Andrew Johnson and Horatio Seymour
What Republican nominee did George McClellan have to run against in the 1868 election?
Ulysses S. Grant
During the Civil War, this black woman had an experience much like Rosa Parks, albeit on a train rather than a bus.
Who is: Harriet Tubman?
Who said, “If we were to arm them, I fear that in a few weeks the arms would be in the hands of the rebels”?
In 1862, Congress passed this act freeing all slaves owned by pro-Confederate slaveholders.
The Second Confiscation Act
In what year did Congress pass the Militia Act authorizing enlistment of black soldiers?
The Militia Act of 1862
Which Confederate General captures Harper’s Ferry Arsenal?
Which leader commands the Army of Northern Virginia?
Robert E. Lee
Which Union leader commands the Army of the Potomac, finds Lee’s orders detailing the position of the Army of Northern Virginia but fails to act?
Although this bloodiest of all battles was a tactical stalemate, which side could claim victory based on the other side’s withdrawal?
Antietam, South withdraws
Which political party gained 32 seats in the House of Representatives in 1862?
Which political party was the majority following the mid-term election?
Why were so many Northerners reluctant to see an emancipation of slavery?
They didn’t want to lose their jobs to the African-Americans.
What ship did Capt. Charles Wiles commandeer when he arrested two Confederate commissioners on their way to Europe to presumably gain Great Britain’s alliance?
The Confederate faith in “King Cotton Diplomacy” was misplaced as Great Britain found cotton resources from which country?
Egypt and India
Which battle and which proclamation basically put an end to the possibility of European intervention?
Antietam and the Emancipation Proclamation
Which two Union generals were given the order to try and take the Confederate stronghold at Vicksburg?
Ulysses Grant & William Tecumseh Sherman
This Confederate general was accidentally shot by friendly fire, had a limb amputated, and eventually died of pneumonia?
Which was Lincoln’s MOST important motive for the Emancipation Proclamation, moral imperative or military necessity?
Who was the commander of the Army of the Potomac who suffered a costly defeat at Fredericksburg?
General Ambrose Burnside
Who served as Lincoln’s Secretary of State?
William Henry Seward
Who served as Lincoln’s Secretary of Treasury, was on the $10,000 bill, oversaw the Bureau of Internal Revenue (later the IRS) and was also appointed a Supreme Court justice by Lincoln?
Samuel P. Chase
Name the four border states during the Civil War?
Kentucky, Missouri, Maryland, Delaware
Lincoln was referring to which act, when he said, “If my name ever goes down in history it will be for this act, and my soul is in it.”
The Emancipation Proclamation applied to only enslaved blacks behind enemy lines– nationwide abolition of slavery had to wait until which amendment?
13 th Amendment
Whom did Lincoln appoint as General of the Army of the Potomac to replace General Hooker?
Which side was victorious at Gettysburg?
Why did Lincoln become upset with General Meade despite his leading the Union to victory at Gettysburg?
He failed to pursue the enemy much like McClellan had at Antietam.
What position did Hannibal Hamlin have in Lincoln’s administration?
He served as Lincoln’s first Vice President.
Which Union general reportedly never questioned Lincoln’s authority as Commander in Chief?
Which two major battles did the South lose during the summer of 1863?
Gettysburg and Vicksburg
In May of 1863 Lee scored a victory at this battle defeating General Hooker’s Union troops by splitting into three sections and sending the remaining Union troops back across the Rappahannock River.
Prior to laying siege on Vicksburg, Grant captured this capital city.
The battle over this city in Tennessee required Grant to save the day and helped stage the Atlanta campaign for General Sherman.
The Union draft or Enrollment Act of 1863 made all men from age twenty to _________ eligible for the draft?
If you had money and could find a substitute to take your place after being drafted to the Union cause, how much money would it cost to avoid service?
About what percent of the Union Army was comprised of draftees or substitutes?
True or False, James McPherson’s general thesis states that it was inevitable that the South would lose?
False. McPherson didn’t believe it was inevitable at all.
Is the following statement an internal or external explanation for why the South lost: “Southern yeoman farmers became alienated due to high inflation, food shortages, and risking their lives to defend slavery.”
Which of the following is not an internal explanation for why the South lost: 1.The Confederacy lacked a strong sense of nationalism, 2. they blamed the inept leadership of Jefferson Davis, or 3. because the North had greater population and infrastructure?
Because the North had greater population and infrastructure.
What is the Latin term for the suspension of civil liberties?
Which Chief Justice condemned Lincoln’s suspension of habeas corpus?
Chief Justice Roger Taney
What was the treasonous act that lead to Merryman’s arrest?
Pledged armed resistance against the Union and was in favor of secession.
Which amendment puts the word “equal” into the Constitution for the first time?
14 th Amendment.
“ No state shall . . . deny to any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws.”
