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Week 3 noun phrase (p2)

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  • 1. Homework checking
    • 4.2. Count & Noncount nouns
      • 1. C - N
      • 2. C - N
      • 3. N - C
      • 4. C - N
      • 5. N - N - C
      • 6. C - C
      • 7. N - N
      • 8. N
      • 9. C
    • 10. C - N
  • 2. Homework checking
    • 4.5. Specific and Generic reference
      • 1. G - G
      • 2. S - S
      • 3. S - G - G
      • 4. S - G
      • 5. G - G
      • 11. Progressive aspect
      • 6. S - S
      • 7. G - G
      • 8. S - G
      • 9. S - G
    • 10. S - S
  • 3. Homework checking
    • 4.6. Use of the articles
      • 1. The - X
      • 2. X - X
      • 3. The - the - the - X
      • 4. X - X
      • 5. X - X
      • 6. a - the - X - the - a/the
      • 7. The - a - X
      • 8. the - a - a
      • 9. X - a/the - X
      • 10. a
      • 11. the - the
      • 12. the/X - X
      • 13. A
      • 14. The
      • 15. X
      • 16. a
      • 17. The
      • 18. an
      • 19. the
      • 20. the
  • 4. Homework checking
    • 4.12. Uses of the genitive
      • 1. The departure of the plane
      • 2. The capture of the lion
      • 3. The man's cake
      • 4. The men's store
      • 5. The city of Chicago
      • 6. The team's coach
      • 7. The one week's vacation
      • 8. The hand of the clock
      • 9. The man's dog
      • 10. that of Jim's
      • 11. a student of Plato's
      • 12. The doctor's office
  • 5. Homework checking
    • Exercise 69
      • 2. It 3. their 4. them 5. it 6. one
      • 7. which 8. we 9. The 10. this/the
      • 11. an 12. their 13. their/the 14. they
      • 15. the 16. a 17. what 18. which
      • 19. us 20. its 21. It 22. their
      • 23. we/one 24. their 25. It 26. they
      • 27. them 28. the 29. this/the
      • 30. their
  • 6. E_English Grammar Course Unit 3 NOUN PHRASE (cont.)
  • 7. Issues
    • NOUN PHRASE
      • Basic NP
        • Determiners
          • Predeterminers
          • Central determiners
          • Postdeterminers
      • Complex NP
        • Modification
          • Premodification
          • Postmodification
          • Multiple modification
  • 8. Noun phrases = typically constructed by either a noun or a pronoun as the head & other constituents as modifiers Eg. A nice girl leaning against the wall Noun Phrase Basic NP Complex NP
  • 9. Noun phrases Noun Phrase Basic NP Complex NP
  • 10. Basic Noun phrases E.g.: A ll these 10 pupils Basic NP (Determiners) Head noun +
  • 11. Determiners Determiners = words of close-system used before a N to “determine” the precise meaning of the N Pre-determiners Central determiners Post-determiners
  • 12. Pre-determiners Determiners Pre-determiners all, both, half multipliers fractions such, what
    • mutually exclusive
    • E.g.: all girls, both girls
    • BUT NOT:
    • all both girls
    See more in 4.7 - 4.9
  • 13. Pre-determiners Determiners Pre-determiners all, both, half + before: articles (a, an, the, zero article) E.g.: all the time possessive determiners (my, his, her, etc.) E.g.: both his sisters demonstrative determiners (this, that, etc.) E.g.: half those days + not before: quantitative determiners (no, each, any, some, enough, (n)either, every)
  • 14. Pre-determiners Determiners Pre-determiners all, both, half + take partitive “of-phrases” optional with nouns E.g.: all (of) the time obligatory with pronouns E.g.: all of them, both of us, half of it + “all, both”: occur after the head, either immediately or after the operator E.g.: They (all) were (all) accepted.
  • 15. Pre-determiners Determiners Pre-determiners multipliers + used to denote the quantity of the nouns E.g.: twice her age, double their salaries + occur with the determiners “ a, every, each and per” to indicate frequency E.g.: once a week, twice every day, three times each year Once, twice, three times, double, etc.
  • 16. Pre-determiners Determiners Pre-determiners fraction + the fractions have the alternative of- construction. E.g.: He took only two-thirds (of) the books on the table. + the indefinite article can replace ‘one’. E.g.: He did it in one-third / a third (of) the time it took me. (one-third, two-fifths, three-quarters, etc.)
