Week 6 assertiveness


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Week 6 assertiveness

  1. 1. DR. HIWA K. SAAED hiwa.saaed@univsul.edu.iq 5/1/2016 1 Assertiveness How to stand up for yourself
  2. 2. Objectives Overview Beginning Exercise Defining Assertiveness Theoretical Foundations Assertiveness Techniques Assertiveness and Patients Assertiveness and Other Health Care Professionals Assertiveness and Employees Assertiveness and Employers Assertiveness and Colleagues Summary 5/1/2016 2
  3. 3. Overview Assertive pharmacists:  Take an active role in patient care.  Initiate communication with patients rather than wait to be asked questions.  Convey their views on the management of patient drug therapy to other health care professionals.  Finally, try to resolve conflicts with others in a direct manner but in a way that conveys respect for others. 5/1/2016 3
  4. 4. Beginning Exercise Before reading further, stop and ask yourself these questions: 1. If a group in your community asked you to give a speech on medication use, how would you respond? 2. When a patient is hostile, how do you tend to respond? 3. How many patients and physicians you talk with know you by name? 4. How often do you make it a point to talk with patients getting new prescriptions to make sure they understand their therapy? 5. How often do you counsel only if they ask questions? 6. How frequently do you look at profile records and ask patients questions during refill visits to make sure that: ◦ medications are being taken appropriately, ◦ therapeutic goals are being met, ◦ there are no problems with therapy? 5/1/2016 4
  5. 5. Passive Behavior Avoid conflict at all cost Avoids saying what he/she really think out of fear that others may not agree ‘Hides’ and waits for others to initiate conversation Put others’ needs above their own May feel secretly angry or resentful towards others May see themselves as victims 5/1/2016 5
  6. 6. Aggressive Behavior Aggressive people seek to “win” in conflict situations by dominating or intimidating others. Aggressive persons promote their own interests or points of view but are indifferent or hostile to the feelings, thoughts, or needs of others. May ‘win’ certain arguments the short term, but their behavior may lead to long-term negative consequences 5/1/2016 6
  7. 7. Assertive Behavior Assertive behavior is the direct expression of ideas, opinions, and desires. The intent of assertive behavior is to communicate in an atmosphere of trust. Conflicts that arise are faced and solutions of mutual accord are sought. Assertive individuals initiate communication in a way that conveys their concern and respect for others. The goal of communication is to stand up for oneself and to solve interpersonal problems in ways that do not damage relationships. Assertiveness requires that you respect others as well as yourself. 5/1/2016 7
  8. 8. A critical factor in being assertive “Taking responsibility for our own behavior” is the ability to act in ways that are consistent with the standards we have for our own behavior. When we tell ourselves that other people “make” us feel or act a certain way, we are not taking responsibility for our own behavior. Instead of changing ourselves, we try (impotently) to get others to change. However, the only power we have to effect change in any relationship is to change our own behavior. e.g., you may wish that your boss, who tends to be very negative during annual performance evaluations of staff, was more supportive of your work. However, just hoping that she would be more positive in her evaluations will not resolve this issue. You must take active steps to change how you respond to her criticisms rather than waiting for her to change her approach. 5/1/2016 8
  9. 9. skills for assertive communication These include initiating and maintaining conversations, encouraging assertiveness in others, responding appropriately to criticism, giving negative feedback acceptably, expressing appreciation or pleasure, making requests, setting limits or refusing requests, conveying confidence both verbally and nonverbally, and expressing opinions and feelings appropriately. 5/1/2016 9
  10. 10. Theoretical Foundations ‘Irrational beliefs’ Behaviorists believe that passive or aggressive responses have been reinforced or rewarded and thus strengthened. Aggressive behavior often works in the short term because others feel intimidated and allow aggressive persons to get what they want. Passive behaviors are reinforced when individuals are able to escape or even avoid conflict in relationships and thus escape the anxiety that surrounds these conflicts. 5/1/2016 10
  11. 11. Irrational beliefs that interfere with assertiveness. These beliefs involve 1. Fear of rejection or anger from others and need for approval (everyone should like me and approve of what I do) 2. Overconcern for the needs and rights of others (I should always try to help others and be nice to them) 3. Unalterable personality characteristics, unchangeable (this is just how I am) 4. Perfectionist standards. (I must be perfectly competent. If I am not, then I am a failure. Others must also be perfectly competent and deserve to be severely criticized if they are not.) 5/1/2016 11
  12. 12. Restructuring, an assertiveness technique, teaches people to identify self-defeating thoughts that produce anxiety or inappropriate anger in difficult situations and replace them with more reasonable thoughts. As these new thoughts replace the self- defeating thoughts, they begin to be incorporated into the person’s belief system. For example, as a pharmacist you may feel “used” by a boss who always counts on you for emergency coverage. You might currently say to yourself, “I don’t want to come in to work on my day off this week, but if I say ‘no’ the boss will get mad, and that would be awful.” Because this causes you anxiety at the imagined catastrophic consequences of saying “no,” your response is inhibited. A more rational thought process when faced with such a request would be “I don’t want to work on my day off this week. It is my right to say no. I am not responsible for solving all the problems my manager has in finding backup coverage.” This thought reduces anxiety and frees you to practice new, more assertive responses to difficult situations. 5/1/2016 12
