Week 11   adverbial, adjuncts, conjuncts, disjuncts
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Week 11 adverbial, adjuncts, conjuncts, disjuncts

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Week 11   adverbial, adjuncts, conjuncts, disjuncts Week 11 adverbial, adjuncts, conjuncts, disjuncts Presentation Transcript

  • Homework checking
  • E_English Grammar Course Unit 7 Lecture 7 - Adverbials
    • Units realizing adverbial functions
    • Classes of adverbials
    • Adjuncts
    • Disjuncts
    • Conjuncts
    Issues
  • Units realizing adverbial functions 1 1/7 See more in 8.1 Realization of adverbials Adverb phrases Noun phrases Prepositional phrases Finite clause Non-finite clause Verbless clause
  • Units realizing adverbial functions 1 2/7 Realization of adverbials Adverb phrases Noun phrases Prepositional phrases Finite clause Non-finite clause Verbless clause E.g.: I have never been there .
  • Units realizing adverbial functions 1 3/7 Realization of adverbials Adverb phrases Noun phrases Prepositional phrases Finite clause Non-finite clause Verbless clause E.g.: I saw her last week .
  • Units realizing adverbial functions 1 4/7 Realization of adverbials Adverb phrases Noun phrases Prepositional phrases Finite clause Non-finite clause Verbless clause E.g.: She sat in a dark corner.
  • Units realizing adverbial functions 1 5/7 Realization of adverbials Adverb phrases Noun phrases Prepositional phrases Finite clause Non-finite clause Verbless clause E.g.: When I came to the club , I saw James sitting alone at the window table.
  • Units realizing adverbial functions 1 6/7 Non-finite clause Verbless clause Realization of adverbials Adverb phrases Noun phrases Prepositional phrases Finite clause infinitive -ing participle -ed participle He plays to win . Seeing Tom , she smiles. Whenever left alone , he cried.
  • Units realizing adverbial functions 1 7/7 Realization of adverbials Adverb phrases Noun phrases Prepositional phrases Finite clause Non-finite clause Verbless clause E.g.: The baby was playing, unaware of the danger.
  • Classes of Adverbials 2 1/7 Integrated in clause structure Peripheral in clause structure See more in 8.2 ADVERBIALS ADJUNCTS DISJUNCTS CONJUNCTS
  • Classes of Adverbials 2 2/7 1. can’t appear initially in a negative declarative clause. E.g. Quickly , they didn’t leave home. ADVERBIALS ADJUNCTS DISJUNCTS CONJUNCTS
  • Classes of Adverbials 2 3/7 2. can be contrasted with another adverbial in an alternative interrogation (as focus of clause interrogation) E.g. Does he write to his parents because he misses them, or only because he wants some money? ADVERBIALS ADJUNCTS DISJUNCTS CONJUNCTS
  • Classes of Adverbials 2 4/7 3. can be contrasted with another adverbial in alternative negation (as focus of clause negation) E.g. We didn’t hate him because of his appearance, but because of his bad behavior. ADVERBIALS ADJUNCTS DISJUNCTS CONJUNCTS
  • Classes of Adverbials 2 5/7 1. can appear initially before a negative clause in most cases E.g.: Naturally , he didn’t come. (disjunct) Therefore , he couldn’t come. (conjunct) ADVERBIALS ADJUNCTS DISJUNCTS CONJUNCTS
  • Classes of Adverbials 2 6/7 2. cannot be contrasted with another adverbial in alternative interrogation. 3. cannot be focus of clause negation ADVERBIALS ADJUNCTS DISJUNCTS CONJUNCTS
  • Classes of Adverbials 2 7/7 ADVERBIALS ADJUNCTS DISJUNCTS CONJUNCTS Can serve as a response to an Y-N question. E.g.: A: Will he be there? B: Yes, probably .
  • Adjuncts
    • Adjuncts can come within the scope of predication pro-form
    • or predication ellipsis.
    • E.g.: John greatly admires Bob, and so does Mary.
    •  John greatly admires Bob, and Mary greatly admires Bob.
    3 SYNTACTIC FEATURES OF ADJUNCTS 1/21 See more in 8.4 - 8.46
  • Adjuncts
    • 2. Adjuncts can be the focus of limiter adverbials such as “ only ”.
    • E.g.: They only want the car for an hour (for an hour not for longer).
    3 SYNTACTIC FEATURES OF ADJUNCTS 2/21
  • Adjuncts
    • 3. Adjuncts can be the focus of additive adverbials such as “ also”.
    • E.g.: They will also meet afterwards.
    • 4. Adjuncts can be the focus of a cleft sentence.
    • E.g.: It was because of his injury that Mary helped Tony.
    3 3/21 SYNTACTIC FEATURES OF ADJUNCTS See more in 14.15 - 14.16
  • Adjuncts
    • 1. Can constitute a comparative construction
    • E.g.: John speaks English more fluently than his brother does .
    • 2. Have premodifying “ however ”
    • E.g.: However strongly you feel about it, you should be cautious
    • in the way you talk.
