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Week 13 apposition coordination & ellipsis

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  • More in 9.54
  • More in 9.55
  • Transcript

    • 1. E_English Grammar Course Chapter VIII Coordination, Ellipsis, & Apposition
    • 2.
      • 1. Coordination
      • + Phrasal
      • + Clausal
      • 2. Ellipsis
      • + Ellipsis in coordinated clauses
      • 3. Apposition
      • + Non-restrictive
      • + Restrictive
      Issues
    • 3. Coordination 1.1 Coordination = the combination of two or more equal units, namely, phrases or clauses E.g.: My friend and I went there together. We went there and returned immediately. I told him this, but he didn't believe me. 1/1 See more in 9.7 - 9.8
    • 4. Coordination 1.1 Coordination = can be referred to by some grammarians as syndetic (with the presence of coordinators) and asyndetic (with the absence of coordinators) E.g.: Slowly and stealthily , he crept towards his victim. (syndetic) Slowly, stealthily , he crept towards his victim. (asyndetic) 2/1
    • 5. Coordination 1.1 Coordination Phrasal Clausal = coordination of phrase of equal status = coordination of clause of equal status 3/1
    • 6. Phrasal Coordination 1.2 Coordination Phrasal Clausal
      • including:
      • + coordinated NPs (in different syntactic functions)
      • E.g.: Peter and Tom were here.
      • She is afraid of snakes and cockroaches .
      • Old and young men were invited .
      • He has secretaries from Ireland and auditors from France here.
      • These and those chairs are wooden.
      4/1 See more in 9.31 - 9.43
    • 7. Phrasal Coordination 1.2 Coordination Phrasal Clausal
      • including:
      • + coordinated Adverbial phrases (with dependent
      • clauses)
      • E.g.: You can wash it manually or by using a machine .
      • They can call this week or whenever they wish .
      • I want to know by whom and for whom it was
      • ordered .
      5/1
    • 8. Phrasal Coordination 1.2 Coordination Phrasal Clausal
      • including:
      • + coordinated Adjective phrases
      • E.g.: She is young and beautiful .
      • His clear and forceful delivery impressed the
      • audience.
      • These jewels were very cheap and gaudy .
      6/1
    • 9. Phrasal Coordination 1.2 Coordination Phrasal Clausal
      • including:
      • + coordinated Prepositional phrases
      • E.g.: The attacks in June and in July failed
      • He climbed up the wall and over the wall .
      • John complained to Mary and to Peter .
      7/1
    • 10. Phrasal Coordination 1.2 Coordination Phrasal Clausal
      • including:
      • + coordination of identical items
      • E.g.: He felt more and more bored .
      • They talked on and on and on .
      • There are teachers and teachers .
      8/1
    • 11. Phrasal Coordination 1.2 Coordination Phrasal Clausal
      • Order in phrasal coordination:
      • + a tendency for the shorter word to come first
      • E.g.: big and ugly
      • cup and saucer
      • + in virtually irreversible order
      • E.g.: bread and butter
      • law and order
      • knife, folk, and spoon
      • by hook or by crook
      9/1
    • 12. Phrasal Coordination 1.2 Coordination Phrasal Clausal
      • can be segregatory (possibly paraphrased into 2 or
      • more coordinated clauses)
      • E.g.: John and Mary have a cold
      • ( John has a cold and Mary has a cold .)
      • can be combinatory (impossibly paraphrased into
      • coordinated clauses)
      • E.g.: John and Mary make a good couple
      • (no analogous paraphrase)
      • He painted his car black and white .
      • (a combined process)
      10/1
    • 13. Clausal Coordination 1.3 Coordination Phrasal Clausal
      • including:
      • + coordinated independent clauses
      • E.g.: She didn't want their help, but she had to accept it.
      • + coordinated subordinate clauses
      • E.g.: I want to know for whom it was ordered and by
      • whom (it was ordered)
      • She desired to know where he had gone but not
      • why he had gone.
