Undersntading tv and film industry


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Undersntading tv and film industry

  1. 1. Understanding the film and TV INdustries Ownership and FUnding (P1, M1, D1) define the following models of ownership public service commercial independant company global conglomorate horizontal / vertical integration monopoly In the UK the term "public service broadcasting" refers to broadcasting which is intended for the public and will benefit rather than for purely commercial concerns. The communications regulator Ofcom requires that certain television and radio broadcasters fulfil certain requirements as part of their licence to broadcast. All of the BBC’stelevision and radio stations have a public service remit, including those that broadcast digitally. Commercial broadcasting (also called private broadcasting) is the broadcasting of television programs and radio programming by privately owned corporate media, as opposed to state sponsorship. It was the United States first model of radio during the 1920s, in contrast with the public television model in Europe during the 1930s, 1940s and 1950s which prevailed worldwide. Commercial broadcasting is primarily based on the practice of airing radio advertisements and television advertisements for profit. This is in contrast to public broadcasting, which receives government subsidies and eschews most (or all) paid advertising. The Independent Broadcasting Authority was the regulatory body in the United Kingdom for commercial television (ITV and Channel 4 and limited satellite television regulation cable was the responsibility of the Cable Authority) - and commercial/independent radio broadcasts. A media conglomerate, media group or media institution is a company that owns large numbers of companies in various mass media such as television, radio, publishing, movies, and the Internet. Media conglomerates strive for policies that facilitate their control of the markets around the world.According to the 2013 Fortune 500 list, The Walt Disney Company is America’slargest media conglomerate in terms of revenue All broadcast television systems preceding digital transmission of digital (horizontal and vertical), and audio signals, and broadcast them over a radio and TV signals A statutory monopoly may take the form of a government monopoly where the state owns the particular means of production or government-granted monopoly where a private interest is protected from competition such as being granted exclusive rights to offer a particular service in a specific region while agreeing to have their policies and prices regulated.
  2. 2. explore two case studies which demonstrate two contrasting ownerShip models case study 1: case study 2: The BBC main responsibility is to provide impartial public service broadcasting in the United Kingdom, the Channel Islands, and the Isle of Man. The BBC is headquartered at Broadcasting House in London and has major production centres in Salford Quays, Belfast, Birmingham, Bristol, Cardiff and Glasgow, and smaller production centres throughout the UK. The BBC is the world’soldest national broadcasting organization and the largest broadcaster in the world by number of employees. The BBC is a semi-autonomous public service broadcaster that operates under a Royal Charter and a Licence and Agreement from the Home Secretary. Within the United Kingdom its work is funded principally by an annual television licence fee, which is charged to all British households, companies and organizations using any type of equipment to receive live television broadcasts; the level of the fee is set annually by the British Government and agreed by Parliament. They receive money from selling TV formats. ITV is a commercial public service TV network in the United Kingdom. Launched in 1955 as Independent Television under the auspices of the Independent Television Authority (ITA, then after the Sound Broadcasting Act 1972, Independent Broadcasting Authority, now Ofcom) to provide competition to the BBC, it is also the oldest commercial network in the UK. Since the passing of the Broadcasting Act 1990 its legal name has been Channel 3, to distinguish it from the other analogue channels at the time, namely BBC 1, BBC 2 and Channel 4. In part, the number 3 was assigned as television sets would usually be tuned so that the regional ITV station would be on the third button, with the other stations being allocated to the number within their name. ITV make there money through advertising this challenged BBC as the BBC doesn’tlet companies or products advertise on the BBC. This has been able to make ITV a lot of money and make big budget shows as advertsing as proved in America can make a lot of money.
