Reclaiming the Ring Road, Connecting CommunitiesThe Case of Barton WestRealigning planning and highway engineering convent...
Phil Jones Associates   sustainable transport solutions
Phil Jones Associates   sustainable transport solutions
Phil Jones Associates   sustainable transport solutions
Phil Jones Associates   sustainable transport solutions
Phil Jones Associates   sustainable transport solutions
Phil Jones Associates   sustainable transport solutions
Phil Jones Associates   sustainable transport solutions
Phil Jones Associates   sustainable transport solutions
Phil Jones Associates   sustainable transport solutions
Phil Jones Associates   sustainable transport solutions
Phil Jones Associates   sustainable transport solutions
“Some housing, such as this, meets planning and highway standards,  but fails to create a sense of place or identity. We n...
Where did this thinking come from?Phil Jones Associates                    sustainable transport solutions
Highway Engineering – invented in the 1930s  •   Based on the physics of moving vehicles  •   Assumptions about fixed driv...
Traffic in Towns(The Buchanan Report)1963Phil Jones Associates   sustainable transport solutions
“It is tempting to say that the objective should be the complete segregation Phil Jones Associatesof pedestrians and vehic...
Tottenham Court Road – from Traffic in TownsPhil Jones Associates                          sustainable transport solutions
Phil Jones Associates   sustainable transport solutions
Phil Jones Associates   sustainable transport solutions
Phil Jones Associates   sustainable transport solutions
Conventional Road Hierarchy –        Segregation increases with traffic flow        Conventional traffic based hierarchy:...
Previous National Guidance on Residential          Roads    Design Bulletin 32 Second Edition (1992)    (First edition 197...
But highly standardised car-led geometric standards...Phil Jones Associates                      sustainable transport sol...
...created highly standardised, car-led layouts...Phil Jones Associates                          sustainable transport sol...
Welcome to                         Barton!Phil Jones Associates                sustainable transport solutions
Poundbury, DorsetPhil Jones Associates   sustainable transport solutions
Phil Jones Associates   sustainable transport solutions
Phil Jones Associates   sustainable transport solutions
Phil Jones Associates   sustainable transport solutions
New Hall, HarlowPhil Jones Associates   sustainable transport solutions
Phil Jones Associates   sustainable transport solutions
Phil Jones Associates   sustainable transport solutions
Phil Jones Associates   sustainable transport solutions
Phil Jones Associates   sustainable transport solutions
Phil Jones Associates   sustainable transport solutions
Manual for Streets (2007)                               Streets are the arteries of our                               comm...
Aims of Manual for Streets    Bring about a transformation in quality    A fundamental culture change to achieve streets...
Existing context  How has the area developed?  How does the site fit into the pattern and character of   local streets? ...
Permeability            Labyrinthine and badly connected places encourage car use           Street networks should, in ge...
Developing a Movement Framework    Where are the key desire lines?    How can the development enhance the existing     m...
When developing outline masterplans for large-scale proposals, such as an urban extension, the design team needs to consid...
Phil Jones Associates   sustainable transport solutions
Phil Jones Associates   sustainable transport solutions
Phil Jones Associates   sustainable transport solutions
Phil Jones Associates   sustainable transport solutions
External Permeability           MfS - Internal permeability is important but the area also           needs to be properly ...
Manual for Streets 2 Wider Application of The Principles •   Published September 2010 •   How much difference has it yet m...
Manual for Streets 1/2 - What applies where?            MfS                            DMRBPhil Jones Associates          ...
MfS (1 and 2) Key Principles   Hierarchy – consider pedestrians first   Strike a balance – traffic is not always paramou...
 Two dimensional approach to Hierarchy – Movement and Place Design choices need to respect both functions Some Movement...
Place                                Place                                Place    Place                                  ...
Context:                Urban and Suburban AreasStreet Type:            BoulevardsPhil Jones Associates                   ...
Context:                Urban and Suburban AreasStreet Type:            BoulevardsPhil Jones Associates                   ...
