ទ              ន ទ                                 ប    ព    ង                 ក                ទទ       ថព          ផក   ...
កទកកមន ង                យគ              យកទកមកជន                                  យ ក                  ច                 យ...
Socrates is the wisest man                                       The Socratic Philosophy        But Socrates would not com...
,the poets, or the craftsmen, that what the oracle at Delphi meant was not that Socrates is wise butthat he at least knows...
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ទស្សនវិទូ​ សូក្រាត Socrat


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ទស្សនវិទូ​ សូក្រាត Socrat

  1. 1. ទ ន ទ ប ព ង ក ទទ ថព ផក ប ជ កង ថចង យ នជ ប ក ន ពក Sophronisque ងច កថនង យ Phénarète ឆប កន ក ទ កងAthènesកងខ Alopèce កព ក កម ង ប បTrentes ម ទប Spartes ន មមន យប ង ន យម ង ទ នAristophaneន យច ក យ មន ព កប ញ ង កក ម ចÉchine នប ង ន មន គបង បន ក នធ នក មន គ ព ជ ធម( ប បបប ) យ ក ទ ន ទទមយ គ ប ជ យ នប ជ មនចង ធ យទ ក ង ធ ន កច ច កគ ង នច យ បយទ Amphipolis យ នជយ កXénophon ងព កចញព កងចប ងមយ Délium យ នជយ ជ Xénophon ខ ក កង ន គចខន ងប ច, យ បយទ កថយយ យ យ ប យ ក យមង យ មខន ច ច ម យញ ន បង មក ប ក មន ក បខន មន យ កប ន បកប យ ទន ពច ខន ង ថមយ Alcibiade( ប ក) ន បគ ជន កន ធមយ ម ទក ងផ នន យ Alcibiade បខ ក ជង យបន ងយក ក មក យខ ធ ក ជង យខន ង, បន ងជ ទ បទទ យក មក, មក គមនន យច ក យទ ? ញកញយ ព ងម គន នគ ក ក ទផ , ក នងខន ង “ Combien il y en a dont j`ai nulbesoin? “ ប នប ទ ង ប ន ខមន ? ក ពមយ ន ញក ប “ Ornements d`argent et de pourpre servent au théâtre ,non à lavie.” ប គង ប ង ព កនង ក ម ប ប ង ន,មន មន បជ ទ Aristote នន យ ន បពនព គXanthippe នផ កន ប មយ Lamproclès យ បពនមយ ទ គMyrto ក ន ប មយ យ នច ង យ ន នកនព កគSophroniques នង Ménéxène ក ប ខមមន ន យច ក ក យ យ ក ទ ក ក កង ក ថថ ប ក យមន ប ប យពន ក យ កច ច ន យ មន កពង ន យមនពន ម ទក មទ យមន
  2. 2. កទកកមន ង យគ យកទកមកជន យ ក ច យ ន បប មន ច គព ច ព ទ ទព ក ង ព គ គ ប ជនមយ ប បផ ច ក គ ,គ ធម ន មយ ទគ ច ង យគ ប ក ន មយ គ ចក ង ព ប នង ព គ គ គ ប ,មន មន ក ក យ ទ គ ន ប ព ក ញយ ង មន ប ង ? ក ឆយ ប កធ ង មច ក យ យ កទ ន យយ ជន យ មបខន ងកងក ក យ ប ឃញ ខន ង ប ម ន ទន ពច ខន ងច បនបឃញ ខន ង ប កក ញ មប ភច ង ង យច ងប ខន ង ថមយ ក ន ញភ ក ន មក ផ ប ក, ប Xanthippe បពន ប ក ន ម មន កងច កកន យ ប ក មញច , បពកគមន ទ ពក គនងច មក ងយ យ គច បនប ន ពក គ មន មន ញ មក នកង យ កន យ មន ទ ង ម កញ ម
  3. 3. Socrates is the wisest man The Socratic Philosophy But Socrates would not compromise with his view that he had been the benefactor of theAthenian public. To escape or to propose any penalty or fine ,however trivial, would be to admitguilt.Moreover, when his friends begged him to allow them arrange the escape, he argued that itwould be legally and morally wrong to escape ,since every citizen or a state has entered into a socialcontract to obey its laws. And he also argued that individuals who disobey the laws of their ownsociety tear away the foundation of group life. Socrates took his stand upon the abstract principles ofhis philosophy .This was his “ apology,” his defense of himself. It was for the truth of his philosophythat he was willing to die. It was for the truth of this philosophy that would not consent to beconciliatory to the judges or to the jury ,or to put him to death. But what was this philosophy forwhich he chose to die rather than to renounce to it? (1)The only true wisdom consists in knowing that you know nothing. Socrates says thisbecause the famous oracle at the shrine of Apollo at Delphi had said that no man living was wiserthan Socrates.So, says Socrates to the jury, I wanted to test what the oracle had said in order to provethat it was false .And so first I went to the statesmen, he says in his speech ,and I found that thosewhose reputation for wisdom was the very highest were in fact the most lacking in wisdom. And Iknew that I was wiser than the statesmen ,because at least I knew that I knew nothing. Then ,hecontinues, I went to the poets to see if some of the poets were not wiser than I. But I found out they កcreate their poetry not by wisdom but by inspiration.“ Like prophets ( .