  3. 3. discuss how funding is generated through the following revenues licence fee sponsorship subscription pay per view advertising product placement development funds To sponsor something is to support an event, activity, person, or organization financially or through the provision of products or services. A sponsor is the individual or group that provides the support, similar to a benefactor. The subscription business model is a business model where a customer must pay a subscription price to have access to the product/service. The model was pioneered by magazines and newspapers, but is now used by many businesses and websites. Pay-per-view (PPV) provides a service by which a television audience can purchase events to view via private telecast. The broadcaster shows the event at the same time to everyone ordering it (as opposed to video-on-demand systems, which allow viewers to see recorded broadcasts at any time). Events can be purchased using an on-screen guide, an automated telephone system, or through a live customer service representative. Events often include feature films, sporting events and entertainment. Advertising or advertizing in business is a form of marketing communication used to encourage, persuade, or manipulate an audience viewers, readers or listeners; sometimes a specific group to take or continue to take some action. Most commonly, the desired result is to drive consumer behavior with respect to a commercial offering, although political and ideological advertising is also common. This type of work belongs to a category called affective labor. Product placement, or embedded marketing, is according to the European Union "any form of audiovisual commercial communication consisting of the inclusion of or reference to a product, a service or the trade mark thereof so that it is featured within a programme. Development funding is the term used to describe financial capital given in support of creating a new project. Such projects may include new real estate developments, community programs, building restorations or new business ventures. Development funding may be offered in the form of a grant designated for such projects and does not require repayment or it may be offered in the form of a loan. A television licence (or broadcast receiving licence) is an official record of payment required in many countries for the reception of television broadcasts, or the possession of a television set where some broadcasts are funded in full or in part by the licence fee paid. The licence is sometimes also required to own a radio or receive radio broadcasts.
  4. 4. define the following working patterns over the following pages identify 5 different jobs within the creative media sector and create A PROFLE OF EACH JOB. shift work freelance fixed term JOB ROLES AND CONTRACTS (P2, M2, D3) Fixed Term working patterns is the style of working where you work for an organization and your under contract and have a fixed wage. Shift work is an employment practice designed to make use of, or provide service across, all 24 hours of the clock each day of the week abbreviated as 24/7. The practice typically sees the day divided into shifts, set periods of time during which different groups of workers take up their posts. The term shift work includes both long-term night shifts and work schedules in which employees change or rotate shifts. Shift work is considered a risk factor for many health problems. It has many negative cognitive effects. In addition, rotating night shift work disrupts our circadian clocks which is associated with a higher probability of developing obesity, diabetes and cardiovascular disease. A freelance is a person who is self-employed and is not committed to a particular employer long-term. These workers are sometimes represented by a company or an agency that resells their labor and that of others to its clients with or without project management and labor contributed by its regular employees. Others are completely independent. "Independent contractor" would be the term used in a higher register of English. Fields in which freelancing is common include: music, journalism, publishing, screenwriting, filmmaking, acting, photojournalism, cosmetics, fragrances, editing, photography, event planning, event management, copy editing, proofreading, indexing, copywriting, computer programming, web design, graphic design, website development, consulting, tour guiding, video editing, video production, translating, illustrating and micro jobs.
  5. 5. job: Director Film directors create an overall vision through which a film eventually becomes realized. Realizing this vision includes overseeing the artistic and technical elements of film production, as well as directing the shooting timetable and meeting deadlines. This entails organizing the film crew in such a way as to achieve his or her vision of the film. This requires skills of group leadership, as well as the ability to maintain a singular focus even in the stressful environment of a film set. Moreover it is necessary to have an artistic eye to frame shots and to give precise feedback to cast and crew, thus, excellent communication skills are a must. Since the film director depends on the successful cooperation of many different creative individuals with possibly strongly contradicting artistic ideals and visions, he or she also needs to possess conflict resolution skills in order to mediate whenever necessary. Thus the director ensures that all individuals involved in the film production are working towards an identical vision for the completed film. The set of varying challenges he or she has to tackle has been described as "a multi-dimensional jigsaw puzzle with egos and weather thrown in for good measure". It adds to the pressure that the success of a film can influence when and how they will work again. Omnipresent are the boundaries of the films budget. Additionally, the director may also have to ensure an intended age rating. Theoretically the sole superior of a director is the studio that is financing the film, however a poor working relationship between a film director and an actor could possibly result in the director being replaced if the actor is a major film star.