    3 4/21 ADVERB PHRASES AS ADJUNCTS
  • Adjuncts
    • 3. Have premodifying “ how ”
    • E.g.: How often does she wash her hair?
    • How carelessly he drives!
    • 4. Have premodifying “ so ” (+ inversion)
    • E.g.: So monotonously did he speak that everybody felt asleep.
    3 5/21 ADVERB PHRASES AS ADJUNCTS
  • Adjuncts 3 6/21 viewpoint focusing intensifier process subject place time others TYPES OF ADJUNCTS
  • Adjuncts 3 7/21 + = ‘if we consider what we are saying from a [adj. phrase] point of view’ + usually in initial position E.g.: Geographically (speaking), Vietnam is a diverse country. Business-wise , it’s not a good idea to open a fast food restaurant in this area. viewpoint focusing intensifier process subject place time others TYPES OF ADJUNCTS
  • Adjuncts 3 8/21 alone, just, only, purely, simply chiefly, especially, mainly, etc. also, either, even, neither, nor, too, as well as, in addition viewpoint focusing intensifier process subject place time others TYPES OF ADJUNCTS limiters additives exclusives particularizers
  • Adjuncts 3 8/21 - Cannot be modified Eg. *very only, *extremely also - Cannot be coordinated Eg. *just and exactly, *equally and likewise Exception : purely and simply viewpoint focusing intensifier process subject place time others TYPES OF ADJUNCTS
  • Adjuncts 3 9/21 clearly, definitely, etc. by far, well, etc. maximizers boosters completely, etc. compromisers diminishers minimizers approximators kind of, quite, etc. partly, slightly, etc. a bit, barely, etc. almost, nearly, etc. viewpoint focusing intensifier process subject place time others TYPES OF ADJUNCTS emphasizers amplifiers downtoners
  • Adjuncts 3 10/21 + = in that way/ that way + favor final conditions + co-occur with dynamic verbs, not stative verbs E.g.: They live frugally . Tear gas was indiscriminatively sprayed on the protesters. viewpoint focusing intensifier process subject place time others TYPES OF ADJUNCTS
  • Adjuncts 3 E.g.: They walked in single file . E.g.: I go to school by car . E.g.: You can cut the apple with that knife . 11/21 viewpoint focusing intensifier process subject place time others TYPES OF ADJUNCTS manner means instrument
  • Adjuncts 3 general volitional formulaic With great unease , they elected him as their leader. deliberately, intentionally, on purpose, willingly, with reluctance, etc. please, humbly, cordially, kindly, etc. 12/21 viewpoint focusing intensifier process subject place time others TYPES OF ADJUNCTS
  • Adjuncts 3 + denote position, direction, movement, and passage + most are prepositional phrases; adverb phrases and noun phrases used frequently + used only with verbs of motions or other dynamic verbs denoting direction E.g.: She works a long way from here . We’re moving some furniture into the kitchen . 13/21 viewpoint focusing intensifier process subject place time others TYPES OF ADJUNCTS
  • Adjuncts 3 direction position I take the book from the shelf . She ran past the church . I live in a small village . He is over there . 14/21 viewpoint focusing intensifier process subject place time others TYPES OF ADJUNCTS
  • Adjuncts 3 other relationships when duration frequency 15/21 viewpoint focusing intensifier process subject place time others TYPES OF ADJUNCTS
  • Adjuncts 3 other relationships when duration frequency + point of time E.g.: today, tomorrow + boundary of time E.g.: afterwards 16/21 viewpoint focusing intensifier process subject place time others TYPES OF ADJUNCTS
  • Adjuncts 3 other relationships when duration frequency + length of time E.g.: briefly + from the preceding point in time E.g.: since 17/21 viewpoint focusing intensifier process subject place time others TYPES OF ADJUNCTS
  • Adjuncts 3 other relationships when duration frequency + definite - period: E.g.: daily - number: E.g.: twice + indefinite - usual occurrence: E.g.: usually - continuous/continual: E.g.: always - high: E.g.: often - low/zero: occasionally, never 18/21 viewpoint focusing intensifier process subject place time others TYPES OF ADJUNCTS
  • Adjuncts 3 other relationships when duration frequency first, still, yet, already, etc. 19/21 viewpoint focusing intensifier process subject place time others TYPES OF ADJUNCTS
  • Adjuncts 3 + expressing purpose, cause, reason, source or origin E.g.: He took the book from me . They symbolically buried the car as a protest against pollution. 20/21 viewpoint focusing intensifier process subject place time others TYPES OF ADJUNCTS
  • Adjuncts 3 21/21 RELATIVE POSITION OF ADJUNCTS 1. In final position: process - place - time E.g. He was working with his shears (process) in the garden (place) the whole morning (time). 2. The normal relative order can be changed to suit the desire for end-focus. 3. A clause normally comes after other structures to avoid ambiguity E.g. We stood talking for a very long time (A1) where the fire had been (A2). 4. Longer adjuncts tend to follow shorter adjuncts. E.g. I was studying earlier (A1) in the university library (A2). See more in 8.3
  • Disjuncts 4 1/3 DISJUNCTS Style disjuncts Attitudinal disjuncts Most disjuncts are prepositional phrases or clause See more in 8.47 - 8.52
  • Disjuncts 4 2/3 DISJUNCTS Style disjuncts Attitudinal disjuncts
    • convey the speaker’s comment on
    • the form of what he is saying,
    • defining in some way under what
    • conditions he is speaking
    • E.g.: Seriously , do you intend to retire?