True or False: Lincoln elevated majority rule at the expense of liberty and law.
According to Eric Foner, was internal dissent more widespread in the North or in the South?
Which state did Andrew Johnson hail from and had over 31,000 volunteers join the Union army despite being a Southern state?
True or False: Tennessee was one of the few southern states in which more whites than blacks volunteered for the Union army.
Which best describes a typical Tennessee volunteer to the Union cause?
a river merchant on the Mississippi
a plantation owner
an upland yeoman farmer
An upland yeoman farmer
The Confederate army would take food and oxen from farmers. This was called _______.
Congress established a new organization of government to educate emancipated blacks. This was called the _________.
Although grateful for the opportunity to become literate most black men were more concerned about gaining what?
Which radical abolitionist from Pennsylvania, proposed in 1863, that seceded states be treated as conquered lands?
Which senator from Massachusetts proposed that seceded states revert back to territorial status?
What did Lincoln do when the Wade-Davis Bill crossed his desk asking for 50% of a seceded states populace to give an iron-clad oath before they could vote for delegates to a constitutional convention?
He vetoed the bill. Lincoln argued he had the power under the executive branch to restore order as the seceded states were considered an insurrection. The legislative branch thought they should construct laws concerning reconstruction.
Prior to the election of 1864 who declared in the New York Tribune , “Mr. Lincoln is already beaten. He cannot be reelected. And we must have another ticket to save us from utter overthrow”.
Horace Greeley (editor)
Which party called themselves the National Union party in the 1864 election?
Were soldiers more inclined to vote for McClellan or Lincoln during the election of 1864?
Which political group made claim that the other group were guilty of treason and which group claimed their rival promoted miscegenation or interracial relations.
Republicans called the democrats copperheads and claimed they were guilty of treason, Democrats promoted a propaganda that republicans promoted miscegenation.
By the summer of 1864 Grant had assumed control of the Army of the Potomac and Sherman was marching his troops to lay siege on which major city of the South?
Sherman marched toward Atlanta
Why did General Lee resort to the tactic of battles in second growth forest A.K.A. Wilderness rather than engage Grant in an open field?
Numbers were on Grant’s side. Lee could claim a tactical victory as his casualties were less 17,000 v. 11,000 at Wilderness
Sherman had Atlanta as his goal at this point in the war, which city was Grant now focused on?
Following the devastation of Atlanta by Sherman’s troops which city did they next attack in an attempt to lower the Confederate morale even more?
Why was Petersburg, Virginia a strategic location for Grant to conquer prior to attacking Richmond Virginia?
It had railroads that led to Richmond and was only 30 miles south of Richmond. By cutting off rail support and supplies Grant could thereby secure victory.
Who made the following statement, “The problem of the 20 th Century is the problem of the color line; the relation of the darker to the lighter races of men in Asia and Africa, in America and the islands of the sea.” He later remarked, “I was in Harvard but not of it”.
W.E.B. Du Bois
Prior to the Civil War and the Freedman’s Bureau there were a number of organizations that were developed to help with fugitive or emancipated slaves.
Freedman Aid Society
American Missionary Association
National Freedman's Relief Association
American Freedman’s Union
Western Freedman’s Aid Commission
How long was the Freedman’s Bureau intended to last?
Through the remainder of the War and one year thereafter.
True or False:
In 1866, Andrew Johnson vetoed the Freedman’s Renewal Bill.
True. This angered the Republicans.
Who was considered the most dangerous man in the world and said to have all the attributes of man merged in the enormities of the demon by the Macon Telegraph ?
William T. Sherman
Who said, “we are not only fighting hostile armies, but a hostile people, and must make old and young, rich and poor feel the hard hand or war, as well as their organized armies.”
William T. Sherman
This comment was made after what military campaign? “The Federal Army generally behaved very well in this State. I don’t think there was ever any army in the world that would have behaved better, on a similar expedition, in an enemy country. Our army certainly wouldn't.”
Sherman's March to the Sea.
To which experience is this soldier referring when he stated, “For the second time in my army experience, the first was after the reception of the news of the battle of Bull Run, I saw men, even unemotional Americans, shed tears over a public misfortune” ?
At the time of Lincoln’s assassination where were Sherman’s troops?
Sherman’s armies were battling Johnston’s in North Carolina
Which of the following nicknames were given to Lincoln?
All three were given to Lincoln as well, “Honest Abe” of course.
Which army was Lincoln most closely affiliated to because they defended the Washington D.C. area?
The Army of the Potomac
Robert E. Lee surrendered at this court house on April 9, 1865.
Lincoln proposed widespread amnesty to southern states with his “ ______ % Plan”.
Ten Percent Plan. This was also known as the “Proclamation of Amnesty and Reconstruction”.
Which state was the first to fall under the Ten Percent Plan?
Louisiana. Louisiana agreed to the terms but was not the first to be readmitted to the Union.
