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Leadership is the initiation of action to solve a problem
Leadership is directing or controlling the activity of a group
Leadership is influencing the activities of group as it moves toward
A person who leads others along a way; a guide
Leadership is power, But power is not necessarily leadership.
Power is the ability to get others to do what you want them to do.
Sources of Power and Leadership Power from Personal Characteristics YES NO Power from The Position YES NO Officer Formal Leader Follower Informal Leader
Leadership : The exercise of influence by one member of a group or organization over other members to help the group or organization achieve its goals. Leader : An individual who is able to influence group or organizational members to help the group or organization achieve its goals. Leader Effectiveness : The extent to which a leader helps a group or organization to achieve its goals. Leadership - Key Terms
Formal Leader : A member of an organization who is given authority to influence other organizational members to achieve organizational goals .
Informal Leader : An organizational member with no formal authority to influence others, but who has special skills or talents to influence others.
Early Approaches to Leadership The TRAIT THEORY seeks to identify personal characteristics that effective leaders possess. The BEHAVIOR THEORY focuses on the behaviors that effective leaders engage in.
Determine what outcomes subordinates are trying to
obtain in the workplace and make sure that you have
control over them.
Reward subordinates for performing at a high level or
achieving their work goals by giving them desired
Make sure subordinates believe that they can obtain
their work goals and perform at a high level.
Path-Goal Theory: Four Types of Behavior Directive behavior lets subordinates know what tasks need to be performed and how they should be performed. Supportive behavior lets subordinates know that their leader cares about their well-being and is looking out for them. Participative behavior enables subordinates to be involved in making decisions that affect them. Achievement-oriented behavior pushes subordinates to do their best. Includes setting difficult goals for followers, expecting high performance, and expressing confidence.
A model that describes the different ways in which leaders can
make decisions and guides leaders in determining the extent to
which subordinates should participate in decision making.
The model first requires leaders to determine whether an
individual or a group decision needs to be made.
- Individual decisions pertain to a single subordinate.
- Group decisions pertain to a group of subordinates
Decision-Making Styles Autocratic (A) - The leader makes the decision without input from subordinates. Consultative (C) - Subordinates have some input, but the leader makes the decision. Group (G) - The group makes the decision; the leader is just another group member. Delegated (D) - The leader gives exclusive responsibility to subordinates.
Is there a quality requirement such that one solution is likely
to be more rational than another?
B. Do I have sufficient information to make a high-quality
C. Is the problem structured?
D. Is acceptance of decision by subordinates critical to effective
E. If I were to make the decision by myself, is it reasonably
certain that it would be accepted by my subordinates?
F. Do subordinates share the organizational goals to be
attained in solving this problem?
G. Is conflict among subordinates likely in preferred solutions?
H. Do subordinates have sufficient information to make a high-
Group Problems and Decisions AI. AII. CI. CII. GII. Leader solves the problem or makes the decision using information available at the time. No outside input. The leader obtains the necessary information from subordinates. The leader makes the decision. The leader shares the problem with the relevant subordinates individually and gets their ideas and suggestions without bringing them together as a group. The leader makes the decision. The leader shares the problem with subordinates as a group, obtaining their ideas and suggestions. The leader makes the decision. The leader shares the problem with subordinates as a group, does not try to influence the group, and is willing to accept and implement any solution that has the support of the entire group. Least Participative Most Participative
Individual Problems and Decisions AI. AII. CI. CII. GII. The leader solves the problem or makes the decision using information available at the time. No outside input. The leader obtains the necessary information from the subordinate involved in the decision. The leader makes the decision. The leader shares the problem with the subordinate and asks for ideas and suggestions. The leader makes the decision. The leader shares the problem with the subordinate, and together they analyze the problem and arrive at a mutually agreeable solution. The leader delegates the problem to the subordinate, provides any relevant information, but gives the subordinate responsibility for solving the problem. Least Participative Most Participative