    • Personally , I don’t approve of her.
    • Very frankly , I am tired.
  • Disjuncts 4 3/3
    • convey the speaker’s comment on the
    • content of what he is saying
    • generally appear only on declarative
    • clauses
    • E.g.: Obviously , no one expected us.
    • Understandably , they were all
    • annoyed when reading the letter.
    DISJUNCTS Style disjuncts Attitudinal disjuncts
  • Conjuncts 5 CONJUNCTS 1. Most conjuncts are adverb phrases or prepositional phrases. 2. The normal position for most conjuncts is initial. 3. Conjuncts often have a separate tone unit. 1/15 See more in 8.53 - 8.56
  • Conjuncts 5 2/15 CONJUNCTS Enumerative Reinforcing Equative Transitional Summative Apposition Result Inferential Reformulatory Replacive Antithetic Concessive Temporal transition
  • Conjuncts 5 first, second, third…; one, two, three…; for one thing, for another thing; for a start, to begin with, next, then… 3/15 CONJUNCTS Enumerative Reinforcing Equative Transitional Summative Apposition Result Inferential Reformulatory Replacive Antithetic Concessive Temporal transition
  • Conjuncts 5 also, furthermore, moreover, in addition, above all, what is more, then (informal), etc. 4/15 CONJUNCTS Enumerative Reinforcing Equative Transitional Summative Apposition Result Inferential Reformulatory Replacive Antithetic Concessive Temporal transition
  • Conjuncts 5 equally, likewise, similarly, in the same way, etc. 5/15 CONJUNCTS Enumerative Reinforcing Equative Transitional Summative Apposition Result Inferential Reformulatory Replacive Antithetic Concessive Temporal transition
  • Conjuncts 5 by the way, incidentally, etc. 6/15 CONJUNCTS Enumerative Reinforcing Equative Transitional Summative Apposition Result Inferential Reformulatory Replacive Antithetic Concessive Temporal transition
  • Conjuncts 5 then, (all) in all, in conclusion, to sum up, etc. 7/15 CONJUNCTS Enumerative Reinforcing Equative Transitional Summative Apposition Result Inferential Reformulatory Replacive Antithetic Concessive Temporal transition
  • Conjuncts 5 namely, in other words, for instance, that is, that is to say, for example, etc. 8/15 CONJUNCTS Enumerative Reinforcing Equative Transitional Summative Apposition Result Inferential Reformulatory Replacive Antithetic Concessive Temporal transition
  • Conjuncts 5 consequently, hence, thus, so, therefore, as a result, etc. 9/15 CONJUNCTS Enumerative Reinforcing Equative Transitional Summative Apposition Result Inferential Reformulatory Replacive Antithetic Concessive Temporal transition
  • Conjuncts 5 else, otherwise, then, in other words, in that case, etc. 10/15 CONJUNCTS Enumerative Reinforcing Equative Transitional Summative Apposition Result Inferential Reformulatory Replacive Antithetic Concessive Temporal transition
  • Conjuncts 5 better, rather, in other words, etc. 11/15 CONJUNCTS Enumerative Reinforcing Equative Transitional Summative Apposition Result Inferential Reformulatory Replacive Antithetic Concessive Temporal transition
  • Conjuncts 5 CONJUNCTS Enumerative Reinforcing Equative Transitional Summative Apposition Result Inferential Reformulatory Replacive Antithetic Concessive Temporal transition alternatively, rather, on the other hand, etc. 12/15
  • Conjuncts 5 instead, then, on the contrary, in contrast, by comparison, on the other hand, etc. 13/15 CONJUNCTS Enumerative Reinforcing Equative Transitional Summative Apposition Result Inferential Reformulatory Replacive Antithetic Concessive Temporal transition
  • Conjuncts 5 anyhow, anyway, besides, else, however, still nevertheless, yet, in any case, at any rate, after all in spite of that, on the other hand, all the same, etc. 14/15 CONJUNCTS Enumerative Reinforcing Equative Transitional Summative Apposition Result Inferential Reformulatory Replacive Antithetic Concessive Temporal transition
  • Conjuncts 5 15/15 CONJUNCTS Enumerative Reinforcing Equative Transitional Summative Apposition Result Inferential Reformulatory Replacive Antithetic Concessive Temporal transition meantime, meanwhile, in the mean time, etc.
  • Homework
    • Exercises 121-147 Workbook