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Presentation to Seminar on Barton West, Oxford - 9 June 2011
Presentation to Seminar on Barton West, Oxford - 9 June 2011
Presentation to Seminar on Barton West, Oxford - 9 June 2011
Presentation to Seminar on Barton West, Oxford - 9 June 2011
Presentation to Seminar on Barton West, Oxford - 9 June 2011
Presentation to Seminar on Barton West, Oxford - 9 June 2011
Presentation to Seminar on Barton West, Oxford - 9 June 2011
Presentation to Seminar on Barton West, Oxford - 9 June 2011
Presentation to Seminar on Barton West, Oxford - 9 June 2011
Presentation to Seminar on Barton West, Oxford - 9 June 2011
Presentation to Seminar on Barton West, Oxford - 9 June 2011
Presentation to Seminar on Barton West, Oxford - 9 June 2011
Presentation to Seminar on Barton West, Oxford - 9 June 2011
Presentation to Seminar on Barton West, Oxford - 9 June 2011
Presentation to Seminar on Barton West, Oxford - 9 June 2011
Presentation to Seminar on Barton West, Oxford - 9 June 2011
Presentation to Seminar on Barton West, Oxford - 9 June 2011
Presentation to Seminar on Barton West, Oxford - 9 June 2011
Presentation to Seminar on Barton West, Oxford - 9 June 2011
Presentation to Seminar on Barton West, Oxford - 9 June 2011
Presentation to Seminar on Barton West, Oxford - 9 June 2011
Presentation to Seminar on Barton West, Oxford - 9 June 2011
Presentation to Seminar on Barton West, Oxford - 9 June 2011
Presentation to Seminar on Barton West, Oxford - 9 June 2011
Presentation to Seminar on Barton West, Oxford - 9 June 2011
Presentation to Seminar on Barton West, Oxford - 9 June 2011
Presentation to Seminar on Barton West, Oxford - 9 June 2011
Presentation to Seminar on Barton West, Oxford - 9 June 2011
Presentation to Seminar on Barton West, Oxford - 9 June 2011
Presentation to Seminar on Barton West, Oxford - 9 June 2011
Presentation to Seminar on Barton West, Oxford - 9 June 2011
Presentation to Seminar on Barton West, Oxford - 9 June 2011
Presentation to Seminar on Barton West, Oxford - 9 June 2011
Presentation to Seminar on Barton West, Oxford - 9 June 2011
Presentation to Seminar on Barton West, Oxford - 9 June 2011
Presentation to Seminar on Barton West, Oxford - 9 June 2011
Presentation to Seminar on Barton West, Oxford - 9 June 2011
Presentation to Seminar on Barton West, Oxford - 9 June 2011
Presentation to Seminar on Barton West, Oxford - 9 June 2011
Presentation to Seminar on Barton West, Oxford - 9 June 2011
Presentation to Seminar on Barton West, Oxford - 9 June 2011
Presentation to Seminar on Barton West, Oxford - 9 June 2011
Presentation to Seminar on Barton West, Oxford - 9 June 2011
Presentation to Seminar on Barton West, Oxford - 9 June 2011
Presentation to Seminar on Barton West, Oxford - 9 June 2011
Presentation to Seminar on Barton West, Oxford - 9 June 2011
Presentation to Seminar on Barton West, Oxford - 9 June 2011
Presentation to Seminar on Barton West, Oxford - 9 June 2011
Presentation to Seminar on Barton West, Oxford - 9 June 2011
Presentation to Seminar on Barton West, Oxford - 9 June 2011
Presentation to Seminar on Barton West, Oxford - 9 June 2011
Presentation to Seminar on Barton West, Oxford - 9 June 2011
Presentation to Seminar on Barton West, Oxford - 9 June 2011
Presentation to Seminar on Barton West, Oxford - 9 June 2011
Presentation to Seminar on Barton West, Oxford - 9 June 2011
Presentation to Seminar on Barton West, Oxford - 9 June 2011
Presentation to Seminar on Barton West, Oxford - 9 June 2011
Presentation to Seminar on Barton West, Oxford - 9 June 2011
Presentation to Seminar on Barton West, Oxford - 9 June 2011
Presentation to Seminar on Barton West, Oxford - 9 June 2011