  13. 13. Assertiveness skills required in relating to patients: Willingness to initiate communication Encouraging patients to be more assertive with you Appropriate response to angry patients Empathic response Turn criticism into useful feedback Do not transmit messages through a third party. 5/1/2016 13
  14. 14. Assertiveness skills required in relating to physicians: No need for anger/ or apology Always introduce yourself Apologizing makes you seem insecure and unassertive Do not put the physician ‘on the spot” Prepare your recommendation and keep current references ‘in reserve’ Do not expect a ‘pat on the back’ 5/1/2016 14
  15. 15. Assertiveness with Employees Talk in private Be specific in your approach to the problem Do not become defensive Positive feedback is as important as negative feedback (specific praise) 5/1/2016 15
  16. 16. Assertiveness with Employers Five responses that are helpful in situations of criticism: Getting useful feedback Agreeing with criticism Disagreeing with criticism Fogging; involves acknowledging the truth or possible truths in what people tell you about yourself while ignoring completely any judgments they might have implied by what they said. Delaying a response 5/1/2016 16
  17. 17. Assertiveness with Colleagues The best response is to ‘delay’ your response Resist the urge to change response from ‘no’ to ‘yes’ 5/1/2016 17
  18. 18. Summary Assertiveness is a style of response that focuses on resolving conflicts in relationships in an atmosphere of mutual respect. To be assertive, each person must be able to directly and honestly convey “This is what I think,” “This is how I feel about the situation,” “This is what I want to have happen,” or “This is what I am willing to do.” This type of communication allows people to stand up for their own rights or for what they believe in without infringing on the rights of others. You also attempt to understand the other person’s point of view even when there is disagreement.  The focus is on problem solving rather than turning the conflict into a “win/lose” situation that damages the relationship. 5/1/2016 18
  19. 19. REVIEW QUESTIONS 1. Compare assertiveness to passivity and aggressiveness. 2. In what way(s) should pharmacists be assertive with patients? With physicians? With colleagues? 3. Describe a way to handle criticism without losing self-esteem or mutual respect. 4. How can assertiveness be used to resolve conflict? 5. What is “fogging”? 5/1/2016 19
  20. 20. Case Study A patient has just seen their GI specialist who wrote her a prescription for nifedipine. The patient presents the Rx to their pharmacist. While interviewing the patient the pharmacist is asked by the patient what nifedipine is supposed to treat. The pharmacist indicated that nifedipine is used primarily for blood pressure or other cardiovascular problems, but, that it can be used for other indications. The patient takes the prescription and leaves abruptly. Less than 30 minutes later an angry physician calls the pharmacist and says: "I do not want you to counsel any of my patients on their prescriptions in the future since you don't seem to know much about drugs." 5/1/2016 20
  21. 21. Case Study Questions: Is being assertive appropriate in this case? If so, what is an appropriate assertive response? If not, what should the pharmacist say or do? 5/1/2016 21
  22. 22. Mini-case Study: A patient approaches the prescription counter where a young female pharmacist is working. The pharmacist greets the patient. The patient then asks if he can speak to the pharmacist. A patient returns to the pharmacy two days after having a prescription for an expensive blood pressure medication filled. The patient slams his bottle down on the counter and angrily states that their bottle was 5 tablets short. "Can't you do anything right around here?" 5/1/2016 22
  23. 23. Case Study: A pharmacist who is working alone is counseling a patient about her prescription. During the counseling, the pharmacist notices another patient impatiently waiting to drop off a prescription. After the counseling is completed with the first patient, the pharmacist greets the "impatient" patient who simply glares at the pharmacist and does not respond to her questions. The pharmacist, in an effort to smooth things over, says to the patient, "I am sorry you had to wait a few minutes, but, I try to provide the best possible care to my patients and this does take time." Was this a good assertive response? 5/1/2016 23
  24. 24. Case Study: A pharmacist has just finished counseling a patient about the new medication to treat the patient's high cholesterol. The pharmacist used the prime questions and feels like the patient really understands how to use their medication correctly, and what to do if there is a suspected problem with their medication. But, just to be sure, the pharmacist decides to use final verification. He says to the patient, "Just to make sure I didn't leave anything out, tell me again how you are going to use this medication." The patient responds, "Well, I guess I am supposed to take one tablet each night at bedtime, but, you know I am really not sure about taking this medicine." How could the pharmacist persuade this patient to use the medication when there appears to be some doubt in the patient's mind? 5/1/2016 24