      11/1 See more in 9.9 - 9.20
    • 14. Clausal Coordination 1.3 Syntactic features of Coordinators Clause coordinators: restricted to clause-initial position Coordinated clauses: sequentially fixed Coordinators: preceded by a conjunction Coordinators: link clause constituents Coordinators: link subordinate clauses Coordinators: link more than two clauses 12/1
    • 15. Clausal Coordination 1.3 Syntactic features of Coordinators Clause coordinators: restricted to clause-initial position Coordinated clauses: sequentially fixed Coordinators: preceded by a conjunction Coordinators: link clause constituents Coordinators: link subordinate clauses Coordinators: link more than two clauses E.g.: John plays the guitar, and his sister plays the piano. 13/1
    • 16. Clausal Coordination 1.3 Syntactic features of Coordinators Clause coordinators: restricted to clause-initial position Coordinated clauses: sequentially fixed Coordinators: preceded by a conjunction Coordinators: link clause constituents Coordinators: link subordinate clauses Coordinators: link more than two clauses E.g.: They are living in England, or they are spending a vacation there. 14/1
    • 17. Clausal Coordination 1.3 Syntactic features of Coordinators Clause coordinators: restricted to clause-initial position Coordinated clauses: sequentially fixed Coordinators: precede conjunctions Coordinators: link clause constituents Coordinators: link subordinate clauses Coordinators: link more than two clauses E.g.: He was unhappy about it, and yet he did as he was told. 15/1
    • 18. Clausal Coordination 1.3 Syntactic features of Coordinators Clause coordinators: restricted to clause-initial position Coordinated clauses: sequentially fixed Coordinators: preceded by a conjunction Coordinators: link clause constituents Coordinators: link subordinate clauses Coordinators: link more than two clauses E.g.: They love him and believe in him. I may see you tomorrow or may phone later in the day. 16/1
    • 19. Clausal Coordination 1.3 Syntactic features of Coordinators Clause coordinators: restricted to clause-initial position Coordinated clauses: sequentially fixed Coordinators: preceded by a conjunction Coordinators: link clause constituents Coordinators: link subordinate clauses Coordinators: link more than two clauses E.g.: I wonder whether you should speak to him personally or whether it is better to write to him. 17/1
    • 20. Clausal Coordination 1.3 Syntactic features of Coordinators Clause coordinators: restricted to clause-initial position Coordinated clauses: sequentially fixed Coordinators: preceded by a conjunction Coordinators: link clause constituents Coordinators: link subordinate clauses Coordinators: link more than two clauses E.g.: The battery may be disconnected, or the connection may be loose, or the bulb may be faulty. 18/1
    • 21. Clausal Coordination 1.3 Coordinators AND OR BUT 19/1
    • 22. Clausal Coordination 1.3 Semantic implications of “AND” Addition of consequence or result Addition of chronological sequence Contrast 2nd clause being a comment on the 1st 1st clause being a condition of the 2nd 2nd clause making a point similar to the 1st 2nd clause being a “pure” addition to the 1st 2nd clause being felt surprising in view of the 1st 20/1
    • 23. Clausal Coordination 1.3 Semantic implications of “AND” Addition of consequence or result Addition of chronological sequence Contrast 2nd clause being a comment on the 1st 1st clause being a condition of the 2nd 2nd clause making a point similar to the 1st 2nd clause being a “pure” addition to the 1st 2nd clause being felt surprising in view of the 1st E.g.: He heard an explosion and he (therefore) phoned the police. 21/1
    • 24. Clausal Coordination 1.3 Semantic implications of “AND” Addition of consequence or result Addition of chronological sequence Contrast 2nd clause being a comment on the 1st 1st clause being a condition of the 2nd 2nd clause making a point similar to the 1st 2nd clause being a “pure” addition to the 1st 2nd clause being felt surprising in view of the 1st E.g.: I washed the dishes and (then) I dried them. 22/1
    • 25. Clausal Coordination 1.3 Semantic implications of “AND” Addition of consequence or result Addition of chronological sequence Contrast 2nd clause being a comment on the 1st 1st clause being a condition of the 2nd 2nd clause making a point similar to the 1st 2nd clause being a “pure” addition to the 1st 2nd clause being felt surprising in view of the 1st E.g.: Robert is secretive and (in contrast) David is candid. 23/1
