Containing the Semantic Explosion

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Presentation by Jaimie Murdock, Cameron Buckner and Colin Allen at PhiloWeb 2012 (WWW 2012), Lyon, France.

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Containing the Semantic Explosion

  1. 1. Containing the Semantic Explosion Jaimie Murdock Cameron Buckner Colin Allen Indiana Philosophy Ontology (InPhO) Project Indiana University – Bloomington, IN, USA inpho@indiana.edu 17 April 2012Murdock, Buckner, Allen (IU) Containing the Semantic Explosion 17 April 2012 1 / 33
  2. 2. IntroductionTable of Contents1 Introduction2 Building Ontologies3 Dynamic Ontology4 Future Directions Murdock, Buckner, Allen (IU) Containing the Semantic Explosion 17 April 2012 2 / 33
  3. 3. IntroductionThe Information Explosion Murdock, Buckner, Allen (IU) Containing the Semantic Explosion 17 April 2012 3 / 33
  4. 4. IntroductionThe Information Explosion Murdock, Buckner, Allen (IU) Containing the Semantic Explosion 17 April 2012 4 / 33
  5. 5. IntroductionGuiding Principles “Augmented intelligence” Let humans and computers each do only what they do best Murdock, Buckner, Allen (IU) Containing the Semantic Explosion 17 April 2012 5 / 33
  6. 6. IntroductionGuiding Principles “Augmented intelligence” Let humans and computers each do only what they do best “Guided serendipity” Provide useful tools for scholars: cross-referencing semantic search document classification visualizations Murdock, Buckner, Allen (IU) Containing the Semantic Explosion 17 April 2012 5 / 33
  7. 7. IntroductionWhat Philosophers KnowStanford Encyclopedia ofPhilosophyhttp://plato.stanford.edu 1522 authors 127 subject editors 1315 articles since 14 Sep 1995 1 million weekly article downloads Murdock, Buckner, Allen (IU) Containing the Semantic Explosion 17 April 2012 6 / 33
  8. 8. IntroductionWhat Philosophers DON’T KnowWhat’s in the SEP!http://plato.stanford.edu16.3 million words — equivalent to27,250 pages at 600 words/page Murdock, Buckner, Allen (IU) Containing the Semantic Explosion 17 April 2012 7 / 33
  9. 9. IntroductionThe Indiana Philosophy Ontology (InPhO) Projecthttps://inpho.cogs.indiana.edu/Pragmatic attempt to organize the discipline of philosophy through a threestep process of: data mining expert verification machine reasoning Murdock, Buckner, Allen (IU) Containing the Semantic Explosion 17 April 2012 8 / 33
  10. 10. IntroductionThe Indiana Philosophy Ontology (InPhO) Projecthttps://inpho.cogs.indiana.edu/ Murdock, Buckner, Allen (IU) Containing the Semantic Explosion 17 April 2012 9 / 33
  11. 11. IntroductionThe Indiana Philosophy Ontology (InPhO) Projecthttps://inpho.cogs.indiana.edu/ Murdock, Buckner, Allen (IU) Containing the Semantic Explosion 17 April 2012 10 / 33
  12. 12. Building OntologiesTable of Contents1 Introduction2 Building Ontologies3 Dynamic Ontology4 Future Directions Murdock, Buckner, Allen (IU) Containing the Semantic Explosion 17 April 2012 11 / 33
  13. 13. Building OntologiesComputational Ontology“A body of formally represented knowledge is based on aconceptualization: the objects, concepts, and other entities that arepresumed to exist in some area of interest and the relationships that holdamong them . . . A conceptualization is an abstract, simplified view of theworld that we wish to represent for some purpose . . . An ontology is anexplicit specification of a conceptualization.” — Gruber (1993) Murdock, Buckner, Allen (IU) Containing the Semantic Explosion 17 April 2012 12 / 33
