THE ROAD TO INDEPENDENCE 1763-1775
KEY TERMS <ul><li>BOYCOTT:  REFUSAL TO BUY </li></ul>
KEY TERM <ul><li>MILITIA:  AN ARMY OF ORDINARY CITIZENS </li></ul>
KEY TERM <ul><li>MINUTEMAN:  COLONIAL MILITIA </li></ul><ul><li>(CITIZEN SOLDIER); NEEDED TO BE </li></ul><ul><li>READY AT...
KEY TERM <ul><li>ARTILLERY:  CANNONS & LARGE GUNS </li></ul>
The Enlightenment <ul><li>Time when natural rights philosophers like John Locke encouraged thinking. Locke is quoted in bo...
The French & Indian War 1754-1763 <ul><li>Conflict over disputed Ohio Valley. </li></ul><ul><li>Spread to Europe - known a...
TIGHTER BRITISH CONTROL <ul><li>PROCLAMATION OF 1763 :   IN RESPONSE TO </li></ul><ul><li>PONTIAC’S REBELLION, KING GEORGE...
 
Proclamation of 1763
REQUIRED THE COLONIES TO QUARTER (HOUSING & SUPPLIES) FOR BRITISH SOLDIERS   QUARTERING ACT OF 1765
QUARTERING ACT
TAXING THE COLONIES <ul><li>2 REASONS </li></ul><ul><li>WAR DEBT </li></ul><ul><li>$ TO KEEP SOLDIERS ON THE FRONTIER </li...
SUGAR ACT OF 1764: <ul><li>TAX ON SUGAR & MOLASSES </li></ul>
STAMP ACT 1765:   <ul><li>TAX ON PAPER PRODUCTS (DIPLOMAS, NEWSPAPERS, LEGAL DOCUMENTS, ADVERTISEMENTS, PLAYING CARDS ETC....
STAMP ACT CONGRESS, NYC, 1765 <ul><li>DREW UP A PETITION PROTESTING THE STAMP ACT; DECLARED THAT THE RIGHT TO TAX BELONGED...
SONS OF LIBERTY &  DAUGHTERS OF LIBERTY <ul><li>SECRET SOCIETIES; MOST WERE LAWYERS, MERCHANTS & ARTISANS; STAGED PROTESTS...
STAMP ACT
  PARLIAMENT’S RESPONSE:   <ul><li>DECLARATORY ACT   </li></ul><ul><li>“ FUNERAL OF THE STAMP ACT”: </li></ul><ul><li>CANC...
FUNERAL OF THE STAMP ACT WHAT IS THE MAN 4 TH  IN LINE CARRYING? HOW DOES THE CARTOON PICTURE MEMBERS OF PARLIAMENT? WHAT ...
TOWNSHEND ACTS OF 1767 <ul><li>TAX ON GLASS, PAPER, PAINT, LEAD, & TEA; HAD TO BE PAID IN GOLD OR SILVER   </li></ul>
E. WRITS OF ASSISTANCE <ul><li>SEARCH WARRANT GIVING BRITISH </li></ul><ul><li>OFFICERS UNLIMITED SEARCH RIGHTS </li></ul>...
THE BOSTON MASSACRE   MARCH 5, 1770 <ul><li>PRECURSOR : ARRIVAL OF REDCOATS TO </li></ul><ul><li>BOSTON; COMPETED FOR COLO...
  <ul><li>BOSTON MASSACRE CONT… </li></ul><ul><li>SPARK:  GANG OF YOUTHS & DOCKWORKERS THREW SNOWBALLS, STICKS & STONES AT...
SOLDIERS’ PUNISHMENT: <ul><li>ARRESTED FOR MURDER, </li></ul><ul><li>DEFENDED BY JOHN ADAMS & </li></ul><ul><li>JOSIAH QUI...
The Bloody Massacre Perpetrated in King Street,  Paul Revere, 1770 What Is Wrong With This Picture?
The Bloody Massacre Perpetrated in King Street,  Paul Revere, 1770 PROPAGANDA The soldiers are all being ordered to fire b...
The Bloody Massacre Perpetrated in King Street,  Paul Revere, 1770 The crowd is shown unarmed and defenseless. In fact, th...
Big Mac & Boston Massacre
THE TEA ACT OF 1773 <ul><li>CHEAPER THAN SMUGGLED TEA EVEN </li></ul><ul><li>WITH THE TAX; COLONIAL SHIPPERS & </li></ul><...
PARTY LIKE IT’S 1773!
BOSTON TEA PARTY <ul><li>TOOLS OF PROTESTS:  BOYCOTTS </li></ul><ul><li>THE BOSTON TEA PARTY, 12/16/1773 </li></ul><ul><li...
PARLIAMENT’S   RESPONSE:   THE INTOLERABLE ACTS <ul><li>CLOSED PORT OF BOSTON UNTIL TEA WAS PAID FOR </li></ul><ul><li>RES...
 