    • 26. Clausal Coordination 1.3 Semantic implications of “AND” Addition of consequence or result Addition of chronological sequence Contrast 2nd clause being a comment on the 1st 1st clause being a condition of the 2nd 2nd clause making a point similar to the 1st 2nd clause being a “pure” addition to the 1st 2nd clause being felt surprising in view of the 1st E.g.: They disliked John - and that's not surprising. 24/1
    • 27. Clausal Coordination 1.3 Semantic implications of “AND” Addition of consequence or result Addition of chronological sequence Contrast 2nd clause being a comment on the 1st 1st clause being a condition of the 2nd 2nd clause making a point similar to the 1st 2nd clause being a “pure” addition to the 1st 2nd clause being felt surprising in view of the 1st E.g.: Give me some money and (then) I'll help escape. 25/1
    • 28. Clausal Coordination 1.3 Semantic implications of “AND” Addition of consequence or result Addition of chronological sequence Contrast 2nd clause being a comment on the 1st 1st clause being a condition of the 2nd 2nd clause making a point similar to the 1st 2nd clause being a “pure” addition to the 1st 2nd clause being felt surprising in view of the 1st E.g.: A trade agreement should be no problem, and (similarly) a cultural exchange could be arranged. 26/1
    • 29. Clausal Coordination 1.3 Semantic implications of “AND” Addition of consequence or result Addition of chronological sequence Contrast 2nd clause being a comment on the 1st 1st clause being a condition of the 2nd 2nd clause making a point similar to the 1st 2nd clause being a “pure” addition to the 1st 2nd clause being felt surprising in view of the 1st E.g.: He has long hair and (also) he often wears jeans. 27/1
    • 30. Clausal Coordination 1.3 Semantic implications of “AND” Addition of consequence or result Addition of chronological sequence Contrast 2nd clause being a comment on the 1st 1st clause being a condition of the 2nd 2nd clause making a point similar to the 1st 2nd clause being a “pure” addition to the 1st 2nd clause being felt surprising in view of the 1st E.g.: She tried hard and (yet) she failed. 28/1
    • 31. Clausal Coordination 1.3 Semantic implications of “OR” Restatement or correction of previously - mentioned idea Exclusive choice Inclusive choice Negative condition If one of the individual conjoins is true, then the whole sentence is true. 29/1
    • 32. Clausal Coordination 1.3 Semantic implications of “OR” Restatement or correction of previously - mentioned idea Exclusive choice Inclusive choice Negative condition E.g.: You can go there by car or you can walk there. 30/1
    • 33. Clausal Coordination 1.3 Semantic implications of “OR” Restatement or correction of previously - mentioned idea Exclusive choice Inclusive choice Negative condition E.g.: You can boil an egg, or you can make some cheese sandwiches, or you can do both. 31/1
    • 34. Clausal Coordination 1.3 Semantic implications of “OR” Restatement or correction of previously - mentioned idea Exclusive choice Inclusive choice Negative condition E.g.: He began his educational career, or , in other words, he started to attend the local kindergarten. 32/1
    • 35. Clausal Coordination 1.3 Semantic implications of “OR” Restatement or correction of previously - mentioned idea Exclusive choice Inclusive choice Negative condition E.g.: Give me some money or I'll shoot. 33/1
    • 36. Clausal Coordination 1.3 Semantic implications of “BUT” Unexpected contrast Contrast being restatement (negative > < affirmative) 34/1
    • 37. Clausal Coordination 1.3 Semantic implications of “BUT” Unexpected contrast Contrast being restatement (negative > < affirmative) E.g.: John is poor, but he's happy. He didn't want their help, but he had to accept it. 35/1
    • 38. Clausal Coordination 1.3 Semantic implications of “BUT” Unexpected contrast Contrast being restatement (negative > < affirmative) E.g.: John didn't waste his time in the week before the exam, but studied hard every evening. 36/1
    • 39. Clausal Coordination 1.3 Correlatives both…and either…or neither…nor others 37/1
    • 40. Clausal Coordination 1.3 Correlatives both…and either…or neither…nor others
      • with anticipated addition
      • E.g.: He both has long hair and wears jeans.