  14. 14. Building OntologiesDomain Ontologies GOLD: General Ontology for Linguistic Description Murdock, Buckner, Allen (IU) Containing the Semantic Explosion 17 April 2012 13 / 33
  15. 15. Building OntologiesDomain Ontologies Gene Ontology Murdock, Buckner, Allen (IU) Containing the Semantic Explosion 17 April 2012 14 / 33
  16. 16. Building OntologiesFormal Ontology Goals: interoperability, permanence, precision ULOs represent the most basic, enduring features of reality — not just a “conceptualization” Upper-level ontologies (ULOs) unite domain-level ontologies Murdock, Buckner, Allen (IU) Containing the Semantic Explosion 17 April 2012 15 / 33
  17. 17. Building OntologiesFormal OntologyConcerns “Double experts” required Manual design and change Bias, controversy Murdock, Buckner, Allen (IU) Containing the Semantic Explosion 17 April 2012 16 / 33
  18. 18. Building OntologiesFormal OntologyConcerns “Double experts” required Manual design and change Bias, controversy Battlefield cluttered with ULOs . . . BFO, Dolce, DnS, SUMO, Cyc, GFO, IDEAS, GOL, BWW, COSMO, OCHRE, Gist, OBO, PROTON, IFF, MSO, Sowas, . . . In civil war, population suffers most . . . Murdock, Buckner, Allen (IU) Containing the Semantic Explosion 17 April 2012 16 / 33
  19. 19. Building OntologiesFolksonomy Can we induce an ontology from tagging behavior? “Wisdom of the crowds” Del.ico.us, Flickr, Wikipedia Murdock, Buckner, Allen (IU) Containing the Semantic Explosion 17 April 2012 17 / 33
  20. 20. Building OntologiesFolksonomy Concerns Uncontrolled vocabulary Ambiguity, idiosyncrasy, no definitions Tagging behavior changes over time Unstructured or training required The world is not flat — expertise matters! Murdock, Buckner, Allen (IU) Containing the Semantic Explosion 17 April 2012 18 / 33
  21. 21. Building OntologiesFormal vs. Dynamic OntologyFormal Ontology Dynamic Ontology Large projects in business, Smaller, open-access projects in medicine, and natural sciences fluid domains Stable consensus Emergent consensus Manual construction Semi-automated construction Monolithic perspective Multiple perspectives Murdock, Buckner, Allen (IU) Containing the Semantic Explosion 17 April 2012 19 / 33
  22. 22. Building OntologiesFormal vs. Dynamic OntologyFormal Ontology Dynamic Ontology Large projects in business, Smaller, open-access projects in medicine, and natural sciences fluid domains Stable consensus Emergent consensus Manual construction Semi-automated construction Monolithic perspective Multiple perspectivesWish: Top-down quality for a bottom-up price! Murdock, Buckner, Allen (IU) Containing the Semantic Explosion 17 April 2012 19 / 33
  23. 23. Dynamic OntologyTable of Contents1 Introduction2 Building Ontologies3 Dynamic Ontology4 Future Directions Murdock, Buckner, Allen (IU) Containing the Semantic Explosion 17 April 2012 20 / 33
  24. 24. Dynamic OntologyThe Indiana Philosophy Ontology (InPhO) Projecthttps://inpho.cogs.indiana.edu/Pragmatic attempt to organize the discipline of philosophy through a threestep process of: data mining expert verification machine reasoning Murdock, Buckner, Allen (IU) Containing the Semantic Explosion 17 April 2012 21 / 33
  25. 25. Dynamic Ontology1. Data MiningUse statistical techniques to make predictions about contentJ-measure (n-grams)Measures similarity usingco-occurrences Murdock, Buckner, Allen (IU) Containing the Semantic Explosion 17 April 2012 22 / 33
  26. 26. Dynamic Ontology1. Data MiningUse statistical techniques to make predictions about contentJ-measure (n-grams) Entropy (TF-IDF)Measures similarity using Measures generality based onco-occurrences prevalenceFurther details: Niepert et al. 2007, Murdock et al. 2012 Murdock, Buckner, Allen (IU) Containing the Semantic Explosion 17 April 2012 22 / 33
