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Lecture on internet (1)


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  • 1. Lecture on Internet History of the Internet: Timeline By Dave Marshall 1836 -- Telegraph. Cooke and Wheatstone patent it. Why is this relevant? Revolutionised human (tele)communications. Morse Code a series of dots and dashes used to communicate between humans. This is not a million miles away from how computers communicate via (binary 0/1) data today. Although it is much slower!! 1858-1866 -- Transatlantic cable. Allowed direct instantaneous communication across the atlantic. Why is this relevant? Today, cables connect all continents and are still a main hub of telecommunications. 1876 -- Telephone. Alexander Graham Bell Exhibits. Why is this relevant? Telephones exchanges provide the backbone of Internet connections today. Modems provide Digital to Audio conversions to allow computers to connect over the telephone network.
  • 2. 1957 -- USSR launches Sputnik, first artificial earth satellite. Why is this relevant? The start of global telecommunications. Satellites play an important role in transmitting all sorts of data today. In response, US forms the Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA) within the Department of Defense (DoD) to establish US lead in science and technology applicable to the military. 1962 - 1968 -- Packet-switching (PS) networks developed Why is this relevant? As we will see later the Internet relies on packets to transfer data. The origin is military : for utmost security in transferring information of networks (no single outage point). Data is split into tiny packets that may take different routes to a destination. Hard to eavesdrop on messages. More than one route available -- if one route goes down another may be followed. Networks can withstand large scale destruction (Nuclear attack - This was the time of the Cold War).
  • 3. 1969 -- Birth of Internet ARPANET commissioned by DoD for research into networking Why is this relevant? First node at UCLA (Los Angeles) closely followed by nodes at Stanford Research Institute, UCSB (Santa Barbara) and U of Utah (4 Nodes). 1971 -- People communicate over a network 15 nodes (23 hosts) on ARPANET. E-mail invented -- a program to send messages across a distributed network. Why is this relevant? E-mail is still the main way of inter-person communication on the Internet today. o We will study how to use and send E-mail shortly in this course. o You will make extensive use of E-mail for the rest of your life. 1972 -- Computers can connect more freely and easily First public demonstration of ARPANET between 40 machines. Internetworking Working Group (INWG) created to address need for establishing agreed upon protocols. Why is this relevant? Telnet specification o Telnet is still a relevant means of inter-machine connection today.
  • 4. 1973 -- Global Networking becomes a reality First international connections to the ARPANET: University College of London (England) and Royal Radar Establishment (Norway) Ethernet outlined -- this how local networks are basically connected today. Internet ideas started. Gateway architecture sketched on back of envelope in hotel lobby in San Francisco. Gateways define how large networks (maybe of different architecture) can be connected together. File Transfer protocol specified -- how computers send and receive data. 1974 -- Packets become mode of transfer Transmission Control Program (TCP) specified. Packet network Intercommunication -- the basis of Internet Communication. Telenet, a commercial version of ARPANET, opened -- the first public packet data service. 1976 -- Networking comes to many Queen Elizabeth sends out an e-mail. UUCP (Unix-to-Unix CoPy) developed at AT&T Bell Labs and distributed with UNIX. Why is this relevant? UNIX was and still is the main operating system used by universities and research establishments.
  • 5. o These machines could now ``talk'' over a network. o Networking exposed to many users worldwide. 1977 -- E-mail takes off, Internet becomes a reality Number of hosts breaks 100. THEORYNET provides electronic mail to over 100 researchers in computer science (using a locally developed E-mail system and TELENET for access to server). Mail specification First demonstration of ARPANET/Packet Radio Net/SATNET operation of Internet protocols over gateways. 1979 -- News Groups born Computer Science Department research computer network established in USA. USENET established using UUCP. Why is this relevant? USENET still thrives today. o A collection of discussions groups, news groups. o 3 news groups established by the end of the year o Almost any topic now has a discussion group.