Phil Jones Associates   sustainable transport solutions
Context:                Shared SpacePhil Jones Associates                  sustainable transport solutions
Context:                Shared SpacePhil Jones Associates                  sustainable transport solutions
Phil Jones Associates   sustainable transport solutions
PoyntonPhil Jones Associates   sustainable transport solutions
Phil Jones Associates   sustainable transport solutions
What’s the Problem?      • Persistent concerns over potential for highway        authorities – and individual officers/mem...
Legislative duties and judgements   Highway Risk & Liability Claims   A practical guide to Appendix C   of „Well Maintaine...
Legislative duties and judgements Three Principles: 1. Court rulings repeatedly state that road    users are responsible f...
Judgements • No duty to give warning or maintain   warning of obvious hazards • No duty to erect of warning signs   (inclu...
Gorringe (Appellant) v.    Calderdale Metropolitan    Borough Council (2004)    On 15 July 1996, on a country road in York...
Gorringe (Appellant) v.                           Calderdale Metropolitan Borough      The House of Lords                 ...
What’s next?    Local Transport Note on Shared Space – coming soon    TAL on Quality Audits through CIHT    CIHT Rollin...
So why is it so difficult to achieve connectivity?Phil Jones Associates                      sustainable transport solutions
Local Standards – What MfS Says            Local standards are important to reflect local context            Local stand...
“The Lincolnshire Design Guide for   Residential Areas (1996) advocates   the qualities of traditional settlements   over ...
 6Cs Design Guide (East Midlands Authorities)   Initial review in 2007 following MfS – but mainly junction visibility  ...
Phil Jones Associates   sustainable transport solutions
Worcestershire CC new standards...Phil Jones Associates                sustainable transport solutions
Phil Jones Associates   sustainable transport solutions
Phil Jones Associates   sustainable transport solutions
Phil Jones Associates   sustainable transport solutions
Phil Jones Associates   sustainable transport solutions
South Yorkshire document structured around    Building for Life    20 questions, 4 Groups                           Envir...
14.Does the scheme integrate with existing streets, paths and          surrounding development?     The Russells, Broadway...
Initial Vision Stage                                     Authority advises on the scope   Applicant gathers and           ...
Phil Jones Associates   sustainable transport solutions
Phil Jones Associates   sustainable transport solutions
Phil Jones Associates   sustainable transport solutions
Phil Jones Associates   sustainable transport solutions
Phil Jones Associates   sustainable transport solutions
Parameter-based standards         Use traffic volumes and speed, not counting dwellings:Phil Jones Associates             ...
Pessimistic traffic forecasts can make it           harder to achieve connectivity.            More connected places have...
Phil Jones Associates   sustainable transport solutions
Phil Jones Associates   sustainable transport solutions
Phil Jones Associates   sustainable transport solutions
And in the Developer‟s world...Phil Jones Associates                             sustainable transport solutions
Phil Jones Associates   sustainable transport solutions
Phil Jones Associates   sustainable transport solutions
But in the end...  transport economics are the key factor in shaping development patterns.Phil Jones Associates           ...
Phil Jones Associates   sustainable transport solutions
Phil Jones Associates   sustainable transport solutions
National Transport Model – Growth ForecastsPhil Jones Associates                     sustainable transport solutions
National Transport Model – Oil Price AssumptionsPhil Jones Associates                       sustainable transport solutions
Phil Jones Associates   sustainable transport solutions
Phil Jones Associates   sustainable transport solutions
Phil Jones Associates   sustainable transport solutions
Phil Jones Associates   sustainable transport solutions
Phil Jones Associates   sustainable transport solutions
Phil Jones Associates   sustainable transport solutions
Phil Jones Associates   sustainable transport solutions
And have we already reached Peak Car anyway?Phil Jones Associates                sustainable transport solutions
Phil Jones Associates   sustainable transport solutions
Final Thoughts        Permeability and connectivity are the new orthodoxy        Amongst some professionals at least!   ...