Tennessee readmitted to the Union - July 24, 1866
Congress thought the Ten Percent Plan was too lenient and proposed which bill that Lincoln vetoed?
Wade–Davis Bill. It required 50 % of the voting public to give an iron-clad allegiance to the Union for re-admittance.
What name was given to a series of laws designed to keep blacks in a position of inferior status?
By failing to allow full civil rights to freed black people, the South set up an institution, like that known in South Africa until the late 1980s, known as?
Apartheid. Separation of races was widespread through the mid 1960s in the US and into the late 1980s in South Africa.
Under which Act, in 1867, were all Confederate states, (except Tennessee) removed from the Union and placed under temporary military rule?
The Reconstruction Act of 1867
In order to reunite with the Union, southern states had to allow universal suffrage and ratify which amendment?
14 th Amendment
Which southern state actually voted into office a black senator?
A northerner that moved to the south after the Civil War was often called a what?
Southern whites that joined the Republican Party were called what?
These grassroots organizations aimed at terrorizing blacks:
The Ku Klux Klan
The White League
and the Knights of the _______ _______
Although Congress enacted the 14 th and 15 th Amendments to secure blacks’ rights, as well as the Civil Rights Act of 1875, perhaps the real reason efforts to resolve the crisis of racial democracy in the south was due to:
a. black codes
b. fear of a despotic central government
c. riffs between Democrats and Republicans
b. fear of an overly powerful central government. Less than 100 years before the Civil War colonists were breaking from Great Britain because they were viewed as a despotic tyranny. Local governmental control versus Federal intervention was the rule of the day. Little Rock and Brown v. Topeka Board of Education didn’t happen to the 1950s.
Local Democratic organizations formed armed militias and instigated riots as part of a campaign of voter intimidation known as the what?
The Republican Party compromised their position to help blacks vote by use of Federal intervention so that they could win the election of 1876 and thereby put who into office as president?
Rutherford B. Hayes
This was called the Compromise of 1877 and no longer would there be a commitment to racial democracy in the south under the Republican Party.
Which Southern state was the last to secede from the Union and first to reclaim its seat in the U.S. Congress after the Civil War?
Andrew Johnson acted as a radical Republican during his tenure as the military governor of Tennessee; and seemed destined as Vice President and President to remain loyal to the Republican cause; but broke with the Republicans over which issue?
He wanted readmitted states to ratify the 13 th Amendment but did not side with the Republican Party on the issue of voting rights for blacks. Johnson wanted a central government that did not interfere with states rights.
What reason did Andrew Johnson cite for vetoing legislation to renew the Freedman’s Bureau and the Civil Rights Bill in 1866?
He claimed it concentrated too much power in the central government.
Which bill, that Johnson vetoed, was the first in U.S. history to be overridden by Congress and made into law?
The Civil Rights Act of 1867
Who, expressed the following excerpt from Theodore Rosengarten’s, All God’s Dangers: The Life of Nate Shaw.
“ In my condition, and the way I see it for everybody, if you don’t make enough money to have some left you aint done nothing, except given the other fellow your labor.”
What was Ned Cobb making commentary on ?
Most blacks wanted to own their own land, have 40 acres and a mule, but the reality was they were most likely going to be a sharecropper under a plantation owner; possibly the previous slave owner and in many ways they were an indentured servant that worked to pay off debts.
Following emancipation and during the early part of Reconstruction many blacks attempted the following EXCEPT:
a. owning their own land
b. taking a new surname
c. returning to Africa
d. officially being married
e. reuniting with family
Returning to Africa. Although moving to West Africa, especially Liberia, became an option, few actually returned.
Who wrote the following, “There is one thing that the white South feared more than Negro dishonesty, ignorance and incompetence, and that was Negro honesty, knowledge and efficiency.”
a. Booker T. Washington
b. W.E.B. DuBois
c. Fredrick Douglas
W.E.B. Du Bois
True or False
It was commonplace for black preachers to tell their congregations to emulate the Jews.
The advice was often to become educated, be patient, ever seeking advancement…
Who commented that, “The Negro as a poor ignorant creature does not contradict the race pride of the white race, if he comes in ignorance, rags and wretchedness, he conforms to the popular belief of his character, then he is welcome.”
a. Booker T. Washington
b. W.E.B. Dubois
c. Fredrick Douglas
True or False
Issiah Montgomery the only black delegate to the Mississippi Convention approved a reduction in black voting based on literacy and a poll tax.
He was convinced that becoming literate and paying poll taxes would encourage blacks to improve themselves.
This author of Native Son, born to sharecropper parents outside, Natchez, Mississippi once commented, “Indeed the white brutality that I had not seen was a more effective control of my behavior than that which I knew”.
Who is: Richard Wright
Prior to cinema depicting blacks as buffoons and half-wits two other stage shows introduced this awful stereotype. Name them.