THE FIRST  CONTINENTAL CONGRESS, 1774 <ul><li>WHO?  =  DELEGATES FROM EVER COLONY BUT GEORGIA </li></ul><ul><li>WHERE?:  P...
 
BETWEEN WAR & PEACE COMMITTEE OF SAFETY; POWER TO CALL OUT MILITIA IN MASSACHUSETTS   GIVE ME LIBERTY OR GIVE ME DEATH!   ...
THE REVOLUTION BEGINS <ul><li>SAMUEL ADAMS ORGANIZED:  SPY NETWORK TO WATCH BRITISH ACTIVITIES </li></ul><ul><li>GENERAL G...
THE MIDNIGHT RIDE <ul><li>PAUL REVERE, WILLIAM DAWES AND DR. SAMUEL PRESCOTT:  “THE REDCOATS ARE COMING!” – SENT TO SPREAD...
LEXINGTON & CONCORD  04/19/1775 <ul><li>LEXINGTON:   BRITISH ORDERED MINUTEMEN TO LAY DOWN THEIR ARMS </li></ul><ul><li>RE...
 
<ul><li>THE CONTINENTAL ARMY </li></ul><ul><li>IS FORMED </li></ul>
FORT TICONDEROGA MAY 10, 1775 <ul><li>WHO?  GREEN MOUNTAIN BOYS (VT) LED BY BENEDICT ARNOLD & ETHAN ALLEN </li></ul><ul><l...
SECOND CONTINENTAL CONGRESS, MAY 10, 1775 <ul><li>WHO?  JOHN ADAMS, SAM ADAMS, JOHN HANCOCK, BEN FRANKLIN, GEORGE WASHINGT...
THE BATTLE OF BUNKER  (BREED’S) HILL, JUNE, 1775
<ul><li>WHAT HAPPENED:  PATRIOTS MOVED TO OCCUPY THE PENINSULA NEAR BOSTON; TURNED INTO AN ARMED CAMP </li></ul><ul><li>CO...
<ul><li>LAST CHANCE FOR PEACE </li></ul>
<ul><li>OLIVE BRANCH PETITION, JULY 1775: </li></ul><ul><li>CONGRESS SENT LETTER TO LONDON </li></ul><ul><li>BEGGING KING ...
<ul><li>PUSH FOR INDEPENDENCE </li></ul>
Common Sense Thomas Paine, 1776 JANUARY 1776;  POPULAR 46 PAGE  PAMPHLET CALLING  FOR INDEPENDENCE!
<ul><li>THE VIRGINIA RESOLUTIONS  </li></ul><ul><li>BY RICHARD HENRY LEE   </li></ul><ul><li>COLONIES SHOULD BECOME INDEPE...
 
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The Road To Independence1

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Revolution and a New Nation

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  • Man is carrying a coffin that represents the stamp act.
  • The Road To Independence1