      38/1
    • 41. Clausal Coordination 1.3 Correlatives both…and either…or neither…nor others
      • with anticipated alternation
      • E.g.: He either has long hair or wears jeans.
      39/1
    • 42. Clausal Coordination 1.3 Correlatives both…and either…or neither…nor others
      • with anticipated additional negation
      • E.g.: He neither has long hair nor wears jeans.
      40/1
    • 43. Clausal Coordination 1.3 Correlatives both…and either…or neither…nor others
      • “ nor/neither ” - correlated with actual or
      • implied negative in the previous clause
      • E.g.: He did not want to ask them for help;
      • (but) nor could he do without their help.
      • “ not only ... but (also) ”
      • E.g.: They not only broke into his office and
      • stole his book, but they ( also ) tore up his
      • manuscripts.
      41/1
    • 44. Clausal Coordination 1.3 Quasi-coordinators as well as as much as rather than more than
      • E.g.: He publishes as well as prints his books.
      • She was pitied rather than disliked.
      • these coordinators can have a prepositional
      • or subordinating role
      • E.g.: As well as printing his books, he
      • publishes them.
      • Rather than cause trouble, I’m going to
      • forget the whole affair.
      • John, as much as (= with) his brother,
      • was responsible for the loss.
      42/1 See more in 9.44
    • 45. Clausal Coordination 1.3 Non-restrictive relative clauses
      • semantically considered as equivalent to coordinate clauses
      • E.g.: John didn’t go to the show, which is a pity .
      • = John didn’t go to the show, and that is a pity .
      43/1
    • 46. Ellipsis 2.1 Ellipsis
      • described as “grammatical omission” of elements
      • which are precisely recoverable from the
      • linguistic or situational context
      E.g.: Have you spoken to him? ( I have ) Not yet ( spoken to him ). 1/2 See more in 9.1 - 9.6
    • 47. Ellipsis 2.1 Ellipsis
      • normally occurs in coordinated clauses, comparative
      • clauses, question-answer sentences, and other context
      • where adjacent clauses are related in form & meaning
      E.g.: I thought they were on the seat, but they’re not ( on the seat ). She looks older than her mother ( does ). When’s he coming back? – ( He’s coming back ) Next Friday. 2/2
    • 48. Ellipsis 2.1 Ellipsis
      • occurs in 3 positions: initial, medial, and final
      E.g.: He squeezed her hand out but ( he ) met with no excuse. He and his mate both jumped out, he ( jumped out ) to go to the women, his mate ( jumped out ) to stop other traffic on the bridge. Perhaps, as the review gathers steam, this can now change. It needs to ( change ). 3/2
    • 49. Ellipsis in coordinated clauses 2.2 Ellipsis in coordinated clauses Ellipsis of subject Ellipsis of auxiliary only Ellipsis of predicate/predication Ellipsis of Od/Cs only Ellipsis of A Ellipsis of Head-noun/Cprep 4/2 See more in 9.21 - 9.30
    • 50. 2.2 Ellipsis in coordinated clauses Ellipsis of subject Ellipsis of auxiliary only Ellipsis of predicate/predication Ellipsis of Od/Cs only Ellipsis of A Ellipsis of Head-noun/Cprep
      • identical subjects of coordinated clauses are ellipted
      • E.g.: Peter ate a cheese sandwich and ( Peter/he ) drank a glass of beer.
      • sometimes, ellipsis of both S and auxiliary occurs
      • E.g.: Mary has washed the dishes, ( she has ) dried them, and ( she has )
      • put them in the cupboard.