  6. 6. job: Camera operator A camera operator or cameraman/camerawoman is a professional operator of a film or video camera. In filmmaking, the leading camera operator is usually called a cinematographer, while a camera operator in a video production may be known as a television camera operator, video camera operator, or videographer, depending on the context and technology involved, usually operating a professional video camera. The camera operator is responsible for physically operating the camera and maintaining composition and camera angles throughout a given scene or shot. In narrative filmmaking, the camera operator will collaborate with the director, director of photography, actors and crew to make technical and creative decisions. In this setting, a camera operator is part of a film crew consisting of the director of photography and one or more camera assistants. In documentary filmmaking and news, the camera is often called on to film unfolding, unscripted events. In 2006, there were approximately 27,000 television, video, and motion picture camera operators employed in the United States. Important camera operator skills include choreographing and framing shots knowledge of and the ability to select appropriate camera lenses, and other equipment (dollies, camera cranes, etc.) to portray dramatic scenes. The principles of dramatic story telling and film editing fundamentals are important skills as well. The camera operator is required to communicate clearly and concisely on sets where time and film budget constraints are ever present.
  7. 7. job: Screenwriter Screen writing is a freelance profession. No education is required to become a professional screenwriter, just good storytelling abilities and imagination. Screenwriters are not hired employees, they are contracted free-lancers. Most, if not all, screenwriters start their careers writing on speculation, meaning they write without being hired or paid for it. When such a script is sold, it is called a spec script. What separates a professional screenwriter from an amateur screenwriter is that professional screenwriters are usually represented by a talent agency. Also, professional screenwriters do not work for free often, an amateur will often work for free and are considered writers in training. Spec scripts are usually penned by unknown professional screenwriters and amateur screenwriters. There are a legion of would-be screenwriters who attempt to enter the film industry but it often takes years of trial-and-error, failure, and gritty persistence to achieve success. "Screenplays have become, for the last half of the twentieth century. Every screenplay and teleplay begins with an idea, and screenwriters use those ideas to write scripts, with the intention of selling them and having them produced.The majority of the time, a film project gets initiated by a screenwriter and because they initiated the project, the writing assignment exclusively becomes his or hers
  8. 8. job: Project manager Production Managers run productions on behalf of the Producer and Line Producer. They help to determine the most efficient and economic way to schedule shoots, negotiate business deals for crews, locations and technical equipment, and make day-to-day production decisions to ensure that productions proceed smoothly. Production Managers are dynamic and highly self-motivated individuals. They should be excellent communicators, prepared to work very long hours, and able to react calmly under intense pressure. The role is challenging but well paid, usually on a freelance basis. During production, Production Managers ensure that all bills are paid, that tasks are delegated properly, and that people work well together. Their responsibilities include: setting up and implementing financial monitoring systems; controlling production expenditure; monitoring and controlling the progress of productions; overseeing production paperwork, such as releases, call sheets, and daily progress reports, to ensure that the production schedule and departmental budgets are on target. Production Managers sign and authorise all purchase orders and help the Production Accountant to prepare weekly cost reports. They make changes to the schedule and to the budget as required, and ensure that these changes are brought to the attention of all relevant personnel. Production Managers deal with any personnel problems or issues that may arise, and ensure that all Health and Safety regulations are adhered to.
  9. 9. job: Actor Acting is the work of an actor or actress, which is a person in theatre, television, film, or any other storytelling medium who tells the story by portraying a character and, usually, speaking or singing the written text or play. Not all people working as actors in film, television or theatre are professionally trained. Conservatories typically offer two- to four-year training on all aspects of acting. Universities will offer three- to four-year programs, where a student is often able to choose to focus on drama, while still learning about other aspects of theatre. Schools will vary in their approach regardless of a school’s approach, students should expect intensive training in textual interpretation, voice and movement. Although there are some teachers who will encourage the improvisation as technique in order to free the actor of limitations in rehearsal. Applications to drama programs and conservatories are through auditions in the United States. Anybody over the age of 18 can usually apply to drama school.Training may also start at a very young age. Acting classes and professional schools targeted at the under-18 crowd are offered in many locations. These classes introduce young actors to different aspects of acting and theatre, including scene study.
  10. 10. WHAT RIGHTS ARE WORKERS ENTITLED TO? trade unions, HEALTH AND SAFETY, EQUAL OPS RIGHTS, ETHICS AND LEGAL (P3, M3, D3) Your contract of employment cannot take away rights you have by law. So if, for example, you have a contract which states you are only entitled to two weeks’paid holiday per year when, by law, all full-time employees are entitled to 28 days’paid holiday per year, this part of your contract is void and does not apply. The right you have under law (to 28 days’holiday in this case) applies instead. If your contract gives you greater rights than you have under law, for example, your contract gives you six weeks’paid holiday per year, then your contract applies. There are special rules about the employment of children and young people. Statutory rights are legal rights based on laws passed by Parliament. Nearly all workers, regardless of the number of hours per week they work, have certain legal rights. There are some workers who are not entitled to certain statutory rights .Sometimes an employee only gains a right when they have been employed by their employer for a certain length of time and when this applies.