    1. 1. THE ROAD TO INDEPENDENCE 1763-1775
    2. 2. KEY TERMS <ul><li>BOYCOTT: REFUSAL TO BUY </li></ul>
    3. 3. KEY TERM <ul><li>MILITIA: AN ARMY OF ORDINARY CITIZENS </li></ul>
    4. 4. KEY TERM <ul><li>MINUTEMAN: COLONIAL MILITIA </li></ul><ul><li>(CITIZEN SOLDIER); NEEDED TO BE </li></ul><ul><li>READY AT A MINUTE’S NOTICE </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
    5. 5. KEY TERM <ul><li>ARTILLERY: CANNONS & LARGE GUNS </li></ul>
    6. 6. The Enlightenment <ul><li>Time when natural rights philosophers like John Locke encouraged thinking. Locke is quoted in both Common Sense and the Declaration of Independence . </li></ul>
    7. 7. The French & Indian War 1754-1763 <ul><li>Conflict over disputed Ohio Valley. </li></ul><ul><li>Spread to Europe - known as the Seven Years War </li></ul><ul><li>Forced the French and the British to send troops </li></ul><ul><li>and supplies to their American colonies </li></ul><ul><li>Great Britain = winner , yet, the war caused debt </li></ul>
    8. 8. TIGHTER BRITISH CONTROL <ul><li>PROCLAMATION OF 1763 : IN RESPONSE TO </li></ul><ul><li>PONTIAC’S REBELLION, KING GEORGE III </li></ul><ul><li>FORBADE THE COLONISTS FROM SETTLING WEST </li></ul><ul><li>OF THE APPALACHIAN MTS; 10,000 BRITISH </li></ul><ul><li>SOLDIERS ENFORCED THE PROCLAMATION </li></ul><ul><li>COLONISTS’ RESPONSE: ANGERED; SOME IGNORED THE ORDER </li></ul><ul><li>ROLE OF GENERAL THOMAS GAGE: CONCENTRATED SOLDIERS IN NY TO RUSH TO “HOT SPOTS” ALONG THE FRONTIER </li></ul>
    9. 10. Proclamation of 1763
    10. 11. REQUIRED THE COLONIES TO QUARTER (HOUSING & SUPPLIES) FOR BRITISH SOLDIERS QUARTERING ACT OF 1765
    11. 12. QUARTERING ACT
    12. 13. TAXING THE COLONIES <ul><li>2 REASONS </li></ul><ul><li>WAR DEBT </li></ul><ul><li>$ TO KEEP SOLDIERS ON THE FRONTIER </li></ul>
    13. 14. SUGAR ACT OF 1764: <ul><li>TAX ON SUGAR & MOLASSES </li></ul>
    14. 15. STAMP ACT 1765: <ul><li>TAX ON PAPER PRODUCTS (DIPLOMAS, NEWSPAPERS, LEGAL DOCUMENTS, ADVERTISEMENTS, PLAYING CARDS ETC.) </li></ul><ul><li>COLONIAL RESISTANCE: RALLY CRY, NO TAXATION WITHOUT REPRESENTATION!” </li></ul>
    15. 16. STAMP ACT CONGRESS, NYC, 1765 <ul><li>DREW UP A PETITION PROTESTING THE STAMP ACT; DECLARED THAT THE RIGHT TO TAX BELONGED TO THE COLONIAL ASSEMBLIES, NOT TO PARLIAMENT! </li></ul>
    16. 17. SONS OF LIBERTY & DAUGHTERS OF LIBERTY <ul><li>SECRET SOCIETIES; MOST WERE LAWYERS, MERCHANTS & ARTISANS; STAGED PROTESTS, BURNED STAMPED PAPER, TARRED & FEATHERED CUSTOMS OFFICIALS </li></ul><ul><li>LEADER – SAM ADAMS </li></ul>
    17. 18. STAMP ACT
    18. 19. PARLIAMENT’S RESPONSE: <ul><li>DECLARATORY ACT </li></ul><ul><li>“ FUNERAL OF THE STAMP ACT”: </li></ul><ul><li>CANCELLED THE STAMP ACT IN 1766; </li></ul><ul><li>DECLARED PARLIAMENT’S RIGHT TO </li></ul><ul><li>LEGISLATE FOR THE COLONIES “IN </li></ul><ul><li>ALL CASES WHATSOEVER.” </li></ul>
    19. 20. FUNERAL OF THE STAMP ACT WHAT IS THE MAN 4 TH IN LINE CARRYING? HOW DOES THE CARTOON PICTURE MEMBERS OF PARLIAMENT? WHAT SYMBOLS ARE USED TO SHOW THE DEATH OF THE STAMP ACT?
    20. 21. TOWNSHEND ACTS OF 1767 <ul><li>TAX ON GLASS, PAPER, PAINT, LEAD, & TEA; HAD TO BE PAID IN GOLD OR SILVER </li></ul>