      Ellipsis in coordinated clauses 5/2
    • 51. Ellipsis in coordinated clauses 2.2 Ellipsis in coordinated clauses Ellipsis of subject Ellipsis of auxiliary only Ellipsis of predicate/predication Ellipsis of Od/Cs only Ellipsis of A Ellipsis of Head-noun/Cprep E.g.: John should clean the shed and Peter ( should ) move the lawn. John must have been playing football and Mary ( must have been ) doing her homework. 6/2
    • 52. Ellipsis in coordinated clauses 2.2 Ellipsis in coordinated clauses Ellipsis of subject Ellipsis of auxiliary only Ellipsis of predicate/predication Ellipsis of Od/Cs only Ellipsis of A Ellipsis of Head-noun/Cprep Ellipsis of V or lexical verb only Ellipsis of V + Cs (and possibly of S) Ellipsis of lexical V + Od Ellipsis of required form of lexical V/predication 7/2
    • 53. 2.2 Ellipsis in coordinated clauses Ellipsis of subject Ellipsis of auxiliary only Ellipsis of predicate/predication Ellipsis of Od/Cs only Ellipsis of A Ellipsis of Head-noun/Cprep Ellipsis of V or lexical verb only Ellipsis of V + Cs (and possibly of S) Ellipsis of lexical V + Od Ellipsis of required form of lexical V/predication E.g.: Yesterday John was given a railway set, and Sue ( was given ) a doll. I work in a factory and my wife ( works ) on a farm. Nam will work today and ( he ) may ( work ) the day after tomorrow. Ellipsis in coordinated clauses 8/2
    • 54. Ellipsis in coordinated clauses 2.2 Ellipsis in coordinated clauses Ellipsis of subject Ellipsis of auxiliary only Ellipsis of predicate/predication Ellipsis of Od/Cs only Ellipsis of A Ellipsis of Head-noun/Cprep Ellipsis of V or lexical verb only Ellipsis of V + Cs (and possibly of S) Ellipsis of lexical V + Od Ellipsis of required form of lexical V/predication E.g.: John was the winner in 1971 and Bob ( was the winner ) 10 years later. The milk turned sour not only today but ( the milk turned sour ) yesterday too. 9/2
    • 55. 2.2 Ellipsis in coordinated clauses Ellipsis of subject Ellipsis of auxiliary only Ellipsis of predicate/predication Ellipsis of Od/Cs only Ellipsis of A Ellipsis of Head-noun/Cprep Ellipsis of V or lexical verb only Ellipsis of V + Cs (and possibly of S) Ellipsis of lexical V + Od Ellipsis of required form of lexical V/predication E.g:. E.g.: Peter plays football for his school and Paul ( plays football ) for his club. Joan will cook the meals today and Barbara may ( cook the meals ) tomorrow. Ellipsis in coordinated clauses 10/2
    • 56. Ellipsis in coordinated clauses 2.2 Ellipsis in coordinated clauses Ellipsis of subject Ellipsis of auxiliary only Ellipsis of predicate/predication Ellipsis of Od/Cs only Ellipsis of A Ellipsis of Head-noun/Cprep Ellipsis of V or lexical verb only Ellipsis of V + Cs (and possibly of S) Ellipsis of lexical V + Od Ellipsis of required form of lexical V/predication E.g.: We met last year, but we haven't ( met ) since. They can ( pay the full fee ) and ( they ) should pay the full fee, but ( they ) won't ( pay the full fee ). 11/2
    • 57. Ellipsis in coordinated clauses 2.2 Ellipsis in coordinated clauses Ellipsis of subject Ellipsis of auxiliary only Ellipsis of predicate/predication Ellipsis of Od/Cs only Ellipsis of A Ellipsis of Head-noun/Cprep E.g.: George opened ( the door ), but Mary closed, the door. Bob seemed angry, and George certainly was ( angry ). 12/2
    • 58. 2.2 Ellipsis in coordinated clauses Ellipsis of subject Ellipsis of auxiliary only Ellipsis of predicate/predication Ellipsis of Od/Cs only Ellipsis of A Ellipsis of Head-noun/Cprep E.g.: To my surprise, they didn't appoint him, and they ( to my surprise ) didn't even interview him. Theoretically, I have no objections to his proposal and ( theoretically ) neither have any of my colleagues. Ellipsis in coordinated clauses 13/2