Presentation to Seminar on Barton West, Oxford - 9 June 2011
Presentation to Seminar on Barton West, Oxford - 9 June 2011
Presentation to Seminar on Barton West, Oxford - 9 June 2011
Presentation to Seminar on Barton West, Oxford - 9 June 2011
Presentation to Seminar on Barton West, Oxford - 9 June 2011
Presentation to Seminar on Barton West, Oxford - 9 June 2011
Presentation to Seminar on Barton West, Oxford - 9 June 2011
Presentation to Seminar on Barton West, Oxford - 9 June 2011
Presentation to Seminar on Barton West, Oxford - 9 June 2011
Presentation to Seminar on Barton West, Oxford - 9 June 2011
Presentation to Seminar on Barton West, Oxford - 9 June 2011
Presentation to Seminar on Barton West, Oxford - 9 June 2011
Presentation to Seminar on Barton West, Oxford - 9 June 2011
Presentation to Seminar on Barton West, Oxford - 9 June 2011
Presentation to Seminar on Barton West, Oxford - 9 June 2011
Presentation to Seminar on Barton West, Oxford - 9 June 2011
Presentation to Seminar on Barton West, Oxford - 9 June 2011
Presentation to Seminar on Barton West, Oxford - 9 June 2011
Presentation to Seminar on Barton West, Oxford - 9 June 2011
Presentation to Seminar on Barton West, Oxford - 9 June 2011
Presentation to Seminar on Barton West, Oxford - 9 June 2011
Presentation to Seminar on Barton West, Oxford - 9 June 2011
Presentation to Seminar on Barton West, Oxford - 9 June 2011
Presentation to Seminar on Barton West, Oxford - 9 June 2011
Presentation to Seminar on Barton West, Oxford - 9 June 2011
Presentation to Seminar on Barton West, Oxford - 9 June 2011
Presentation to Seminar on Barton West, Oxford - 9 June 2011
Presentation to Seminar on Barton West, Oxford - 9 June 2011
Presentation to Seminar on Barton West, Oxford - 9 June 2011
Presentation to Seminar on Barton West, Oxford - 9 June 2011
Presentation to Seminar on Barton West, Oxford - 9 June 2011
Presentation to Seminar on Barton West, Oxford - 9 June 2011
Presentation to Seminar on Barton West, Oxford - 9 June 2011
Presentation to Seminar on Barton West, Oxford - 9 June 2011
Presentation to Seminar on Barton West, Oxford - 9 June 2011
Presentation to Seminar on Barton West, Oxford - 9 June 2011
Presentation to Seminar on Barton West, Oxford - 9 June 2011
Presentation to Seminar on Barton West, Oxford - 9 June 2011
Presentation to Seminar on Barton West, Oxford - 9 June 2011
Presentation to Seminar on Barton West, Oxford - 9 June 2011
Presentation to Seminar on Barton West, Oxford - 9 June 2011
Presentation to Seminar on Barton West, Oxford - 9 June 2011
Presentation to Seminar on Barton West, Oxford - 9 June 2011
Presentation to Seminar on Barton West, Oxford - 9 June 2011
Presentation to Seminar on Barton West, Oxford - 9 June 2011
Presentation to Seminar on Barton West, Oxford - 9 June 2011
Presentation to Seminar on Barton West, Oxford - 9 June 2011
Presentation to Seminar on Barton West, Oxford - 9 June 2011
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Presentation to Seminar on Barton West, Oxford - 9 June 2011

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  • Yes, fine, but not everywhere’s Barcelona
  • Unplanned developments have historically tended to be connected
  • We used to do connected grids
  • And in the post war period – here’s where I was born!
  • But around the 1960s we stopped doing it – why?
  • Replace with better picture of Cheltenham
  • Shared Space – a street type/approach to urban design for application throughout urban and rural settlements
  • Shared Space – new paradigm about how people and traffic can interact.
  • Replace with best question about connectivity
  • Case study, Cheltenham – politically had to have bus gate – but future proofed as street.
