Philosophy & Psychiatry: Reflections of Mind - AMPQ - 11 June 2009

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This presentation reviews the relationship between psychiatry and philosophy, including philosophy of mind, philosophy of science, and the definition of person, identity and what we consider as essentially human qualities.

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Philosophy & Psychiatry: Reflections of Mind - AMPQ - 11 June 2009

  1. 1. Des neurosciences à l’inconscient <ul><li>43 e Congrès annuel de l’AMPQ </li></ul><ul><li>Jeudi le 11 juin 2009 </li></ul><ul><li>16h00 à 17h30 </li></ul>
  2. 2. Philosophy and Psychiatry: Reflections of Mind
  3. 3. Geopoliticus child watching the birth of the new man - Dali
  4. 4. Philosophy & Psychiatry <ul><li>Vincenzo Di Nicola </li></ul><ul><li>Psychologist and Child Psychiatrist </li></ul><ul><li>Université de Montréal </li></ul><ul><li>Doctoral candidate </li></ul><ul><li>European Graduate School </li></ul>
  5. 5. Key words <ul><li>Philosophy and psychiatry </li></ul><ul><li>Phenomenology and existential psychiatry </li></ul><ul><li>Ethics and biopolitics </li></ul>
  6. 6. Pedagogical objectives <ul><li>1. To identify the history of the </li></ul><ul><li>relationship between psychiatry </li></ul><ul><li>and philosophy. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Pedagogical objectives <ul><li>2. To offer an overview of areas of mutual </li></ul><ul><li>interest to both psychiatry and philosophy, </li></ul><ul><li>including philosophy of mind, </li></ul><ul><li>philosophy of science and definitions of the </li></ul><ul><li>person, identity and what we consider as </li></ul><ul><li>essentially human qualities. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Pedagogical objectives <ul><li>3. To review two areas in more detail: </li></ul><ul><li>(a) phenomenology and existential </li></ul><ul><li>psychiatry, and </li></ul><ul><li>(b) ethics and biopolitics. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Areas of mutual interest <ul><li>Philosophy of mind </li></ul><ul><li>Philosophy of science </li></ul><ul><li>Philosophy of technology </li></ul><ul><li>Phenomenology (as a science of the person and hence a foundation study for psychiatry) </li></ul><ul><li>Philosophy as a tool for social exploration (identity, the definition of the person) </li></ul><ul><li>Ethics and biopolitics </li></ul>
  10. 10. Uses of philosophy by psychiatry <ul><li>Inspiration </li></ul><ul><li>Validation </li></ul><ul><li>Justification </li></ul>
  11. 11. Other uses of philosophy <ul><li>Edification </li></ul><ul><li>Consolation </li></ul>
  12. 12. Other uses of philosophy <ul><li>Clinical philosophy … </li></ul><ul><li>Consolation as intervention </li></ul><ul><li>Applied philosophy … </li></ul><ul><li>Bio-ethics </li></ul><ul><li>Research ethics </li></ul><ul><li>Professional ethics </li></ul>
  13. 13. What is philosophy? <ul><li>Everything is like something, what is this like? </li></ul><ul><li>--Bryan Magee, Men of Ideas (1982) </li></ul><ul><li> quoting English novelist E.M. Forster </li></ul>
  14. 14. What is philosophy? <ul><li>The purpose of philosophy is to show the fly the way out of the fly-bottle. </li></ul><ul><li>--Ludwig Wittgenstein, Philosophical </li></ul><ul><li>Investigations (1953) </li></ul>
  15. 15. Ludwig Wittgenstein (1889-1951) (1889-1951)
  16. 16. What is philosophy? <ul><li>The owl of Minerva spreads its wings only with the falling of the dusk. </li></ul><ul><li>--G.W.F. Hegel, Philosophy of Right </li></ul><ul><li>(1820) </li></ul>
  17. 17. G.W.F. Hegel ( 1770-1831) (1770-1831)