  • 6. 1979 First MUD (Multiuser Dungeon) -- interactive multiuser sites. Interactive adventure games, board games, rich and detailed databases. ARPA establishes the Internet Configuration Control Board (ICCB). Packet Radio Network (PRNET) experiment starts with ARPA funding. Most communications take place between mobile vans. 1981 -- Things start to come together BITNET, the "Because It's Time NETwork" Started as a cooperative network at the City University of New York, with the first connection to Yale Provides electronic mail and listserv servers to distribute information, as well as file transfers CSNET (Computer Science NETwork) established to provide networking services (specially E-mail) to university scientists with no access to ARPANET. CSNET later becomes known as the Computer and Science Network. 1982 -- TCP/IP defines future communication DCA and ARPA establishes the Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) and Internet Protocol (IP), as the protocol suite, commonly known as TCP/IP, for ARPANET. Why is this relevant? Leads to one of the first definitions of an internet as a connected set of networks, specifically those using TCP/IP, and Internet as connected TCP/IP internets.
  • 7. 1982 EUnet (European UNIX Network) is created by EUUG to provide E-mail and USENET services. Original connections between the Netherlands, Denmark, Sweden, and UK External Gateway Protocol specification -- EGP is used for gateways between (different architecture) networks. 1983 -- Internet gets bigger Name server developed. Why is this relevant? Large number of nodes. o Hard to remember exact paths o Use meaningful names instead. Desktop workstations come into being. Why is this relevant? Many with Berkeley UNIX which includes IP networking software. o Need switches from having a single, large time sharing computer connected to Internet per site, to connection of an entire local network. 1983 Internet Activities Board (IAB) established, replacing ICCB Berkeley releases new version of UNIX 4.2BSD incorporating TCP/IP. EARN (European Academic and Research Network) established on similar lines to BITNET
  • 8. 1984 -- Growth of Internet Continues Number of hosts breaks 1,000. Domain Name Server (DNS) introduced. instead of 123.456.789.10 o it is easier to remember something like www.myuniversity.mydept.mynetwork.mycountry ( e.g. JANET (Joint Academic Network) established in the UK Moderated newsgroups introduced on USENET. 1986 -- Power of Internet Realised 5, 000 Hosts. 241 News groups. NSFNET created (backbone speed of 56 Kbps) NSF establishes 5 super-computing centers to provide high-computing power for all -- This allows an explosion of connections, especially from universities. Network News Transfer Protocol (NNTP) designed to enhance Usenet news performance over TCP/IP. 1987 -- Commercialisation of Internet Born Number of hosts 28,000.
  • 9. UUNET is founded with Usenix funds to provide commercial UUCP and Usenet access. 1988 NSFNET backbone upgraded to T1 (1.544 Mbps) Internet Relay Chat (IRC) developed 1989 -- Large growth in Internet Number of hosts breaks 100,000 First relays between a commercial electronic mail carrier and the Internet Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) and Internet Research Task Force (IRTF) comes into existence under the IAB 1990 -- Expansion of Internet continues 300,000 Hosts. 1,000 News groups ARPANET ceases to exist Archie released files can be searched and retrieved (FTP) by name. The World comes on-line (, becoming the first commercial provider of Internet dial-up access. 1991 -- Modernisation Begins Commercial Internet eXchange (CIX) Association, Inc. formed after NSF lifts restrictions on the commercial use of the Net. Wide Area Information Servers (WAIS) Why is relevant?
  • 10. o Provides a mechanism for indexing and accessing information on the Internet. o Large bodies of knowledge available: E-mail messages, text, electronic books, Usenet articles, computer code, image, graphics, sound files, databases etc.. o These form the basis of the index of information we see on WWW today. o Powerful search techniques implemented. Keyword search. 1991 -- Friendly User Interface to WWW established Gopher released by Paul Lindner and Mark P. McCahill from the U of Minnesota. Why is relevant? Text based, menu-driven interface to access internet resources. o No need to remember or even know complex computer command. User Friendly Interface (?). o Largely superseded by WWW, these days. 1991 -- Most Important development to date World-Wide Web (WWW) released by CERN; Tim Berners-Lee developer. Why is relevant? Originally developed to provide a distributed hypermedia system. o Easy access to any form of information anywhere in the world. o Initially non-graphic (this came later, MOSAIC, 1993). o Revolutionized modern communications and even our, way of life (?).
