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Second generation of Web applications informally known as Web 2.0
Creating a new and distinct web service that was not originally provided by either source.
The contents used in Mashup typically comes from the third party via a public interface or the Application Programming Interface (API)
Mashups produce some amazing results, especially when it comes to trend analysis or getting the best content you can from various sources.
An example is the use of cartographic data from Google Maps to add location information to real-estate data from Craigslist, thereby creating a new and distinct web service that was not originally provided by either source.
In this age of information technology, humans are collecting a prodigious amount of data about things and activities, both of which are wont to be annotated with locations. All of these diverse data sets that contain location data are just screaming to be presented graphically using maps. One of the big catalysts for the advent of mashups was Google's introduction of its Google Maps API. This opened the floodgates, allowing Web developers to mash all sorts of data onto maps.
APIs from Microsoft (Virtual Earth), Yahoo (Yahoo Maps), and AOL (MapQuest) shortly followed.
Search and shopping mashups have existed long before the term mashup was coined.
Before the days of Web APIs, comparative shopping tools such as BizRate, PriceGrabber, MySimon, and Google's Froogle used combinations of business-to-business (b2b) technologies or screen-scraping to aggregate comparative price data.
To facilitate mashups and other interesting Web applications, consumer marketplaces such as eBay and Amazon have released APIs for programmatically accessing their content.
Ajax is a Web application model rather than a specific technology. It comprises several technologies focused around the asynchronous loading and presentation of content:
1)XHTML and CSS for style presentation
2)The Document Object Model (DOM) API exposed by the browser for dynamic display and interaction
3)Asynchronous data exchange, typically of XML data
When used together, the goal of these technologies is to create a smooth, cohesive Web experience for the user by exchanging small amounts of data with the content servers rather than reload and re-render the entire page after some user action.
REST is an acronym for Representational State Transfer.
A technique of Web-based communication using just HTTP and XML.
Its simplicity and lack of rigorous profiles set it apart from SOAP and lend to its attractiveness.
Unlike the typical verb-based interfaces that you find in modern programming languages (which are composed of diverse methods such as getEmployee(), addEmployee(), listEmployees(), and more), REST fundamentally supports only a few operations (that is POST, GET, PUT, DELETE) that are applicable to all pieces of information.
The emphasis in REST is on the pieces of information themselves, called resources. For example, a resource record for an employee is identified by a URI, retrieved through a GET operation, updated by a PUT operation, and so on.
In this way, REST is similar to the document-literal style of SOAP services.
Lack of APIs from content providers often force mashup developers to resort to screen scraping in order to retrieve the information they seek to mash.
Scraping is the process of using software tools to parse and analyze content that was originally written for human consumption in order to extract semantic data structures representative of that information that can be used and manipulated programmatically.
A handful of mashups use screen scraping technology for data acquisition, especially when pulling data from the public sectors.
Syndication implies that a Web site that wants to distribute content, creates an RSS document and registers the document with an RSS publisher.
An RSS-enabled client can then check the publisher's feed for new content and react to it in an appropriate manner.
RSS has been adopted to syndicate a wide variety of content, ranging from news articles and headlines, changelogs for CVS checkins or wiki pages, project updates, and even audiovisual data such as radio programs.
Version 1.0 is RDF-based (Resource Description Framework), but the most recent, version 2.0, is not.
Microsoft Popfly: Microsoft Popfly is Microsoft's Mashup Editor. Its very useful to an end-user and requires little technical understanding. Popfly is built on Microsoft Silverlight.
Yahoo Pipes: Yahoo Pipes is Yahoo's flash-based tool to aggregate, manipulate, and mashup content from around the web. Yahoo Pipes was one of the first mashup editing tools to come out. It appears to be targeted to the slightly more technical people. However it has a drag-drop interface. Its quite easy to use.
Google Mashup Editor: The Google Mashup Editor (GME), is defiantly the most advanced out of all the ones. Most powerful, and It's basically got a tag based markup language, that lets you also embed HTML into your results.
Classifications: Portal is the older technology and an extension to the traditional web server model. On the other hand, Mashup is relatively the newer Web 2.0 technology.
Philosophy/Approach: The approach of the porter is the aggregation by splitting the role of the web server into two phases. The first phase is the markup generation and the second phase is the aggregation of markup fragments. On the other hand, Mashup has a more fundamental approach to content aggregation without regard to markup.
Content Dependencies: Portals aggregate presentation oriented markup fragments like HTML, WML, VoiceXML, etc., whereas, mashup can operate on pure XML conent as well as on the presentation oriented content like HTML.
Location Dependencies: In case of Portal, content aggregation takes place on the server, while in case of mashup, the content aggregation takes place either on server or on the client.
Aggregation Style: Portal has the ”Salad bar” style of aggregation where the aggregated content is presented in ”side-by-side” manner without any overlaps. On the other hand, Mashup has the ”Melting Pot” aggregation style where individual content may be combined in any manner.
Mashups are certainly an exciting new genre of Web applications.
The combination of data modeling technologies stemming from the Semantic Web domain and the maturation of loosely-coupled, service-oriented, platform-agnostic communication protocols is finally providing the infrastructure needed to start developing applications that can leverage and integrate the massive amount of information that is available on the Web.