Starting Up Space Industry and Solar         System Civilization   Philip Metzger, Ph.D., NASA/KSC/NE-S
Surface Systems Office• Our vision is to be the premiere government laboratory for the  development of surface systems at ...
Surface Systems Office• Applied Chemistry Lab  – Dr. Jackie Quinn• Granular Mechanics and Regolith Operations  (GMRO) Lab ...
KSC Swamp Works
Quick Attach and LANCE Blade
LANCE Blade on the LER
RASSOR
ISRU Systems
RASSOR – Low Gravity Mining Robot
Space Mining Companies• Planetary Resources, Inc.   – Asteroids   – Water• Shackleton Energy Corp.   – Moon   – Water• Ast...
Landing Pads
Regolith-Derived Heat Shield
Crossing the First Kardeshev Barrier and  becoming a Space-Faring Civilization            Philip Metzger, Ph.D.           ...
The Kardashev Scale of Civilizations                         Type 1                    Uses the energy                   o...
The Kardashev Scale of Civilizations                         Type 1                    Uses the energy                   o...
The Kardashev Scale of Civilizations                         Type 1                    Uses the energy                   o...
The Kardashev Scale of Civilizations                         Type 1                    Uses the energy                   o...
How About some Earlier Categories?Type 3 …an entire galaxyType 2 …an entire starType 1 …an entire planet
How About some Earlier Categories?Type 3 …an entire galaxyType 2 …an entire starType 1 …an entire planetType 0 …an entire ...
How About some Earlier Categories?Type 3 …an entire galaxyType 2 …an entire starType 1 …an entire planetType 0 …an entire ...
How About some Earlier Categories?Type 3 …an entire galaxyType 2 …an entire starType 1 …an entire planetType 0 …an entire ...
Some Predictions We are essentially Type I right now.    For Type II we have a choice:     achieve it in 50 - 100 years,  ...
Running Into the Planet’s Energy Barrier      Image credit: Wikipedia   Image credit: http://gasprices-usa.com/     Image ...
We do not have a resource problem.What we have is an imagination problem.               Philip.T.Metzger@nasa.gov
Crossing the Barriers: A New Level of Civilization
Inside an O’Neill Cylinder
Self Replicating Lunar Factories
GAME CHANGERS
Lunar Ice  “Now there is nothing thatcan’t be made on the Moon” –      Dr. Tony Muscatello
PROPOSED NEW APPROACH
Key Ideas• Don’t launch it; evolve it  – Not a simplistic “self-replicator”  – The biosphere and industry are not self-rep...
America, 1620Europe, 1620
Appropriate Technology Water Pumps
Generations of Industry (Notional)Gen Human/Robotic       Artificial   Scale of Industry                Materials         ...
Baseline values for Generation 1.0 in             Bootstrapping ModelAsset                        Qty. per   Mass minus   ...
•Simplistic Modeling•Not intended to be definitive•Explores some of the key parameters•Attempt to demonstrate basic feasib...
Additional Production• Gen 3.0  – 80 MT construction equipment• Gen 4.0  – Dust Free Laboratory Facilities• Gen 5.0  – 120...
Minimizing Launch Mass
Scenarios•   Global Relief Effort•   The Great Migration•   The Foundation•   The Space Endowment•   Anti Virus•   Nationa...
Cost/Benefit• Cost:  – Develop and launch 12 to 60 tons to Moon and operate it    for 20 years  – Launch costs will be neg...
Smaller Steps to Further Reduce              the Cost• Technologies developed for terrestrial usage  – E.g., Caterpillar  ...
INTERNATIONAL SPACE UNIVERSTIYAND OASIS
Space commerce is taking off: tourism, launch services, and miningSpace technology is advancing rapidlyRobotics can revolu...
We are near the limits of a Type 1 worldThere is a barrier at the end of the world      The barrier is starting to hurt   ...