    • 59. 2.2 Ellipsis in coordinated clauses Ellipsis of subject Ellipsis of auxiliary only Ellipsis of predicate/predication Ellipsis of Od/Cs only Ellipsis of A Ellipsis of Head-noun/Cprep E.g.: We wanted fried fish, but they gave us boiled (fish). She wore the black dress, but the blue (dress) suits her better. Bob is bored with (music), but Peter enjoys music. Ellipsis in coordinated clauses 14/2
    • 60. 2.2 Ellipsis in coordinated clauses Ellipsis of subject Ellipsis of auxiliary only Ellipsis of predicate/predication Ellipsis of Od/Cs only Ellipsis of A Ellipsis of Head-noun/Cprep Semantically, the effect of ellipsis is to indicate that there is a combined process rather than two separate processes E.g.: Did Peter tell lies, and did he hurt his friends? ( Peter's telling lies and his hurting his friends are regarded as two separate processes, hence two separate questions. ) Ellipsis in coordinated clauses 15/2
    • 61. Homework
      • Exercises 148 - 157 Workbook
    • 62. Apposition 3 Apposition
      • resembles co-ordination in linking units
      • having grammatical affinity (referring to the
      • same entity)
      E.g.: A neighbor, Freed Smith , is on the telephone. Mr. Campbell, the lawyer , was here last night. 1/3 See more in 9.45 - 9.58
    • 63. 3 Realization of Apposition NPs Non-finite clause Finite clause E.g.: His novel Great Expectations is truly thrilling (NPs) The soldiers, some of them being natives , are friendly (Non-finite cls) His hope, to become a doctor , was realised at last (Non-finite cls) This supports his argument that things are getting worse than before. (Finite cls) He didn't answer my question, why he hadn't come to the meeting. (Finite cls). His account of what he had done that year didn’t satisfy his colleague. (Finite cls) Apposition 2/3
    • 64. Apposition 3 Indicators of Apposition = that is to say, that is, i.e, namely, viz., in other words, or, or rather, and, as follows, for example, for instance, e.g., say, including, such, as, particularly, chiefly, mainly, mostly, etc. E.g.: The passenger plane of the 1980s, namely the supersonic jet, have somewhat transformed relations between people of the world. The President of the USA, in other words Bill Clinton, was on television last night. I didn't meet any people, including my sister. 3/3
    • 65. Apposition 3 Apposition Non-restrictive Apposition Restrictive Apposition 4/3
    • 66. Apposition 3 Apposition Non-restrictive Apposition Restrictive Apposition
      • providing the additionally descriptive information
      • for the entity with no function of identifying the entity
      • different information unit
      • in speech: separate tone
      • in writing: commas/weighty punctuation like “( )”
      E.g.: The passenger plane of the 1980s, namely the supersonic jet, have somewhat transformed relations between people of the world. The President of the USA, in other words Bill Clinton, was on television last night. 5/3
    • 67. Apposition 3 Apposition Non-restrictive Apposition Restrictive Apposition Equivalence Attribution Inclusion 6/3
    • 68. Apposition 3 Apposition Non-restrictive Apposition Restrictive Apposition Equivalence Attribution Inclusion Appellation Designation Identification Reformulation 7/3
    • 69. Apposition 3 Apposition Non-restrictive Apposition Restrictive Apposition Equivalence Attribution Inclusion Appellation Designation Intensification Reformulation
      • Indicators: that is, namely, in other words,
      • who/which + BE , etc.
      • E.g.: The company commander, ( who was )
      • Captain Madison , assembled his men and
      • announced their mission.
      • He told them the good news: taxes are to be
      • reduced .