  18. 18. What is philosophy? <ul><li>One more word about giving instruction as to what the world ought to be. Philosophy in any case always comes on the scene too late to give it... </li></ul><ul><li>When philosophy paints its gray in gray, then has a shape of life grown old. </li></ul><ul><li>By philosophy’s gray in gray it cannot be rejuvenated but only understood. </li></ul><ul><li>The owl of Minerva spreads its wings only with the falling of the dusk. </li></ul><ul><li>— G.W.F. Hegel, “Preface,” Philosophy of </li></ul><ul><li>Right (1820) </li></ul>
  19. 19. What is philosophy? <ul><li>Understanding, clarification, edification, reflection, groundwork, foundations … </li></ul><ul><li>Critical theory, deconstruction </li></ul>
  20. 20. What is philosophy? <ul><li>Two kinds of philosophers … </li></ul><ul><li>Those who build up theories and explanations, carefully, brick by brick </li></ul><ul><li>--Aristotle, Aquinas, William James, Freud </li></ul><ul><li>Those who tear them down, critically … brick by brick or with a wrecker’s ball </li></ul><ul><li>--Luther, Nietzsche, Karl Marx, Michel Foucault </li></ul>
  21. 21. What is psychiatry? <ul><li>This can be imagined as </li></ul><ul><li>a philosophical question </li></ul><ul><li>People often invoke philosophical considerations in their definition of psychiatry … </li></ul>
  22. 22. What is psychiatry? <ul><li>Karl Jaspers … phenomenological psychiatry </li></ul><ul><li>R.D. Laing … existential psychiatry </li></ul><ul><li>Salvador Minuchin … structural family therapy </li></ul><ul><li>Mara Selvini Palazzoli … systemic family therapy </li></ul><ul><li>Samuel Guze … Why Psychiatry is a Branch of Medicine </li></ul><ul><li>Robert Spitzer … architect of DSM … descriptive nosography, atheoretical </li></ul>
  23. 23. What are they? <ul><li>Sigmund Freud </li></ul><ul><li>Karl Jaspers </li></ul><ul><li>Jean Piaget </li></ul><ul><li>Michel Foucault </li></ul>
  24. 24. What are they? <ul><li>Sigmund Freud </li></ul><ul><li>(1856-1939) </li></ul><ul><li>Neurologist & </li></ul><ul><li>neuropathologist </li></ul><ul><li>Founder of </li></ul><ul><li>psychoanalysis </li></ul><ul><li>Philosopher </li></ul>
  25. 25. What are they? <ul><li>Karl Jaspers </li></ul><ul><li>(1883-1959) </li></ul><ul><li>Phenomenological </li></ul><ul><li>Psychiatrist </li></ul><ul><li>Professor of </li></ul><ul><li>Philosophy </li></ul>
  26. 26. What are they? <ul><li>Jean Piaget </li></ul><ul><li>(1896-1980) </li></ul><ul><li>Natural scientist </li></ul><ul><li>Genetic epistemology </li></ul><ul><li>Philosophy: </li></ul><ul><li>J ü rgen Habermas </li></ul>
  27. 27. What are they? <ul><li>Michel Foucault </li></ul><ul><li>(1926-1984) </li></ul><ul><li>Psychologist </li></ul><ul><li>Philosopher: </li></ul><ul><li>Structuralism & post- </li></ul><ul><li>structuralism </li></ul><ul><li>Historian </li></ul><ul><li>Critic </li></ul>
  28. 28. Philosophical deconstruction <ul><li>What do family therapists still refer to psychodynamics ? </li></ul>
  29. 29. Philosophical deconstruction <ul><li>Alternatives for describing families and family phenomena … </li></ul><ul><li>Relationships, attachment </li></ul><ul><li>Interpersonal patterns </li></ul><ul><li>Myths, rules, rituals </li></ul><ul><li>Family as a structure, system </li></ul><ul><li>Family life as a text (to be edited) </li></ul><ul><li>The family as a storying culture </li></ul>
  30. 30. Philosophical deconstruction <ul><li>Why do so many terms for negative psychosocial factors come from hydraulics and materials sciences ? </li></ul><ul><li>Stress </li></ul><ul><li>(Mental) fatigue </li></ul><ul><li>Tension </li></ul><ul><li>Resistance </li></ul>
  31. 31. Philosophical deconstruction <ul><li>And of course, so do the positive factors … </li></ul><ul><li>Resilience </li></ul><ul><li>Bouyancy </li></ul><ul><li>Rebound </li></ul>