Starting up space industry and solar system civilization
Starting up space industry and solar system civilization
Starting up space industry and solar system civilization
Starting up space industry and solar system civilization
Starting up space industry and solar system civilization
Starting up space industry and solar system civilization
Starting up space industry and solar system civilization
Starting up space industry and solar system civilization
Starting up space industry and solar system civilization
Starting up space industry and solar system civilization
Starting up space industry and solar system civilization
Starting up space industry and solar system civilization
Starting up space industry and solar system civilization
Starting up space industry and solar system civilization
Starting up space industry and solar system civilization
Starting up space industry and solar system civilization
Starting up space industry and solar system civilization
Starting up space industry and solar system civilization
Starting up space industry and solar system civilization
Starting up space industry and solar system civilization
Starting up space industry and solar system civilization
Starting up space industry and solar system civilization
Starting up space industry and solar system civilization
Starting up space industry and solar system civilization
Starting up space industry and solar system civilization
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Starting up space industry and solar system civilization

  1. 1. Starting Up Space Industry and Solar System Civilization Philip Metzger, Ph.D., NASA/KSC/NE-S
  2. 2. Surface Systems Office• Our vision is to be the premiere government laboratory for the development of surface systems at any space destination• Our mission is to provide government and commercial space ventures with the technologies they need for working and living on the surfaces of the Moon, planets, and other bodies in our solar system
  3. 3. Surface Systems Office• Applied Chemistry Lab – Dr. Jackie Quinn• Granular Mechanics and Regolith Operations (GMRO) Lab – Dr. Phil Metzger• Electrostatics and Surface Physics Lab – Dr. Carlos Calle• Advanced Life Support Lab – Dr. Ray Wheeler
  4. 4. KSC Swamp Works
  5. 5. Quick Attach and LANCE Blade
  6. 6. LANCE Blade on the LER
  7. 7. RASSOR
  8. 8. ISRU Systems
  9. 9. RASSOR – Low Gravity Mining Robot
  10. 10. Space Mining Companies• Planetary Resources, Inc. – Asteroids – Water• Shackleton Energy Corp. – Moon – Water• Astrobotic Technologies – Moon – Water• Moon Express – Moon – Metals• New company planning to announce in early December 2012
  11. 11. Landing Pads
  12. 12. Regolith-Derived Heat Shield
  13. 13. Crossing the First Kardeshev Barrier and becoming a Space-Faring Civilization Philip Metzger, Ph.D. NASA/KSC/NE-S
  14. 14. The Kardashev Scale of Civilizations Type 1 Uses the energy of an entire planet. Type 2 …of an entire star. Type 3 …of an entire galaxy.
  15. 15. The Kardashev Scale of Civilizations Type 1 Uses the energy of an entire planet. Type 2 …of an entire star. Type 3 …of an entire galaxy.
  16. 16. The Kardashev Scale of Civilizations Type 1 Uses the energy of an entire planet. Type 2 …of an entire star. Type 3 …of an entire galaxy.
  17. 17. The Kardashev Scale of Civilizations Type 1 Uses the energy of an entire planet. Type 2 …of an entire star. Type 3 …of an entire galaxy.
  18. 18. How About some Earlier Categories?Type 3 …an entire galaxyType 2 …an entire starType 1 …an entire planet
  19. 19. How About some Earlier Categories?Type 3 …an entire galaxyType 2 …an entire starType 1 …an entire planetType 0 …an entire continent
  20. 20. How About some Earlier Categories?Type 3 …an entire galaxyType 2 …an entire starType 1 …an entire planetType 0 …an entire continentType -1 …an entire river valley Image credit: Eric Desrentes, Panoramio
  21. 21. How About some Earlier Categories?Type 3 …an entire galaxyType 2 …an entire starType 1 …an entire planetType 0 …an entire continentType -1 …an entire river valleyType -2 …an isolated enclave Image credit: Eric Desrentes, Panoramio Image credit: Eric Desrentes, Panoramio
  22. 22. Some Predictions We are essentially Type I right now. For Type II we have a choice: achieve it in 50 - 100 years, or possibly never at all.If we achieve Type II, then Type III will come easily and fast.