  • 17. Pre-determiners Determiners Pre-determiners Such/ what + occur before the head noun + “ such ”: combined with “all/no, quantifiers, cardinal numbers” E.g.: What/ Such a surprise! no/many/41 such incidents
  • 18. Central Determiners Determiners Central determiners 6 classes based on their co-occurrence with the noun classes (singular count, plural count, and non-count) (1) the, possessive, wh-words, Some, any (stressed), no (2) zero article some, any (unstressed) enough (4) this that (5) these those (3) a(n) every each Either neither (6) much See more in 4.5
  • 19. Central Determiners
    • Central Determiners in respect to their co-occurrence with the noun classes
    • COUNT NON-COUNT
    • SINGULAR
    • PLURAL
    bottle furniture bottles
  • 20. Central Determiners Determiners Central determiners (1) the, possessive, wh-words, some, any (stressed), no E.g.: - Do you want me to turn off the light ? - I love my family . - What colour do you like? - I have some friends in London. - I won’t give this pen to any student . - She has no idea at all.   
  • 21. Central Determiners Determiners Central determiners (2) zero article, some, any (unstressed) enough
    • E.g.: - Love is not everything.
      • - I want some beer , please.
    • - Have we got any wine for tonight ?
    • - I did not have enough time to do this.
     
  • 22. Central Determiners Determiners Central determiners (3) a(n) every each either neither E.g.: - My friend gave me a flower / an apple . - I want to ask each/every person individually. - You can put it on either table. - Neither party accepted such a proposal. 
  • 23. Central Determiners Determiners Central determiners (4) this that E.g.: This chair is mine and that table is yours. I can’t stand this silence .  
  • 24. Central Determiners Determiners Central determiners (5) these those E.g.: - Did you read these stories yesterday? - Have you seen those girls ? 
  • 25. Central Determiners Determiners Central determiners (6) much E.g.: He wants much sugar in his coffee. 
  • 26. Post Determiners Determiners Post determiners Ordinal numerals/general ordinals Cardinal numerals Close-system quantifiers Open-class quantifiers See more in 4.10 - 4.15
  • 27. Post Determiners Determiners Post determiners Ordinal numerals/general ordinals Cardinal numerals Close-system quantifiers Open-class quantifiers
    • include: one, two, three, etc.
    • E.g.: my three son
    • his two books
  • 28. Post Determiners Determiners Post determiners Ordinal numerals/general ordinals Cardinal numerals Close-system quantifiers Open-class quantifiers
    • ordinal numerals: first,second,
    • third, etc.
    • general ordinals: next, last, past, (an)other, additional, further
    • E.g.: the first time
    • another candidate
  • 29. Post Determiners Determiners Post determiners Ordinal numerals/general ordinals Cardinal numerals Close-system quantifiers Open-class quantifiers
    • before count Ns: many, (a) few, several
    • before non-count Ns: much, (a) little
    • E.g.: a few words
    • much stress
  • 30. Post Determiners Determiners Post determiners Ordinal numerals/general ordinals Cardinal numerals Close-system quantifiers Open-class quantifiers
    • include: a lot of, a great deal of, lots of, a good number of, etc.
    • verbs has number concord with the second nouns, not the quantity nouns (lot, deal, lots, plenty, etc.)
    • E.g.: Lots of food was on the table.
    • There was a lot of food on the table.
  • 31. Noun phrases Noun Phrase Basic NP Complex NP
  • 32. Complex noun phrase E.g.: A ll the 11 pupils playing football Complex NP Pre-modification Head noun + Post-modification +
  • 33. Modification Modification function status Restrictive Permanent Non-restrictive Temporary See more in 13.3 - 13.4
  • 34. Modification Modification function status Restrictive Permanent Non-restrictive Temporary
    • helps identify the head & indicate a
    • limitation on the possible reference of the
    • head
    • tends to come after the head
    • tends to be given more prosodic emphasis
    • than the head
    • E.g.: The flowers in your garden are nice.
    • He visited his aunt who often lent
    • him money .
  • 35. Modification Modification function status Restrictive Permanent Non-restrictive Temporary
    • gives additional information to the head
    • but is not essential for identifying the
    • head
    • the reference: unique or as member of a
    • class that has been independently identified
    • tends to come before the head
    • tends to be unstressed in pre-head position
    • E.g.: The book, which I gave you yesterday ,
    • is quite readable. (member of a class)
    • She is his poor, old mother. (unique)
  • 36. Modification Modification function status Non-restrictive Permanent Restrictive Temporary
    • Have reference to characteristic features
    • Mainly the items which are placed in pre-
    • modification position
    • E.g.: an ugly man
    • the easy-going lady
  • 37. Modification Modification function status Non-restrictive Permanent Restrictive Temporary
    • Have reference only to a specific time
    • Mainly those adjectives which have to be
    • predicate
    • E.g.:
    • A man who is timid = A timid man
    • A man who is afraid # An afraid man
  • 38. Premodification Premodification ‘ s-genitive -ing/-ed participles sentence adverbials adjectives noun multiple premodification See more in 13.27 - 13.41
  • 39. Premodification Premodification ‘ s-genitive -ing/-edparticiples sentence adverbial adjective noun multiple premodification E.g.: Mary's brother is very naughty.