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Presentation to Seminar on Barton West, Oxford - 9 June 2011

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  • Yes, fine, but not everywhere’s Barcelona
  • Unplanned developments have historically tended to be connected
  • We used to do connected grids
  • And in the post war period – here’s where I was born!
  • But around the 1960s we stopped doing it – why?
  • Replace with better picture of Cheltenham
  • Shared Space – a street type/approach to urban design for application throughout urban and rural settlements
  • Shared Space – new paradigm about how people and traffic can interact.
  • Replace with best question about connectivity
  • Case study, Cheltenham – politically had to have bus gate – but future proofed as street.
  • Presentation to Seminar on Barton West, Oxford - 9 June 2011

    1. 1. Reclaiming the Ring Road, Connecting CommunitiesThe Case of Barton WestRealigning planning and highway engineering conventionsto achieve connected developmentWhy is connectivity so difficult? Oxford 9 June 2011 Phil Jones, PJAPhil Jones Associates sustainable transport solutions
    2. 2. Phil Jones Associates sustainable transport solutions
    3. 3. Phil Jones Associates sustainable transport solutions
    4. 4. Phil Jones Associates sustainable transport solutions
    5. 5. Phil Jones Associates sustainable transport solutions
    6. 6. Phil Jones Associates sustainable transport solutions
    7. 7. Phil Jones Associates sustainable transport solutions
    8. 8. Phil Jones Associates sustainable transport solutions
    9. 9. Phil Jones Associates sustainable transport solutions
    10. 10. Phil Jones Associates sustainable transport solutions
    11. 11. Phil Jones Associates sustainable transport solutions
    12. 12. Phil Jones Associates sustainable transport solutions
    13. 13. “Some housing, such as this, meets planning and highway standards, but fails to create a sense of place or identity. We need to set our sights higher” The Communities Plan - 2003Phil Jones Associates sustainable transport solutions
    14. 14. Where did this thinking come from?Phil Jones Associates sustainable transport solutions
    15. 15. Highway Engineering – invented in the 1930s • Based on the physics of moving vehicles • Assumptions about fixed driver behaviour (reaction time etc) • For the most part...this thinking hasn‟t changedPhil Jones Associates sustainable transport solutions
    16. 16. Traffic in Towns(The Buchanan Report)1963Phil Jones Associates sustainable transport solutions
    17. 17. “It is tempting to say that the objective should be the complete segregation Phil Jones Associatesof pedestrians and vehicles in all circumstances” sustainable transport solutions
    18. 18. Tottenham Court Road – from Traffic in TownsPhil Jones Associates sustainable transport solutions
    19. 19. Phil Jones Associates sustainable transport solutions
    20. 20. Phil Jones Associates sustainable transport solutions
    21. 21. Phil Jones Associates sustainable transport solutions
    22. 22. Conventional Road Hierarchy – Segregation increases with traffic flow  Conventional traffic based hierarchy: – Primary Route (Principal Arterial) – District Distributor (Minor Arterial) – Local Distributor (Collector) – Access Road (Local)  Where does a Main Street fit in?Phil Jones Associates sustainable transport solutions
    23. 23. Previous National Guidance on Residential Roads Design Bulletin 32 Second Edition (1992) (First edition 1976) “Residential roads and footpaths are an integral part of housing layout where ... in the patterns of movement around buildings the needs of pedestrians and cyclists for safety and convenience are given priority in design over the use of motor vehicles.”Phil Jones Associates sustainable transport solutions
    24. 24. But highly standardised car-led geometric standards...Phil Jones Associates sustainable transport solutions
    25. 25. ...created highly standardised, car-led layouts...Phil Jones Associates sustainable transport solutions
    26. 26. Welcome to Barton!Phil Jones Associates sustainable transport solutions
    27. 27. Poundbury, DorsetPhil Jones Associates sustainable transport solutions
    28. 28. Phil Jones Associates sustainable transport solutions
    29. 29. Phil Jones Associates sustainable transport solutions
    30. 30. Phil Jones Associates sustainable transport solutions
    31. 31. New Hall, HarlowPhil Jones Associates sustainable transport solutions