  • Transcript

    • 1. Reclaiming the Ring Road, Connecting CommunitiesThe Case of Barton WestRealigning planning and highway engineering conventionsto achieve connected developmentWhy is connectivity so difficult? Oxford 9 June 2011 Phil Jones, PJAPhil Jones Associates sustainable transport solutions
    • 2. Phil Jones Associates sustainable transport solutions
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    • 13. “Some housing, such as this, meets planning and highway standards, but fails to create a sense of place or identity. We need to set our sights higher” The Communities Plan - 2003Phil Jones Associates sustainable transport solutions
    • 14. Where did this thinking come from?Phil Jones Associates sustainable transport solutions
    • 15. Highway Engineering – invented in the 1930s • Based on the physics of moving vehicles • Assumptions about fixed driver behaviour (reaction time etc) • For the most part...this thinking hasn‟t changedPhil Jones Associates sustainable transport solutions
    • 16. Traffic in Towns(The Buchanan Report)1963Phil Jones Associates sustainable transport solutions
    • 17. “It is tempting to say that the objective should be the complete segregation Phil Jones Associatesof pedestrians and vehicles in all circumstances” sustainable transport solutions
    • 18. Tottenham Court Road – from Traffic in TownsPhil Jones Associates sustainable transport solutions
    • 19. Phil Jones Associates sustainable transport solutions
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    • 21. Phil Jones Associates sustainable transport solutions
    • 22. Conventional Road Hierarchy – Segregation increases with traffic flow  Conventional traffic based hierarchy: – Primary Route (Principal Arterial) – District Distributor (Minor Arterial) – Local Distributor (Collector) – Access Road (Local)  Where does a Main Street fit in?Phil Jones Associates sustainable transport solutions
    • 23. Previous National Guidance on Residential Roads Design Bulletin 32 Second Edition (1992) (First edition 1976) “Residential roads and footpaths are an integral part of housing layout where ... in the patterns of movement around buildings the needs of pedestrians and cyclists for safety and convenience are given priority in design over the use of motor vehicles.”Phil Jones Associates sustainable transport solutions
    • 24. But highly standardised car-led geometric standards...Phil Jones Associates sustainable transport solutions
    • 25. ...created highly standardised, car-led layouts...Phil Jones Associates sustainable transport solutions
    • 26. Welcome to Barton!Phil Jones Associates sustainable transport solutions
    • 27. Poundbury, DorsetPhil Jones Associates sustainable transport solutions
    • 28. Phil Jones Associates sustainable transport solutions
    • 29. Phil Jones Associates sustainable transport solutions
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    • 31. New Hall, HarlowPhil Jones Associates sustainable transport solutions
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    • 37. Manual for Streets (2007) Streets are the arteries of our communities – a community‟s success can depend on how well it is connected to local services and the wider world. MfS is clear that uncoordinated decision-making can result in disconnected, bland places that fail to make a contribution to the creation of thriving communities. (MfS Foreword)Phil Jones Associates sustainable transport solutions
    • 38. Aims of Manual for Streets  Bring about a transformation in quality  A fundamental culture change to achieve streets that: – help to build and strengthen the communities they serve; – meet the needs of all, by embodying the principles of inclusive design – provide part of a well-connected network; – are attractive and have their own distinctive identity; – are cost-effective to construct and maintain; and – are safe.Phil Jones Associates sustainable transport solutions
    • 39. Existing context  How has the area developed?  How does the site fit into the pattern and character of local streets?  What are the key local destinations?  Where are the important existing places? ...attractive and well-connected permeable street networks encourage more people to walk and cycle to local destinations, improving their health while reducing motor traffic, energy use and pollution.Phil Jones Associates sustainable transport solutions
    • 40. Permeability  Labyrinthine and badly connected places encourage car use Street networks should, in general, be connected. Connected, or „permeable‟, networks encourage walking and cycling, and make places easier to navigate through. They also lead to a more even spread of motor traffic throughout the area and so avoid the need for distributor roads with no frontage development.Phil Jones Associates sustainable transport solutions
    • 41. Developing a Movement Framework  Where are the key desire lines?  How can the development enhance the existing movement framework rather than disrupt or sever it?  What points of connection and linkage can be achieved?  Should these be for all modes?  Can concerns over „rat running‟ be addressed through slower speeds?Phil Jones Associates sustainable transport solutions