    21. 22. E. WRITS OF ASSISTANCE <ul><li>SEARCH WARRANT GIVING BRITISH </li></ul><ul><li>OFFICERS UNLIMITED SEARCH RIGHTS </li></ul><ul><li>FOR SMUGGLED GOODS </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul>BELIEVED THAT THE WRITS OF ASSISTANCE WERE AGAINST THE LAW OF NATURE THE LAW OF NATURE TEACHES, “NO ONE OUGHT TO HARM ANOTHER IN HIS LIFE, LIBERTY, OR POSSESSIONS.” John Locke James Otis
    22. 23. THE BOSTON MASSACRE MARCH 5, 1770 <ul><li>PRECURSOR : ARRIVAL OF REDCOATS TO </li></ul><ul><li>BOSTON; COMPETED FOR COLONIAL JOBS </li></ul>
    23. 24. <ul><li>BOSTON MASSACRE CONT… </li></ul><ul><li>SPARK: GANG OF YOUTHS & DOCKWORKERS THREW SNOWBALLS, STICKS & STONES AT REDCOATS; TAUNTING ONE ANOTHER: “LOBSTERS” & “YANKEES” </li></ul><ul><li>RESULTS: SOLDIERS FIRED & 5 MEN DIED INCLUDING CRISPUS ATTUCKS, RUNAWAY SLAVE; 1 ST CASUALTY OF THE AMERICAN REVOLUTION </li></ul>
    24. 25. SOLDIERS’ PUNISHMENT: <ul><li>ARRESTED FOR MURDER, </li></ul><ul><li>DEFENDED BY JOHN ADAMS & </li></ul><ul><li>JOSIAH QUINCY, JR.; ACQUITTED </li></ul>
    25. 26. The Bloody Massacre Perpetrated in King Street, Paul Revere, 1770 What Is Wrong With This Picture?
    26. 27. The Bloody Massacre Perpetrated in King Street, Paul Revere, 1770 PROPAGANDA The soldiers are all being ordered to fire by their commander. From the testimony at the trial, we know that the firing was not ordered.
    27. 28. The Bloody Massacre Perpetrated in King Street, Paul Revere, 1770 The crowd is shown unarmed and defenseless. In fact, the crowd threw snowballs and many carried clubs. What Is Wrong With This Picture?
    28. 29. Big Mac & Boston Massacre
    29. 30. THE TEA ACT OF 1773 <ul><li>CHEAPER THAN SMUGGLED TEA EVEN </li></ul><ul><li>WITH THE TAX; COLONIAL SHIPPERS & </li></ul><ul><li>MERCHANTS ENRAGED BECAUSE THE </li></ul><ul><li>BRITISH EAST INDIA CO. WOULD SHIP & </li></ul><ul><li>SELL THE TEA THEMSELVES </li></ul>
    30. 31. PARTY LIKE IT’S 1773!
    31. 32. BOSTON TEA PARTY <ul><li>TOOLS OF PROTESTS: BOYCOTTS </li></ul><ul><li>THE BOSTON TEA PARTY, 12/16/1773 </li></ul><ul><li>WHO? SONS OF LIBERTY LED BY SAM ADAMS </li></ul><ul><li>WHAT OCCURRED? SONS OF LIBERTY, DRESSED AS MOHAWKS, BOARDED A BRITISH EAST INDIA CO. SHIP & THREW 342 CHESTS OF TEA INTO BOSTON HARBOR </li></ul>
    32. 33. PARLIAMENT’S RESPONSE: THE INTOLERABLE ACTS <ul><li>CLOSED PORT OF BOSTON UNTIL TEA WAS PAID FOR </li></ul><ul><li>RESTRICTED REPRESENTATIVE GOVERNMENT IN MASSACHUSETTS; GEN. THOMAS GAGE APPOINTED GOVERNOR OF MASSACHUSETTS </li></ul><ul><li>BRITISH COMMANDERS COULD HOUSE TROOPS WHEREVER NECESSARY </li></ul><ul><li>BRITISH OFFICIALS STOOD TRIAL IN BRITAIN RATHER THAN THE COLONIES </li></ul>
    33. 35. THE FIRST CONTINENTAL CONGRESS, 1774 <ul><li>WHO? = DELEGATES FROM EVER COLONY BUT GEORGIA </li></ul><ul><li>WHERE?: PHILADELPHIA </li></ul><ul><li>GOALS: </li></ul><ul><li>BAN BRITISH GOODS </li></ul><ul><li>BEGIN TRAINING SOLDIERS </li></ul>
    34. 37. BETWEEN WAR & PEACE COMMITTEE OF SAFETY; POWER TO CALL OUT MILITIA IN MASSACHUSETTS GIVE ME LIBERTY OR GIVE ME DEATH! THE COMMITTEES OF CORRESPONDENCE: COMMUNICATION WITH NEIGHBORING COLONIAL LEADERS John Hancock Patrick Henry