    32. 32. Phil Jones Associates sustainable transport solutions
    33. 33. Phil Jones Associates sustainable transport solutions
    34. 34. Phil Jones Associates sustainable transport solutions
    35. 35. Phil Jones Associates sustainable transport solutions
    36. 36. Phil Jones Associates sustainable transport solutions
    37. 37. Manual for Streets (2007) Streets are the arteries of our communities – a community‟s success can depend on how well it is connected to local services and the wider world. MfS is clear that uncoordinated decision-making can result in disconnected, bland places that fail to make a contribution to the creation of thriving communities. (MfS Foreword)Phil Jones Associates sustainable transport solutions
    38. 38. Aims of Manual for Streets  Bring about a transformation in quality  A fundamental culture change to achieve streets that: – help to build and strengthen the communities they serve; – meet the needs of all, by embodying the principles of inclusive design – provide part of a well-connected network; – are attractive and have their own distinctive identity; – are cost-effective to construct and maintain; and – are safe.Phil Jones Associates sustainable transport solutions
    39. 39. Existing context  How has the area developed?  How does the site fit into the pattern and character of local streets?  What are the key local destinations?  Where are the important existing places? ...attractive and well-connected permeable street networks encourage more people to walk and cycle to local destinations, improving their health while reducing motor traffic, energy use and pollution.Phil Jones Associates sustainable transport solutions
    40. 40. Permeability  Labyrinthine and badly connected places encourage car use Street networks should, in general, be connected. Connected, or „permeable‟, networks encourage walking and cycling, and make places easier to navigate through. They also lead to a more even spread of motor traffic throughout the area and so avoid the need for distributor roads with no frontage development.Phil Jones Associates sustainable transport solutions
    41. 41. Developing a Movement Framework  Where are the key desire lines?  How can the development enhance the existing movement framework rather than disrupt or sever it?  What points of connection and linkage can be achieved?  Should these be for all modes?  Can concerns over „rat running‟ be addressed through slower speeds?Phil Jones Associates sustainable transport solutions
    42. 42. When developing outline masterplans for large-scale proposals, such as an urban extension, the design team needs to consider the longer-term vision for the area in question. Such a future-proofing exercise involves looking beyond the usual planning periods to consider where development may be in, say, 20 or 30 years.Phil Jones Associates sustainable transport solutions
    43. 43. Phil Jones Associates sustainable transport solutions
    44. 44. Phil Jones Associates sustainable transport solutions
    45. 45. Phil Jones Associates sustainable transport solutions
    46. 46. Phil Jones Associates sustainable transport solutions
    47. 47. External Permeability MfS - Internal permeability is important but the area also needs to be properly connected with adjacent street networks. A development with poor links to the surrounding area creates an enclave which encourages movement to and from it by car rather than by other modes.Phil Jones Associates sustainable transport solutions
    48. 48. Manual for Streets 2 Wider Application of The Principles • Published September 2010 • How much difference has it yet made?Phil Jones Associates sustainable transport solutions
    49. 49. Manual for Streets 1/2 - What applies where? MfS DMRBPhil Jones Associates sustainable transport solutions
    50. 50. MfS (1 and 2) Key Principles Hierarchy – consider pedestrians first Strike a balance – traffic is not always paramount Respect pedestrian and cycle desire lines Permeable and connected networks are preferred Collaborative approaches work best Innovation is encouragedPhil Jones Associates sustainable transport solutions
    51. 51.  Two dimensional approach to Hierarchy – Movement and Place Design choices need to respect both functions Some Movement corridors are more important than others… Some Places are more important than others... High Street Movement Status Motorway Rural Lane Residential StreetPhil Jones Associates Place Status sustainable transport solutions
    52. 52. Place Place Place Place Place MovementPhil Jones Associates sustainable transport solutions