    • 42. When developing outline masterplans for large-scale proposals, such as an urban extension, the design team needs to consider the longer-term vision for the area in question. Such a future-proofing exercise involves looking beyond the usual planning periods to consider where development may be in, say, 20 or 30 years.Phil Jones Associates sustainable transport solutions
    • 43. Phil Jones Associates sustainable transport solutions
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    • 47. External Permeability MfS - Internal permeability is important but the area also needs to be properly connected with adjacent street networks. A development with poor links to the surrounding area creates an enclave which encourages movement to and from it by car rather than by other modes.Phil Jones Associates sustainable transport solutions
    • 48. Manual for Streets 2 Wider Application of The Principles • Published September 2010 • How much difference has it yet made?Phil Jones Associates sustainable transport solutions
    • 49. Manual for Streets 1/2 - What applies where? MfS DMRBPhil Jones Associates sustainable transport solutions
    • 50. MfS (1 and 2) Key Principles Hierarchy – consider pedestrians first Strike a balance – traffic is not always paramount Respect pedestrian and cycle desire lines Permeable and connected networks are preferred Collaborative approaches work best Innovation is encouragedPhil Jones Associates sustainable transport solutions
    • 51.  Two dimensional approach to Hierarchy – Movement and Place Design choices need to respect both functions Some Movement corridors are more important than others… Some Places are more important than others... High Street Movement Status Motorway Rural Lane Residential StreetPhil Jones Associates Place Status sustainable transport solutions
    • 52. Place Place Place Place Place MovementPhil Jones Associates sustainable transport solutions
    • 53. Context: Urban and Suburban AreasStreet Type: BoulevardsPhil Jones Associates sustainable transport solutions
    • 54. Context: Urban and Suburban AreasStreet Type: BoulevardsPhil Jones Associates sustainable transport solutions
    • 55. Phil Jones Associates sustainable transport solutions
    • 56. Context: Shared SpacePhil Jones Associates sustainable transport solutions
    • 57. Context: Shared SpacePhil Jones Associates sustainable transport solutions
    • 58. Phil Jones Associates sustainable transport solutions
    • 59. PoyntonPhil Jones Associates sustainable transport solutions
    • 60. Phil Jones Associates sustainable transport solutions
    • 61. What’s the Problem? • Persistent concerns over potential for highway authorities – and individual officers/members – to be held liable for design faults and innovations. • No evidence that this is actually a significant problem in practice.Phil Jones Associates sustainable transport solutions
    • 62. Legislative duties and judgements Highway Risk & Liability Claims A practical guide to Appendix C of „Well Maintained Highways‟• Produced by UK Roads Board• Advice, case studies and judgements on liabilityPhil Jones Associates sustainable transport solutions
    • 63. Legislative duties and judgements Three Principles: 1. Court rulings repeatedly state that road users are responsible for their own safety and have a duty to take the road as they find it. This defines the road user as an intelligent being, able and expected to exercise their own judgement. 2. The highway authority should avoid creating a trap for road users. 3. The highway authority should not act irrationally.Phil Jones Associates sustainable transport solutions
    • 64. Judgements • No duty to give warning or maintain warning of obvious hazards • No duty to erect of warning signs (including markings) for obvious hazards • Cases: • Gorringe v Calderdale • Stovin v Wise & Norfolk CCPhil Jones Associates sustainable transport solutions
    • 65. Gorringe (Appellant) v. Calderdale Metropolitan Borough Council (2004) On 15 July 1996, on a country road in Yorkshire, Mrs Denise Gorringe drove her car head-on into a bus. It was hidden behind a sharp crest in the road until just before she reached the top. She said that the council caused the accident by failing to give her proper warning of the danger involved in driving fast when you could not see what was coming. The „SLOW‟ road marking on the approach to the crest had become worn.Phil Jones Associates sustainable transport solutions
    • 66. Gorringe (Appellant) v. Calderdale Metropolitan Borough The House of Lords Council (2004) LORD STEYN • …the courts must not contribute to the creation of a society bent on litigation, which is premised on the illusion that for every misfortune there is a remedy. LORD RODGER • I am satisfied that the duty to maintain the highway does not include a duty to repaint warning signs on the surface. LORD HOFFMANN • People must accept responsibility for their own actions and take the necessary care to avoid injuring themselves or others. • The users of the highway are expected to look after themselves. • Drivers of vehicles must take the highway network as they find it.Phil Jones Associates sustainable transport solutions