  • 11. NSFNET backbone upgraded to T3 (44.736 Mbps). NSFNET traffic passes 1 trillion bytes/month and 10 billion packets/month Start of JANET IP Service (JIPS) using TCP/IP within the UK academic network. 1992 -- Multimedia changes the face of the Internet Number of hosts breaks 1 Million. News groups 4,000 Internet Society (ISOC) is chartered. First MBONE audio multicast (March) and video multicast (November). The term "Surfing the Internet" is coined by Jean Armour Polly. 1993 -- The WWW Revolution truly begins Number of Hosts 2 Million. 600 WWW sites. InterNIC created by NSF to provide specific Internet services o directory and database services o registration services o information services Business and Media really take notice of the Internet. US White House and United Nations (UN) comes on-line. Mosaic takes the Internet by storm. Why is this relevant? User Friendly Graphical Front End to the World Wide Web. o Develops into Netscape -- most popular WWW browser to date.
  • 12. o WWW proliferates at a 341,634 1994 -- Commercialisation begins Number of Hosts 3 Million. 10,000 WWW sites. 10,000 News groups. ARPANET/Internet celebrates 25th anniversary Local communities begin to be wired up directly to the Internet (Lexington and Cambridge, Mass., USA) US Senate and House provide information servers Shopping malls, banks arrive on the Internet o A new way of life o You can now order pizza from the Hut online in the US. o First Virtual, the first cyberbank, open up for business NSFNET traffic passes 10 trillion bytes/month WWW edges out telnet to become 2nd most popular service on the Net (behind ftp-data) based on % of packets and bytes traffic distribution on NSFNET UK's HM Treasury on-line ( 1995 -- Commercialization continues apace 6.5 Million Hosts, 100,000 WWW Sites. NSFNET reverts back to a research network. Main US backbone traffic now routed through interconnected network providers
  • 13. WWW surpasses ftp-data in March as the service with greatest traffic on NSFNet based on packet count, and in April based on byte count Traditional online dial-up systems (Compuserve, America Online, Prodigy) begin to provide Internet access A number of Net related companies go public, with Netscape leading the pack. Registration of domain names is no longer free. Technologies of the Year: WWW, Search engines (WAIS development). New WWW technologies Emerge Technologies Mobile code (JAVA, JAVAscript, ActiveX), o Virtual environments (VRML), o Collaborative tools (CU-SeeMe) 1996 -- Microsoft enter 12.8 Million Hosts, 0.5 Million WWW Sites. Internet phones catch the attention of US telecommunication companies who ask the US Congress to ban the technology (which has been around for years) The WWW browser war begins , fought primarily between Netscape and Microsoft, has rushed in a new age in software development, whereby new releases are made quarterly with the help of Internet users eager to test upcoming (beta) versions.
  • 14. 1997 -- What Next? 19.5 Million Hosts, 1 Million WWW sites, 71,618 Newsgroups. In 1999, a wireless technology called 802.11b, more commonly referred to as WiFi, is standardized. Over the years that follow, this technology begins appearing as a built-in feature of portable computers and many handheld devices. In 2005, the One Laptop Per Child project begins. Netbooks are small portable computers with extended battery life and built-in Wi-Fi connectivity. In December 2010, 4G Wireless Networks are launched in the United States, allowing for high-speed connections to devices such as cell phones, tablet computers, netbooks, and laptops. In 2011, technology companies are working with educators and independent developers to provide for immersive experiences, applying the best learning techniques with technology to improve the education system. You can learn more about this movement here. Multi-touch technology begins to appear in handheld devices, tablet computers, and netbooks. STE and theISTE Standards The ISTE Standards are the standards for learning, teaching and leading in the digital age and are widely recognized and adopted worldwide. Why are the ISTE Standardsso important? Technology has forever changed not only what we need to learn, but the way we learn.