    53. 53. Context: Urban and Suburban AreasStreet Type: BoulevardsPhil Jones Associates sustainable transport solutions
    54. 54. Context: Urban and Suburban AreasStreet Type: BoulevardsPhil Jones Associates sustainable transport solutions
    55. 55. Phil Jones Associates sustainable transport solutions
    56. 56. Context: Shared SpacePhil Jones Associates sustainable transport solutions
    57. 57. Context: Shared SpacePhil Jones Associates sustainable transport solutions
    58. 58. Phil Jones Associates sustainable transport solutions
    59. 59. PoyntonPhil Jones Associates sustainable transport solutions
    60. 60. Phil Jones Associates sustainable transport solutions
    61. 61. What’s the Problem? • Persistent concerns over potential for highway authorities – and individual officers/members – to be held liable for design faults and innovations. • No evidence that this is actually a significant problem in practice.Phil Jones Associates sustainable transport solutions
    62. 62. Legislative duties and judgements Highway Risk & Liability Claims A practical guide to Appendix C of „Well Maintained Highways‟• Produced by UK Roads Board• Advice, case studies and judgements on liabilityPhil Jones Associates sustainable transport solutions
    63. 63. Legislative duties and judgements Three Principles: 1. Court rulings repeatedly state that road users are responsible for their own safety and have a duty to take the road as they find it. This defines the road user as an intelligent being, able and expected to exercise their own judgement. 2. The highway authority should avoid creating a trap for road users. 3. The highway authority should not act irrationally.Phil Jones Associates sustainable transport solutions
    64. 64. Judgements • No duty to give warning or maintain warning of obvious hazards • No duty to erect of warning signs (including markings) for obvious hazards • Cases: • Gorringe v Calderdale • Stovin v Wise & Norfolk CCPhil Jones Associates sustainable transport solutions
    65. 65. Gorringe (Appellant) v. Calderdale Metropolitan Borough Council (2004) On 15 July 1996, on a country road in Yorkshire, Mrs Denise Gorringe drove her car head-on into a bus. It was hidden behind a sharp crest in the road until just before she reached the top. She said that the council caused the accident by failing to give her proper warning of the danger involved in driving fast when you could not see what was coming. The „SLOW‟ road marking on the approach to the crest had become worn.Phil Jones Associates sustainable transport solutions
    66. 66. Gorringe (Appellant) v. Calderdale Metropolitan Borough The House of Lords Council (2004) LORD STEYN • …the courts must not contribute to the creation of a society bent on litigation, which is premised on the illusion that for every misfortune there is a remedy. LORD RODGER • I am satisfied that the duty to maintain the highway does not include a duty to repaint warning signs on the surface. LORD HOFFMANN • People must accept responsibility for their own actions and take the necessary care to avoid injuring themselves or others. • The users of the highway are expected to look after themselves. • Drivers of vehicles must take the highway network as they find it.Phil Jones Associates sustainable transport solutions
    67. 67. What’s next?  Local Transport Note on Shared Space – coming soon  TAL on Quality Audits through CIHT  CIHT Rolling revision of Transport in the Urban Environment or... Manual for Streets 3! 3Phil Jones Associates sustainable transport solutions
    68. 68. So why is it so difficult to achieve connectivity?Phil Jones Associates sustainable transport solutions
    69. 69. Local Standards – What MfS Says  Local standards are important to reflect local context  Local standards need to cover placemaking and urban design  Focus on improving local distinctiveness – Vernacular details – Material choices  Local authorities are strongly recommended to review standards and guidance to embrace MfS principles.Phil Jones Associates sustainable transport solutions
    70. 70. “The Lincolnshire Design Guide for Residential Areas (1996) advocates the qualities of traditional settlements over those of recent developments by juxtaposing illustrations of both.” “In the following pages it then proceeds to propose a road layout which would clearly make it impossible ever to produce the type of traditional settlement that is considered so admirable.” Sue McGlynn and Ivor Samuels, 2000.Phil Jones Associates sustainable transport solutions