  • 40. Premodification Premodification ‘ s-genitive -ing/-ed participles sentence adverbial adjective noun multiple premodification E.g.: He has rented a crumbling cottage. The wanted man was last seen in Paris. Note: the participles denote the permanent . E.g. She is an interesting girl vs. She interests me. The man who is married = the married man
  • 41. Premodification Premodification ‘ s-genitive -ing/-edparticiples sentence adverbial adjective noun multiple premodification E.g.: I got angry with his I-don't-care attitude. She waved the boy away with a you-stink kind of look on her face.
  • 42. Premodification Premodification ‘ s-genitive -ing/-edparticiples sentence adverbial adjective noun multiple premodification E.g.: I visited his far-away hometown.
  • 43. Premodification Premodification ‘ s-genitive -ing/-edparticiples sentence adverbial adjective noun multiple prmodification E.g.: He has fixed the cupboard door.
  • 44. Premodification Premodification ‘ s-genitive -ing/-edparticiples sentence adverbial adjective noun multiple premodification E.g.: She is a lovely girl.
  • 45. Let's check
    • Do exercise 13.11 (handout)
  • 46. Let's check
    • Answers
      • 1. long - Aj 2. singing - P
      • 3. girl's - G
      • 4. gravel - N
      • 5. up - Av
      • 6. "I've got your number" - C
      • 7. ringing - P
      • 8. long-ago - Av
      • 9. consumers' - G
  • 47. Let's check
    • Answers
      • 10. get-up-and-go - C
      • 11. dismissal - N
      • 12. funny - Aj
      • 13. blue - A; peasant's - G
      • 14. once - Av; bridge - N
      • 15. involved - P; do-it-yourself - C
      • 16. long - A; lingering - P
      • 17. bird's - G; nest - N
  • 48. Postmodification Postmodification relative clauses prepositional phrase non-finite clause appositive clause adverb Clause of time, place, manner, reason adjective multiple postmodification See more in 13.5 - 13.24
  • 49. Postmodification Postmodification relative clauses prepositional phrase non-finite clause appositive clause adverb Clause of time, place, manner, reason adjective multiple postmodification E.g.: The girl who is playing in the ground is my daughter .
  • 50. Postmodification Postmodification relative clauses prepositional phrase non-finite clause appositive clause adverb Clause of time, place, manner, reason adjective multiple postmodification E.g.: She loves the monitor in your class .
  • 51. Postmodification Postmodification relative clauses prepositional phrase non-finite clause appositive clause adverb Clause of time, place, manner, reason adjective multiple postmodification E.g.: The girl playing in the ground is my daughter.
  • 52. Postmodification Postmodification relative clauses prepositional phrase non-finite clause appositive clause adverb Clause of time, place, manner, reason adjective multiple postmodification E.g.: The fact that he is rich is not the reason she loves him.
  • 53. Postmodification Postmodification relative clauses prepositional phrase non-finite clause appositive clause adverb Clause of time, place, manner, reason adjective multiple postmodification E.g.: I work in the university where I studied English . 12 th Sep, 1983 is the date when he was born . That’s the reason why he spoke ill of me . She shows me the way how I can cook beef .
  • 54. Postmodification Postmodification relative clauses prepositional phrase non-finite clause appositive clause adverb Clause of time, place, manner, reason adjective multiple postmodification E.g.: The girl over there is my sister. The road back is dense with traffic.
  • 55. Postmodification Postmodification relative clauses prepositional phrase non-finite clause appositive clause adverb Clause of time, place, manner, reason adjective multiple postmodification E.g.: Something strange happened last night.
  • 56. Multiple modification Multiple modification Multiple premodification Multiple postmodification
  • 57. Multiple modification Multiple modification Multiple premodification Multiple postmodification
    • with single head:
    • E.g.: his last brilliant book
    • with multiple head:
    • E.g.: the new chair and table
    • the new but ugly table and chair
  • 58. Multiple modification Multiple modification Multiple premodification Multiple postmodification
    • Sequence of premodifiers:
    • Determiner general age color participle provenance noun de-nominal head
    • E.g.: a crumbling church towel
    • the extravagant London social life
    • some intricate old inter-locking Chinese designs
  • 59. Multiple modification Multiple modification Multiple premodification Multiple postmodification
    • with single head:
    • E.g.: the girl in the corner talking to John
    • with multiple head:
    • E.g.: the boy and the girl in the corner talking to John
  • 60. Let's check
    • Do exercise 13.13 (handout)
  • 61. Homework
    • Exercise 46, 47, 61-66 Workbook
    • Handout tutorial