  • 15. The ISTE Standards set a standard of excellence and best practices in learning, teaching and leading with technology in education. The benefits of using the ISTE Standards include: Improving higher-order thinking skills, such as problem solving, critical thinking and creativity Preparing students for their future in a competitive global job market Designing student-centered, project-based and online learning environments Guiding systemic change in our schools to create digital places of learning Inspiring digital age professional models for working, collaborating and decision making What is the Internet? The Internet is a worldwide telecommunications system that provides connectivity for millions of other, smaller networks; therefore, the Internet is often referred to as a network of networks. It allows computer users to communicate with each other across distance and computer platforms. The Internet began in 1969 as the U.S. Department of Defense's Advanced Research Project Agency (ARPA) to provide immediate communication within the Department in case of war. Computers were then installed at U.S. universities with defense related projects. As scholars began to go online, this network changed from military use to scientific use. As ARPAnet grew, administration of the system became distributed to a number of organizations, including the National Science Foundation (NSF). This shift of responsibility began the transformation of the science oriented ARPAnet into the commercially minded and funded Internet used by millions today. The Internet acts as a pipeline to transport electronic messages from one network to another network. At the heart of most networks is a server, a fast computer with large amounts of memory and storage space. The server controls the communication of information between the devices attached to a network, such as computers, printers, or other servers. An Internet Service Provider (ISP) allows the user access to the Internet through their server. Many teachers use a connection through a local university as their ISP because it is free. Other ISPs, such as America Online, telephone companies, or cable companies provide Internet access for their members. You can connect to the Internet through telephone lines, cable modems, cellphones and other mobile devices. What makes up the World Wide Web? The Internet is often confused with the World Wide Web. The misperception is that these two terms are synonymous. The Internet is the collection of the many different systems and protocols. The World Wide Web, developed in 1989, is actually one of those different protocols. As the name implies, it allows resources to be linked with great ease in an almost seamless fashion.
  • 16. The World Wide Web contains a vast collection of linked multimedia pages that is ever-changing. However, there are several basic components of the Web that allow users to communicate with each other. Below you will find selected components and their descriptions. TCP/IP protocols In order for a computer to communicate on the Internet, a set of rules or protocols computers must follow to exchange messages was developed. The two most important protocols allowing computers to transmit data on the Internet are Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) and Internet Protocol (IP). With these protocols, virtually all computers can communicate with each other. For instance, if a user is running Windows on a PC, he or she can communicate with iPhones. Domain name system An Internet address has four fields with numbers that are separated by periods or dots. This type of address is known as an IP address. Rather than have the user remember long strings of numbers, the Domain Name System (DNS) was developed to translate the numerical addresses into words. For example, the address is really URLs Addresses for web sites are called URLs (Uniform Resource Locators). Most of them begin with http (HyperText Transfer Protocol), followed by a colon and two slashes. For example, the URL for the Florida Center for Instructional Technology is . Some of the URL addresses include a directory path and a file name. Consequently, the addresses can become quite long. For example, the URL of a web page may be: In this example, "default.htm" is the name of the file which is in a directory named "holocaust" on the FCIT server at the University of South Florida. Top-level domain Each part of a domain name contains certain information. The first field is the host name, identifying a single computer or organization. The last field is the top-level domain, describing the type of organization and occasionally country of origin associated with the address. Top-level domain names include: .com Commercial .edu Educational .gov US Government .int Organization
  • 17. .mil US Military .net Networking Providers .org Non-profit Organization Domain name country codes include, but are not limited to: .au Australia .de Germany .fr France .nl Netherlands .uk United Kingdom .us United States Paying attention to the top level domain may give you a clue as to the accuracy of the information you find. For example, information on a "com" site can prove useful, but one should always be aware that the intent of the site may be to sell a particular product or service. Likewise, the quality of information you find on the "edu" domain may vary. Although many pages in that domain were created by the educational institutions themselves, some "edu" pages may be the private opinions of faculty and students. A common convention at many institutions is to indicate a faculty or student page with a ~ (tilde) in the address. For instance, is a student's personal web page. Why do I need a browser? Once you have an account with an Internet service provider, you can access the Web through a browser, such as Safari or Microsoft Internet Explorer. The browser is the application responsible for allowing a user's computer to read and display web documents. Hypertext Markup Language (HTML) is the language used to write web pages. A browser takes the HTML and translates it into the content you see on the screen. You will note your cursor turns into a pointing finger over some images or text on the page. This indicates a link to additional information and it can be either a link to additional web pages, email, newsgroups, audio, video, or any number of other exciting files.