  27. 27. Dynamic Ontology2. Expert Verification Present hypothetical relations to users. Allows for untrained ontologists. Amazon Mechanical TurkFurther details: Allen et al. 2008, Niepert et al. 2009, Buckner et al. 2010, Eckart et al. 2010 Murdock, Buckner, Allen (IU) Containing the Semantic Explosion 17 April 2012 23 / 33
  28. 28. Dynamic Ontology3. Machine ReasoningInput – Expert feedback combined with statistical dataOutput – Populated ontology with taxonomic projectionFurther details: Niepert et al. 2008 Murdock, Buckner, Allen (IU) Containing the Semantic Explosion 17 April 2012 24 / 33
  29. 29. Dynamic OntologyApplications Automated cross-referencing Context-aware search Citation management Document classification Visualizations Change and controversy discovery Murdock, Buckner, Allen (IU) Containing the Semantic Explosion 17 April 2012 25 / 33
  30. 30. Dynamic OntologyApplications Automated cross-referencing Context-aware search Citation management Document classification Visualizations Change and controversy discovery “Macroscopes” (B¨rner) o Metaphilosophy Murdock, Buckner, Allen (IU) Containing the Semantic Explosion 17 April 2012 25 / 33
  31. 31. Future DirectionsTable of Contents1 Introduction2 Building Ontologies3 Dynamic Ontology4 Future Directions Murdock, Buckner, Allen (IU) Containing the Semantic Explosion 17 April 2012 26 / 33
  32. 32. Future DirectionsCodEx WorkbenchDynamic ontology toolkit for arbitrary corpora Murdock, Buckner, Allen (IU) Containing the Semantic Explosion 17 April 2012 27 / 33
  33. 33. Future DirectionsCodEx Workbench Murdock, Buckner, Allen (IU) Containing the Semantic Explosion 17 April 2012 28 / 33
  34. 34. Future DirectionsCodEx Workbench Murdock, Buckner, Allen (IU) Containing the Semantic Explosion 17 April 2012 29 / 33
  35. 35. Future DirectionsCodEx Workbench Murdock, Buckner, Allen (IU) Containing the Semantic Explosion 17 April 2012 30 / 33
  36. 36. Future DirectionsGuiding Principles “Augmented intelligence” Let humans and computers each do only what they do best. Murdock, Buckner, Allen (IU) Containing the Semantic Explosion 17 April 2012 31 / 33
  37. 37. Future DirectionsGuiding Principles “Augmented intelligence” Let humans and computers each do only what they do best. “Guided serendipity” Provide useful tools for scholars: cross-referencing semantic search document classification visualizations Murdock, Buckner, Allen (IU) Containing the Semantic Explosion 17 April 2012 31 / 33
  38. 38. Future DirectionsAcknowledgements IUB New Frontiers in the Humanities NEH Digital Humanities Initiative NEH-DFG Bilateral Digital Humanities Program Digging into Data Challenge Alexander von Humboldt FoundationViews expressed are the authors, and not necessarily the views of any funding angencies Murdock, Buckner, Allen (IU) Containing the Semantic Explosion 17 April 2012 32 / 33
  39. 39. Future DirectionsAcknowledgementsProject Director Project StaffColin Allen Alex Frost, Wesley Pettyjohn, Sam WaggonerProject FoundersCameron Buckner, Mathias Niepert CogSci Support Ruth Eberle, Nubli KasaGraduate StudentsJaimie Murdock, Robert Rose Application Consultants Ed Zalta & Uri Nodelman (SEP),Former Staff Tony Beavers (Noesis)Evan Boggs, Tarun Gangwani, ScottWeingart Murdock, Buckner, Allen (IU) Containing the Semantic Explosion 17 April 2012 33 / 33

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