ក , បពជ …)who say many fine things but understand nothing of what they say.” But the poetsthought that they were the wisest of men in all other matters, too, because of their poetry. Then Iwent ,he says, to the craftsmen ,the artisans, and I found that they indeed did know many fine thingsthat I did not know, like how to build ship or to make shoes, but like the poets, they believedthemselves to be wise in matters of greatest importance because of the skill that they have in theirown craft, such as shoemaking. This tended to diminish the real knowledge that they did have. Andso, says Socrates, I conclude after discovering that wisdom cannot be found among the statesmen
  4. 4. ,the poets, or the craftsmen, that what the oracle at Delphi meant was not that Socrates is wise butthat he at least knows that he really knows nothing. (2)Socrates second philosophic point in his Apology is that the improvement or” tendance” of the soul ,the care for the wisdom and truth, is the highest good. This is why I goabout, he says, persuading old and young alike not to be concerned with your bodies andyour money, but first and foremost to care about the improvement of your soul. Notuntil you have pursued wisdom and truth ought you to think of money or fame or prestige or of thebody. Virtue does not come from money ,but from virtue comes money and every othergood thing for mankind, public and private. This ,says Socrates, is my teaching and if this isthe doctrine which corrupts the youth, I am a mischievous person. If anyone says that I teachanything else, he lies. (3)Isocrates’s third point is to say to the Athenians that if you condemn me, you will sinagainst the gods who have given me to you .I am a gadfly, he says, whom the gods gave to thestate,which is like a great and noble horse, sluggish and slow in his motion because of his vast size, andneeding to be stirred into life by my sting. That is why all day and in all places I am always alightingupon you to arouse and reproach you.You will not easily find another like me, he says, and thereforewould advisee you to spare me. (4)The fourth and the most important point in Socrates speech is the principle that virtue isknowledge .According to this principle, to know the good is to do the good.Evil, wrongdoing or viceare due to the lack of knowledge or to ignorance, and to nothing else. If virtue is knowledge and if toknow the good is to do the good, then wrongdoing comes only from failure to know what is good.And so in a famous line Socrates says” No one does evil voluntarily” .Knowing the good, no manwould voluntarily choose evil. But do we often say:” I acted against my better judgment” or ” I reallyknew better ?” According to Socrates, this sounds absurd, because if you really did know better, ifyou really understood the right thing to do. you would have done it. If you really had had betterjudgment than you used ,you would have acted on it, not against it. Socrates insists that when onedoes an evil act, it is always with the thought that it will bring one some good, some benefit. A thiefknows that stealing is wrong but he steals the diamond ring believing that it will impress a desiredfemale and will bring sexual favors. So also people spend their lives striving for power, or prestige, orwealth, thinking that one of these is good and will make them happy. But they do not know what isgood .They do not know that these are not good and will bring them happiness. One needs to knowhuman nature, the true nature of human beings, in order to know what is good for humans and whatwill bring happiness and in order to know how to live and what to strive to achieve. And not to delveinto this, never to know what is good for human beings is to live a life of striving to achieve but neverfinding happiness. Such a life Socrates calls unexamined .In one of his most famous lines Socratesdeclares that “ The unexamined life is not worth living.“ . From the book:” From Socrates to Sartre: the Philosophic Quest” By T.Z.LAVINE