  11. 11. IDENTIFY ANY EXAMPLES OF WHERE YOU CONSIDER THE CREATIVE MEDIA INDUSTRIES TO HAVE BROKEN ETHICAL CODES That’sthe length of time it took CNN to correct itself after inaccurately reporting the Supreme Court’s decision on President Obama’sAffordable Care Act on June 28, 2012. The date and time of this landmark ruling had been established in advance, making the court’sannouncement more of a pseudo-event than a scoop. However, with every national media outlet camped on the steps of the Supreme Court, the temptation to be first was too great for CNN to ignore even if that meant abandoning its ethics. Chief Justice John Roberts began delivering the verdict around 10:06 a.m. EDT accompanied by a dense 59-page document. Only a minute later, CNN correspondent Kate Bolduan frantically broke the news on-air outside the courthouse, while Roberts was still reading the decision inside. CNN failed to live up to both of these organizations’standards. The most glaring detail about this whole event is the non-impetuous or non-adlibbed nature of the Court’sdecision. Reporters and producers knew the date, time, location, and possible outcomes, yet still made the conscious decision to win the media race rather than remain true to their own codes of ethics. Being first clearly meant more to CNN than being right. While the network has promised to pursue an internal investigation into the matter, I believe the public is never likely to learn of its outcome.
  12. 12. WHAT ARE THE MAIN RESPOSIBILITIES AND ROLES OF THE FOLLOWING THE BROADCASTING act THE BBFC ofcom The Broadcasting Act 1990 is a law of the British parliament, often regarded by both its supporters and its critics as a quintessential example of Thatcherism. The aim of the Act was to reform the entire structure of British broadcasting; British television, in particular, had earlier been described by Margaret Thatcher as "the last bastion of restrictive practices". The act came about after the finding from the Peacock Committee. The British Board of Film Classification (BBFC), originally British Board of Film Censors, is a non-governmental organization, funded by the film industry and responsible for the national classification and censorship of films within the United Kingdom. It has a statutory requirement to classify videos, DVDs and, to a lesser extent, some video games under the Video Recordings Act 2010 The Office of Communications commonly known as Ofcom, is the government-approved regulatory and competition authority for the broadcasting, telecommunications and postal industries of the United Kingdom. Ofcom has wide-ranging powers across the television, radio, telecoms and postal sectors. It has a statutory duty to represent the interests of citizens and consumers by promoting competition and protecting the public from harmful or offensive material. Some of the main areas Ofcom presides over are licensing, research, codes and policies, complaints, competition and protecting the radio spectrum from abuse.
  13. 13. WHAT HAVE BEEN THE SIGNIFICANT CHANGES TO THE TV INDUSTRY IN RECENT YEARS? INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENTS (P4, M4, D4) The Television industry is changing as it is now not as important to watch a series exactly when its released as companies like nextflixs and lovefilm you are able to watch the TV shows whenever you want for a small fee a month. In the past decade, the Television Programming & Broadcasting industry has undergone significant changes. It is increasingly dominated by subscription packages rather than free-to-air broadcasts and has come to include video-on-demand services provided on screens other than TVs. The switch to digital TV has had the biggest effect as it has allowed the number of new channels to increase rapidly and changed the sources of revenue and subsequently the industry is expected to post modest growth over the next five years through 2018-19 as operators adapt to new viewing methods and public funding declines as a result of the BBC’sstrategic consolidation.
  14. 14. WHAT HAVE BEEN THE SIGNIFICANT CHANGES TO THE FILM INDUSTRY IN RECENT YEARS? Watching movies on your tablet and filming on them is starting to happen as the new Ipad has a higher resolution than a HD TV. Another significant change will be 3D movies without the glasses similar to the Nintendo which is 3D but does not need glasses.4D movies incorporate actual physical effects, like drops of water for rain, special smells, and blowing winds. finally similar to the TV industry subscription companies for films are taking up a big part of the industry cutting the amount of people who go to the cinema.