  23. 23. Running Into the Planet’s Energy Barrier Image credit: Wikipedia Image credit: http://gasprices-usa.com/ Image credit: Wikipedia Image credit: Howard Rees
  24. 24. We do not have a resource problem.What we have is an imagination problem. Philip.T.Metzger@nasa.gov
  25. 25. Crossing the Barriers: A New Level of Civilization
  26. 26. Inside an O’Neill Cylinder
  27. 27. Self Replicating Lunar Factories
  28. 28. GAME CHANGERS
  29. 29. Lunar Ice “Now there is nothing thatcan’t be made on the Moon” – Dr. Tony Muscatello
  30. 30. PROPOSED NEW APPROACH
  31. 31. Key Ideas• Don’t launch it; evolve it – Not a simplistic “self-replicator” – The biosphere and industry are not self-replicators• Use “Appropriate Technology” at each step – It doesn’t need to be low mass or high tech – It needs to be easy to make in space• The technologies are already being developed – Simply “spin them in”• The technologies are advancing exponentially
  32. 32. America, 1620Europe, 1620
  33. 33. Appropriate Technology Water Pumps
  34. 34. Generations of Industry (Notional)Gen Human/Robotic Artificial Scale of Industry Materials Source of Electronics Interaction Intelligence Manufactured 1 Teleoperated Insect-like Imported, small-scale, limited Gases, water, crude Import fully integrated and/or locally- diversity alloys, ceramics, machines operated by a solar cells human outpost 2 Teleoperated Lizard-like Crude fabrication, inefficient, (Same) Import electronics boxes but greater throughput than 1.02.5 Teleoperated Lizard-like Diversifying processes, Plastics, rubbers, Fabricate crude components especially volatiles and metals some chemicals plus import electronics boxes 3 Teleoperated with Lizard-like Larger, more complex Diversify chemicals, Locally build PC cards, chassis experiments in processing plants Simple fabrics, and simple components, but autonomy eventually polymers. import the chips 4 Closely supervised Mouse-like Large plants for chemicals, Sandwiched and Building large assets such as autonomy with fabrics, metals other advanced lithography machines some teleoperation material processes 5 Loosely supervised Mouse-like Labs and factories for Large scale Make chips locally. Make bots autonomy electronics and robotics. production in situ for export to asteroid Shipyards to support main belt belt 6 Nearly full Monkey-like Large-scale, self-supporting Makes all necessary Makes everything locally, autonomy industry, exporting industry to materials, increasing increasing sophistication asteroid main belt sophisticationX.0 Autonomous Human-like Robust exports/imports through Material factories Electronics factories in various robotics pervasive zones of solar system specialized by zone locations throughout solar of the solar system system enabling human presence
  35. 35. Baseline values for Generation 1.0 in Bootstrapping ModelAsset Qty. per Mass minus Mass of Power (kW) Feedstock Input Product Output set Electronics Electronics (kg) (kg/hr) (kg/hr) (kg)Power Distrib & Backup 1 2000 – – – –Excavators (swarming) 5 70 19 0.30 20 –Chem Plant 1 – Gases 1 733 30 5.58 4 1.8Chem Plant 2 – Solids 1 733 30 5.58 10 1.0Metals Refinery 1 1019 19 10.00 20 3.15Solar Cell Manufacturer 1 169 19 0.50 ~0.3 –3D Printer 1 – Small parts 4 169 19 5.00 0.5 0.53D Printer 2 – Large parts 4 300 19 5.00 0.5 0.5Robonaut assemblers 3 135 15 0.40 – –Total per Set ~7.7 MT 64.36 kW 20 kg 4 kg launched to Moon regolith/hr parts/hr
  36. 36. •Simplistic Modeling•Not intended to be definitive•Explores some of the key parameters•Attempt to demonstrate basic feasibility•Intends to generate interest and further investigation•Needs a much larger study with a much larger group of contributors
  37. 37. Additional Production• Gen 3.0 – 80 MT construction equipment• Gen 4.0 – Dust Free Laboratory Facilities• Gen 5.0 – 120 MT materials stockpiled to send industry to asteroid main belt• Gen 6.0 – Fleet of 6 spacecraft (20 MT plus 12 MT payload, each plus propellants) – Takes industry to Main Belt
  38. 38. Minimizing Launch Mass
  39. 39. Scenarios• Global Relief Effort• The Great Migration• The Foundation• The Space Endowment• Anti Virus• National Defense
  40. 40. Cost/Benefit• Cost: – Develop and launch 12 to 60 tons to Moon and operate it for 20 years – Launch costs will be negligible using newer capabilities – Should be less expensive than ISS • Most mass will be redundant hardware, not unique items• Benefit – Move from being a Type-1 to a Type-2 civilization • Solve world economic problems • Make our existence safe in the solar system • Brilliant possibilities for the future – Move toward a Type-3 civilization • Extend human presence through the Milky Way
  41. 41. Smaller Steps to Further Reduce the Cost• Technologies developed for terrestrial usage – E.g., Caterpillar – Then spin them in to space usage• Commercial Space activities drive technology forward – Tourism, Novelties – Not a large economic contributor – Satellite launching & servicing• Orbiting Spaceport
  42. 42. INTERNATIONAL SPACE UNIVERSTIYAND OASIS
  43. 43. Space commerce is taking off: tourism, launch services, and miningSpace technology is advancing rapidlyRobotics can revolutionize the human conditionvia space resources in just one generationThere is already a business case for an expandingnetwork of spaceports
  44. 44. We are near the limits of a Type 1 worldThere is a barrier at the end of the world The barrier is starting to hurt We can leap that barrier!

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