    • 67. What’s next?  Local Transport Note on Shared Space – coming soon  TAL on Quality Audits through CIHT  CIHT Rolling revision of Transport in the Urban Environment or... Manual for Streets 3! 3Phil Jones Associates sustainable transport solutions
    • 68. So why is it so difficult to achieve connectivity?Phil Jones Associates sustainable transport solutions
    • 69. Local Standards – What MfS Says  Local standards are important to reflect local context  Local standards need to cover placemaking and urban design  Focus on improving local distinctiveness – Vernacular details – Material choices  Local authorities are strongly recommended to review standards and guidance to embrace MfS principles.Phil Jones Associates sustainable transport solutions
    • 70. “The Lincolnshire Design Guide for Residential Areas (1996) advocates the qualities of traditional settlements over those of recent developments by juxtaposing illustrations of both.” “In the following pages it then proceeds to propose a road layout which would clearly make it impossible ever to produce the type of traditional settlement that is considered so admirable.” Sue McGlynn and Ivor Samuels, 2000.Phil Jones Associates sustainable transport solutions
    • 71.  6Cs Design Guide (East Midlands Authorities)  Initial review in 2007 following MfS – but mainly junction visibility  More comprehensive review said to be pending...Phil Jones Associates sustainable transport solutions
    • 72. Phil Jones Associates sustainable transport solutions
    • 73. Worcestershire CC new standards...Phil Jones Associates sustainable transport solutions
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    • 77. Phil Jones Associates sustainable transport solutions
    • 78. South Yorkshire document structured around Building for Life 20 questions, 4 Groups  Environment and Community  Character  Streets, Parking & Pedestrianisation  Design and Construction Streets and connectivity are fundamental to BfL...Phil Jones Associates sustainable transport solutions
    • 79. 14.Does the scheme integrate with existing streets, paths and surrounding development? The Russells, Broadway, Worcestershire Group 3 - Streets, Parking & PedestrianisationPhil Jones Associates sustainable transport solutions
    • 80. Initial Vision Stage Authority advises on the scope Applicant gathers and of information required, policy formulates vision framework etc Concept Development Stage Local authority development Applicant develops conceptual team appraises proposals design against BfL Application Submission Stage Local authority assesses Applicant finalises and submits proposal and processes application application for determinationPhil Jones Associates sustainable transport solutions
    • 81. Phil Jones Associates sustainable transport solutions
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    • 86. Parameter-based standards Use traffic volumes and speed, not counting dwellings:Phil Jones Associates sustainable transport solutions
    • 87. Pessimistic traffic forecasts can make it harder to achieve connectivity.  More connected places have lower car use  But the TRICS database uses the least connected ones  Because they‟re easier to survey!Phil Jones Associates sustainable transport solutions
    • 88. Phil Jones Associates sustainable transport solutions
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    • 91. And in the Developer‟s world...Phil Jones Associates sustainable transport solutions
    • 92. Phil Jones Associates sustainable transport solutions
    • 93. Phil Jones Associates sustainable transport solutions
    • 94. But in the end... transport economics are the key factor in shaping development patterns.Phil Jones Associates sustainable transport solutions
    • 95. Phil Jones Associates sustainable transport solutions
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    • 97. National Transport Model – Growth ForecastsPhil Jones Associates sustainable transport solutions
    • 98. National Transport Model – Oil Price AssumptionsPhil Jones Associates sustainable transport solutions
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    • 106. And have we already reached Peak Car anyway?Phil Jones Associates sustainable transport solutions
    • 107. Phil Jones Associates sustainable transport solutions
    • 108. Final Thoughts  Permeability and connectivity are the new orthodoxy  Amongst some professionals at least!  Significant barriers remain – Outdated local standards – Reliance on the private sector assembling land – Public and political objections – Localism...  But more significant drivers of change may already be here. pj@philjonesassociates.co.uk Twitter.com/Phil_PJA 0121 222 5422Phil Jones Associates sustainable transport solutions

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