    35. 38. THE REVOLUTION BEGINS <ul><li>SAMUEL ADAMS ORGANIZED: SPY NETWORK TO WATCH BRITISH ACTIVITIES </li></ul><ul><li>GENERAL GAGE LEARNED FROM HIS SPIES: MINUTEMEN WERE STORING GUNS IN CONCORD, MA. </li></ul><ul><li>HIS ORDERS: DESTROY THE SUPPLIES & ARREST HANCOCK AND ADAMS </li></ul>
    36. 39. THE MIDNIGHT RIDE <ul><li>PAUL REVERE, WILLIAM DAWES AND DR. SAMUEL PRESCOTT: “THE REDCOATS ARE COMING!” – SENT TO SPREAD THE NEWS OF BRITISH TROOP MOVEMENTS </li></ul><ul><li>RESULTS: REVERE WAS CAPTURED; LET GO WITHOUT HIS HORSE </li></ul>
    37. 40. LEXINGTON & CONCORD 04/19/1775 <ul><li>LEXINGTON: BRITISH ORDERED MINUTEMEN TO LAY DOWN THEIR ARMS </li></ul><ul><li>RESULTS: WITHIN MINUTES, 8 COLONISTS LAY DEAD; THE BRITISH MARCHED TO CONCORD & DESTROYED THE SUPPLIES </li></ul><ul><li>WHO LINED THE ROAD FROM LEXINGTON TO </li></ul><ul><li>CONCORD? 4,000 MINUTEMEN </li></ul><ul><li>RESULTS : BRITISH RETREATED TO BOSTON </li></ul><ul><li>“ SHOT HEARD ROUND THE WORLD” </li></ul>
    38. 42. <ul><li>THE CONTINENTAL ARMY </li></ul><ul><li>IS FORMED </li></ul>
    39. 43. FORT TICONDEROGA MAY 10, 1775 <ul><li>WHO? GREEN MOUNTAIN BOYS (VT) LED BY BENEDICT ARNOLD & ETHAN ALLEN </li></ul><ul><li>WHAT? SEIZED BRITISH FORT & ARTILLERY </li></ul><ul><li>WHERE? ON LAKE CHAMPLAIN </li></ul>
    40. 44. SECOND CONTINENTAL CONGRESS, MAY 10, 1775 <ul><li>WHO? JOHN ADAMS, SAM ADAMS, JOHN HANCOCK, BEN FRANKLIN, GEORGE WASHINGTON, PATRICK HENRY, ETC. </li></ul><ul><li>WHERE? PHILADELPHIA </li></ul><ul><li>CONTINENTAL ARMY LEADER: GEORGE WASHINGTON </li></ul>
    41. 45. THE BATTLE OF BUNKER (BREED’S) HILL, JUNE, 1775
    42. 46. <ul><li>WHAT HAPPENED: PATRIOTS MOVED TO OCCUPY THE PENINSULA NEAR BOSTON; TURNED INTO AN ARMED CAMP </li></ul><ul><li>COL. WILLIAM PRESCOTT’S ORDERS: “DON’T FIRE TILL YOU SEE THE WHITES OF THEIR EYES!” </li></ul><ul><li>BRITISH GENERAL WILLIAM HOWE: </li></ul><ul><li>BRITISH GENERAL; WITH 2200 MEN FORMED ASSAULT LINES; RETOOK BREEDS HILL & BUNKER HILL AFTER 2 ND ATTEMPT (PATRIOTS HAD RUN OUT OF GUN POWDER) </li></ul><ul><li>WINNER: THE BRITISH </li></ul>
    43. 47. <ul><li>LAST CHANCE FOR PEACE </li></ul>
    44. 48. <ul><li>OLIVE BRANCH PETITION, JULY 1775: </li></ul><ul><li>CONGRESS SENT LETTER TO LONDON </li></ul><ul><li>BEGGING KING GEORGE III TO STOP </li></ul><ul><li>WAR; HE REFUSED </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>RESULT: WASHINGTON MOVED HIS ARMY </li></ul><ul><li>TO DORCHESTER HEIGHTS & BOMBARDED </li></ul><ul><li>BOSTON IN JANUARY 1776; BRITISH FLED! </li></ul>
    45. 49. <ul><li>PUSH FOR INDEPENDENCE </li></ul>
    46. 50. Common Sense Thomas Paine, 1776 JANUARY 1776; POPULAR 46 PAGE PAMPHLET CALLING FOR INDEPENDENCE!
    47. 51. <ul><li>THE VIRGINIA RESOLUTIONS </li></ul><ul><li>BY RICHARD HENRY LEE </li></ul><ul><li>COLONIES SHOULD BECOME INDEPENDENT </li></ul><ul><li>STATES, FORM FOREIGN ALLIANCES, JOIN </li></ul><ul><li>TOGETHER IN A CONFEDERATION </li></ul><ul><li>THE DECLARATION OF INDEPENDENCE, JULY 4, </li></ul><ul><li>1776 </li></ul><ul><li>JEFFERSON’S BEST-KNOWN PASSAGE: “ALL MEN ARE CREATED EQUAL” </li></ul><ul><li>WHO WERE “THE PEOPLE:” FREE WHITE MEN </li></ul><ul><li>CUT FROM THE FINAL DOCUMENT: PASSAGE CONDEMNING THE SLAVE TRADE </li></ul>

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