  32. 32. Philosophical deconstruction <ul><li>What do we mean by development ? </li></ul><ul><li>Growth (Classical models, Dante) </li></ul><ul><li>Evolution </li></ul><ul><li>--Convergence, teleology (Teilhard de Chardin) </li></ul><ul><li>Ages & stages (Paediatrics) </li></ul><ul><li>IQ as a model (Binet, Dalton) </li></ul><ul><li>Unfolding </li></ul><ul><li>--Genetic epistemology (Piaget, Kohlberg) </li></ul>
  33. 33. Philosophical deconstruction <ul><li>Explanatory models are usually based on metaphors </li></ul><ul><li>Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn (1918-2008) </li></ul><ul><li>Cancer Ward (1968) </li></ul><ul><li>Susan Sontag (1933-2004) </li></ul><ul><li>Illness as Metaphor (1978) </li></ul><ul><li>Aids and Its Metaphors (1988) </li></ul>
  34. 34. Phenomenology and existential psychiatry <ul><li>Karl Jaspers (1883-1969) </li></ul><ul><li>Ludwig Binswanger (1881-1966) </li></ul><ul><li>R.D. Laing (1927-1989) </li></ul>
  35. 35. <ul><li>Karl Jaspers </li></ul><ul><li>(1883-1959) </li></ul><ul><li>Phenomenological </li></ul><ul><li>Psychiatrist </li></ul><ul><li>General Psychopathology </li></ul>Phenomenology and existential psychiatry
  36. 36. Phenomenology and existential psychiatry <ul><li>Ludwig Binswanger (1881-1966) </li></ul><ul><li>Existential analysis </li></ul><ul><li>The Case of Ellen West </li></ul><ul><li>with many rereadings </li></ul><ul><li>(R.D. Laing, Sal Minuchin) </li></ul>
  37. 37. Phenomenology and existential psychiatry <ul><li>R.D. Laing (1927-1989) </li></ul><ul><li>Scottish psychiatrist </li></ul><ul><li>and psychoanalyst </li></ul><ul><li>Existential philosophy </li></ul><ul><li>and psychiatry </li></ul><ul><li>Pioneer in family studies </li></ul><ul><li>Critical psychiatry </li></ul>
  38. 38. Ethics and biopolitics <ul><li>Giorgio Agamben (b. Rome, 1942) </li></ul>
  39. 39. Ethics and biopolitics <ul><li>Giorgio Agamben (b. Rome, 1942) </li></ul><ul><li>Key notions: </li></ul><ul><li>Homo sacer/Sacred Man (1998) </li></ul><ul><li>Stato di eccezione, État d’exception, </li></ul><ul><li>State of Exception (2005) </li></ul>
  40. 40. Ethics and biopolitics <ul><li>Key notions: </li></ul><ul><li>Biopolitics </li></ul><ul><li>Adopted from Foucault (a technology of power, biopower) </li></ul><ul><li>Bi ó s (a form of life) vs Z ōē (mere life) </li></ul><ul><li>Biopolitics is the reduction of others to bare life </li></ul>
  41. 41. Conclusion <ul><li>The history of psychiatry, psychology and psychoanalysis are intimately intertwined with philosophical questions </li></ul>
  42. 42. Conclusion <ul><li>Understanding this history will help us avoid reductive modes of thought </li></ul><ul><li>Contemporary psychiatry accepts the notion of paradigms as evolution and progress </li></ul>
  43. 43. Conclusion <ul><li>A full account of mind cannot be provided by an understanding of brain </li></ul><ul><li>No matter how sophisticated the argument for biological psychiatry becomes (cf. Eric Kandel), it will not speak to mind, fully understood. </li></ul>
  44. 44. Conclusion <ul><li>Leon Eisenberg put the question as brainlessness vs mindlessness </li></ul><ul><li>or psychoanalysis without brain vs biological psychiatry without mind </li></ul>
  45. 45. Conclusion <ul><li>I expand the question to include: </li></ul><ul><li>Mind (the science of mental life) </li></ul><ul><li>Body (biological psychiatry) </li></ul><ul><li>Heart (phenomenology, empathy) </li></ul><ul><li>Soul (meaning, transcendence) </li></ul>
  46. 46. Conclusion <ul><li>Our culture is at war with subjectivity </li></ul><ul><li>Technopoly is the surrender of culture to technology </li></ul>
  47. 47. Conclusion <ul><li>We have not exhausted what phenomenological psychiatry can teach us by elucidating human experience and expanding our empathy </li></ul>

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