    71. 71.  6Cs Design Guide (East Midlands Authorities)  Initial review in 2007 following MfS – but mainly junction visibility  More comprehensive review said to be pending...Phil Jones Associates sustainable transport solutions
    72. 72. Phil Jones Associates sustainable transport solutions
    73. 73. Worcestershire CC new standards...Phil Jones Associates sustainable transport solutions
    74. 74. Phil Jones Associates sustainable transport solutions
    75. 75. Phil Jones Associates sustainable transport solutions
    76. 76. Phil Jones Associates sustainable transport solutions
    77. 77. Phil Jones Associates sustainable transport solutions
    78. 78. South Yorkshire document structured around Building for Life 20 questions, 4 Groups  Environment and Community  Character  Streets, Parking & Pedestrianisation  Design and Construction Streets and connectivity are fundamental to BfL...Phil Jones Associates sustainable transport solutions
    79. 79. 14.Does the scheme integrate with existing streets, paths and surrounding development? The Russells, Broadway, Worcestershire Group 3 - Streets, Parking & PedestrianisationPhil Jones Associates sustainable transport solutions
    80. 80. Initial Vision Stage Authority advises on the scope Applicant gathers and of information required, policy formulates vision framework etc Concept Development Stage Local authority development Applicant develops conceptual team appraises proposals design against BfL Application Submission Stage Local authority assesses Applicant finalises and submits proposal and processes application application for determinationPhil Jones Associates sustainable transport solutions
    81. 81. Phil Jones Associates sustainable transport solutions
    82. 82. Phil Jones Associates sustainable transport solutions
    83. 83. Phil Jones Associates sustainable transport solutions
    84. 84. Phil Jones Associates sustainable transport solutions
    85. 85. Phil Jones Associates sustainable transport solutions
    86. 86. Parameter-based standards Use traffic volumes and speed, not counting dwellings:Phil Jones Associates sustainable transport solutions
    87. 87. Pessimistic traffic forecasts can make it harder to achieve connectivity.  More connected places have lower car use  But the TRICS database uses the least connected ones  Because they‟re easier to survey!Phil Jones Associates sustainable transport solutions
    88. 88. Phil Jones Associates sustainable transport solutions
    89. 89. Phil Jones Associates sustainable transport solutions
    90. 90. Phil Jones Associates sustainable transport solutions
    91. 91. And in the Developer‟s world...Phil Jones Associates sustainable transport solutions
    92. 92. Phil Jones Associates sustainable transport solutions
    93. 93. Phil Jones Associates sustainable transport solutions
    94. 94. But in the end... transport economics are the key factor in shaping development patterns.Phil Jones Associates sustainable transport solutions
    95. 95. Phil Jones Associates sustainable transport solutions
    96. 96. Phil Jones Associates sustainable transport solutions
    97. 97. National Transport Model – Growth ForecastsPhil Jones Associates sustainable transport solutions
    98. 98. National Transport Model – Oil Price AssumptionsPhil Jones Associates sustainable transport solutions
    99. 99. Phil Jones Associates sustainable transport solutions
    100. 100. Phil Jones Associates sustainable transport solutions
    101. 101. Phil Jones Associates sustainable transport solutions
    102. 102. Phil Jones Associates sustainable transport solutions
    103. 103. Phil Jones Associates sustainable transport solutions
    104. 104. Phil Jones Associates sustainable transport solutions
    105. 105. Phil Jones Associates sustainable transport solutions
    106. 106. And have we already reached Peak Car anyway?Phil Jones Associates sustainable transport solutions
    107. 107. Phil Jones Associates sustainable transport solutions
    108. 108. Final Thoughts  Permeability and connectivity are the new orthodoxy  Amongst some professionals at least!  Significant barriers remain – Outdated local standards – Reliance on the private sector assembling land – Public and political objections – Localism...  But more significant drivers of change may already be here. pj@philjonesassociates.co.uk Twitter.com/Phil_PJA 0121 222 5422Phil Jones Associates sustainable transport solutions

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