      8/3
    • 70. Apposition 3 Apposition Non-restrictive Apposition Restrictive Apposition Equivalence Attribution Inclusion Appellation Designation Intensification Reformulation
      • 2nd appositive being less specific than the 1st
      • E.g.: Captain Madison, ( that is to say ) the
      • company commander , took the lead.
      9/3
    • 71. Apposition 3 Apposition Non-restrictive Apposition Restrictive Apposition Equivalence Attribution Inclusion Appellation Designation Identification Reformulation
      • 2nd appositive being more specific than the 1st
      • E.g.: A literary critic, Mr. Paul Jones , wrote this
      • article.
      10/3
    • 72. Apposition 3 Apposition Non-restrictive Apposition Restrictive Apposition Equivalence Attribution Inclusion Appellation Designation Intensification Reformulation
      • 2nd appositive being reworded
      • E.g.: He drew a pentagonal, or five-sided , figure.
      • We are studying sound units of the
      • language, technically phonemes .
      11/3
    • 73. Apposition 3 Apposition Non-restrictive Apposition Restrictive Apposition Equivalence Attribution Inclusion
      • I ndicators: who/which + BE
      • Involving predication rather than equivalence
      • The 2 nd appositive: commonly an indefinite NP
      • E.g.: The house, an imposing building , dominated the street.
      • But the NP here can be definite or non-articled
      • E.g.: Many soldiers, the cream of the battalion , died in the attack.
      • Robinson, leader of the Democratic group on the committee ,
      • refused to answer questions.
      12/3
    • 74. Apposition 3 Apposition Non-restrictive Apposition Restrictive Apposition Equivalence Attribution Inclusion Exemplification Particularization 13/3
    • 75. Apposition 3 Apposition Non-restrictive Apposition Restrictive Apposition Equivalence Attribution Inclusion Exemplification Particularization
      • Indicators: for example, for instance , say , etc.
      • E.g.: His excuses, say the break down of his car ,
      • never seemed plausible.
      14/3
    • 76. Apposition 3 Apposition Non-restrictive Apposition Restrictive Apposition Equivalence Attribution Inclusion Exemplification Particularization
      • Indicators: particularly, especially , etc.
      • E.g.: The children liked the animals, particularly the monkeys .
      • The soldiers, some drunk , started fighting each other.
      15/3
    • 77. Apposition 3 Apposition Non-restrictive Apposition Restrictive Apposition
      • providing the information to identify the entity
      • same information unit
      E.g.: Which Mr. Smith do you mean? Mr. Smith the architect or Mr. Smith the electrician ? 16/3
    • 78. Apposition 3 Apposition Non-restrictive Apposition Restrictive Apposition
      • Strict restrictive apposition of NPs can take three
      • forms (the 1 st form: the most common)
      • 1. The 1 st apposition is the more general expression
      • preceded by a definite determiner (and possibly
      • pre-modifier)
      • E.g.: That famous critic Paul Jones came here last night.
      • I haven't seen my good friend Bob for a forthright.
      17/3
    • 79. Apposition 3 Apposition Non-restrictive Apposition Restrictive Apposition 2. The second appositive is preceded by a determiner and is more general than the first. E.g.: Paul Jones the critic didn't attend the last seminar. Bill Clinton the president of the U.S.A ended his working visit to Japan. 18/3
    • 80. Apposition 3 Apposition Non-restrictive Apposition Restrictive Apposition 3. This type is like (1) but with omission of the determiner. E.g.: Critic Paul Jones was completely against the plan. They talked with Democratic leader Robison for half an hour. 19/3
    • 81. Apposition 3 Apposition Non-restrictive Apposition Restrictive Apposition
      • Besides, restrictive apposition is common with such NPs
      • as the fact, the idea, the view, the question, etc.
      • E.g.: I don't agree with the view that there is no
      • advantage in being patient.
      • The questions whether to confess or not troubled him.
      20/3
    • 82. Homework
      • Exercises 158 - 171 Workbook