  • 18. How do I navigate on the Web? Your browser is equipped with many useful features to assist you in navigating through the Web. Some of these features are: Menu bar The menu bar, located at the very top of the screen, can be accessed using the mouse. When you hold down the mouse button over an item in the main menu, a sub menu is "pulled down" that has a variety of options. Actions that are in black can be performed, while actions that cannot be performed will be in gray or lightened. The submenus provide keyboard shortcuts for many common actions, allowing you to implement the functions faster than using the mouse. Tool bar The tool bar is located at the top of the browser; it contains navigational buttons for the Web. Basic functions of these buttons include: Command Function Home Opens or returns to starting page Back Takes you to the previous page Forward Takes you to the next page Print Prints current page Stop Stops loading a page Reload Refresh/redisplays current page Search Accesses search engine Location bar The location bar, below the tool bar, is a box labeled "Location," "GoTo," or "Address." You can type in a site's address, and press the Return or Enter key to open the site. Status bar The status bar is located at the very bottom of the browser window. You can watch the progress of a web page download to determine if the host computer has been contacted and text and images are being downloaded.
  • 19. Scroll bar The scroll bar is the vertical bar located on the right of the browser window. You can scroll up and down a web page by placing the cursor on the slider control and holding down the mouse button. One of the most exciting educational aspects of using the Internet lies in its ability to open the classroom to the world. Learning about different countries and cultures becomes even more meaningful when students can easily communicate with people internationally. Communication via the Internet can occur in many different ways including email and chat rooms. Although the diverse nature of topics available on the Internet can enhance the learning experience, students need to be aware of safety issues when interacting with others online. This chapter discusses the social nature of the Internet, focusing on topics such as Internet etiquette, confidentiality, and safety. It is important for students and teachers to be informed of these issues when using the Internet for telecommunications. Guidelines for Internet safety Although a valuable instructional tool in the classroom, the Internet does comes with some real dangers. Keeping in mind a few simple precautions will help protect students from potential dangers. It is important to supervise the students as they begin their journey on the Internet. One way to facilitate the students in their learning process is to provide safe and valuable sites. Emphasize to students that information on the Internet is posted by both reliable and unreliable sources. Safety Tips for kids on the Internet • Never give your name, address, phone number, photo, or password to someone you meet over the Internet. • Never respond to email messages that are suggestive, obscene, belligerent, threatening, or make you feel uncomfortable. • Report any email that makes you feel uncomfortable. • Be careful when someone offers you something for nothing. • Tell your teacher or parent right away if you come across any information that makes you feel uncomfortable. • Never arrange a face-to-face meeting with someone you meet on the Internet. • Remember that people online may not be who they seem. • Get to know your "online friends" just as you get to know all of your other friends. Information provided by the Federal Bureau of Investigation.
  • 20. Netiquette As the Internet includes a global community, students need to be aware of behavioral standards. Proper Internet etiquette is often referred to as Netiquette. Students and teachers can avoid embarrassing situations by adhering to some simple guidelines for electronic communication. The following is a list of standards for Netiquette: • Always identify yourself and keep your messages brief and to the point. • Avoid "flaming" (inflammatory or antagonistic criticism) or sending insulting, abusive, or threatening remarks. There is no "unsend" option in email. • Avoid using all capital letters in a message. This is perceived as SHOUTING and may cause hard feelings. • Do not assume that your intentions will be understood; remember there is no body language, facial expression, or tone to indicate your intentions. • You may wish to use "emoticons" to help get your point across: :-) Happy :-( Sad ;-) Winking :-o Surprised :-@ Screaming :-I Indifferent :-e Disappointed :-< Mad :-D Laughing • Remember that email is not necessarily private. Your messages can be forwarded to many people without your knowledge. Before sending a message, read it over, double check the recipient(s) and make sure it would not become an embarrassment if it were forwarded to others not on your recipient list. • Do not spam others. Spam is the practice of sending unsolicited email messages in bulk or overloading someone's mailbox or server with messages.