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PhRMA Report 2013: Overview of Medicines in Development: Biologics

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America’s biopharmaceutical research companies are using biological processes to develop 907 medicines and vaccines targeting more than 100 diseases. Many biologics are made from a variety of natural …

America’s biopharmaceutical research companies are using biological processes to develop 907 medicines and vaccines targeting more than 100 diseases. Many biologics are made from a variety of natural source —human, animal or microorganisms. Like small-molecule drugs, some biologics are intended to treat diseases and medical conditions. Other biologics are used to prevent or diagnose disease. Examples of biological products include but are not limited to:

• monoclonal antibodies
• vaccines, including therapeutic vaccines
• blood and blood products for transfusion and/or manufacturing into other products
• gene therapies
• cell therapies

The medicines discussed in this report are either in human clinical trials or under review by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA).

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  • 1. 2013 REPORT Medicines in Development Biologics presented by america’s biopharmaceutical research companies Overview Biologics In Development Biologics Research Promises to By Product Category and Development Phase Bolster the Future of Medicine America’s biopharmaceutical research Antisense drugs interfere with the commu- companies are using biological process- nication process that tells a cell to produce 338 es to develop 907 medicines and vac- an unwanted protein. Vaccines, particularly, cines targeting more than 100 diseases. therapeutic cancer vaccines, are another Application Many biologics are made from a variety example of how the immune system is Submitted of natural sources—human, animal or being harnessed to fight disease. Phase III microorganisms. Like small-molecule The biologics now in development make drugs, some biologics are intended to use of a range of new technologies to Phase II treat diseases and medical conditions. harness scientific progress. For example, Phase I Other biologics are used to prevent or among the medicines in the pipeline are: diagnose disease. Examples of biological 250 products include but are not limited to: • genetically-modified virus-based A vaccine to treat melanoma. monoclonal antibodies • • monoclonal antibody for the treat- A v • accines, including therapeutic ment of asthma. vaccines A • n antisense therapy for the treatment • lood and blood products for transfu- b of leukemia. sion and/or manufacturing into other products • recombinant fusion protein to treat A type 2 diabetes. • gene therapies For more information on these products • cell therapies and others, please see page 4 and our The medicines discussed in this report accompanying backgrounder. are either in human clinical trials or The 907 biologics in development under review by the U.S. Food and Drug promise to push the frontiers of science Administration (FDA). and bring new treatments to patients for 93 These medicines often represent cut- our most challenging diseases. See our 81 ting-edge research in which the latest report for a full list of the medicines and 69 scientific discoveries are translated vaccines in development. into novel therapies that provide new This overview discusses the science 46 treatment options for patients. Increased behind biologics, potential medicines of understanding of the molecular and the future, the need for continued invest- 30 genetic bases of disease has opened up ment in research and development, and the development of a range of targeted the policies and regulations that help treatments. For instance, monoclonal make such innovation possible. antibodies (mAbs) are proteins that help the immune system identify and bind se py ins s er py s ine die oth to foreign substances. Thirty years after en ra ra ote cc the bo hetis pr va initial development, these therapies tian ll t an ne nt ce ina ge help treat some of the most costly and nal mb clo challenging diseases. co no re mo
  • 2. The Human Genome Advancing Biomedical ScienceInside every human body are about 25,000 genes—each Over the past decade, a wave of scientific advances and newresponsible for a specific protein. A person’s genes tell their technologies have dramatically changed how medicines arebody to produce all the enzymes, hormones, antibodies and discovered. Greater knowledge of how diseases work at theother proteins needed to make the body function. If one of genetic and molecular level has allowed researchers to pursuethe genes is missing or defective, the body will not have the new targets for therapy and better predict how certain bio-proteins it needs to function properly and may have proteins pharmaceuticals will affect specific subpopulations of patients.that actually cause disease. The modern tools of biotechnol-ogy—coupled with computer technology’s ability to analyze • Bioinformatics—Bioinformatics use systems and mathe-massive amounts of data quickly—help biopharmaceutical matical models to advance the scientific understanding ofscientists determine which genes or proteins are defective living systems. At its simplest level, bioinformatics involvesand are being used to develop new treatments across a range the creation and maintenance of biological databases,of therapeutic areas. including DNA sequences. Bioinformatics also includes calculation tools. These tools can decipher the molecular pathways of disease, find patterns in the way genes re-Manufacturing Complexities spond to drugs, interpret the three-dimensional structureMost biologics are very complex molecules and cannot be of important proteins, and enable the computer-aidedfully characterized by existing science. For this reason, they design of new drugs.often are characterized by their manufacturing processes. • iomarkers—Every disease leaves a signature of molecular BGiven the complexity of many biologics, the manufacturing “biomarkers” in our body—genes that turn on and off orprocesses are likewise complex and very sensitive. Slight proteins released into the bloodstream. Biomarkers mea-changes in temperature or other factors can impact the final sured in blood and other samples can tell us the state ofproduct and affect how it works in patients. Changes in the our health and how we might respond to treatment. Theymanufacturing process or facility may require clinical studies are powerful tools that can detect certain diseases at theirto demonstrate safety, purity and potency. earliest stages before symptoms appear, when they are most treatable. The identification of biomarkers is the first step in developing a personalized medicine. • olecular Targeting—The idea behind molecular targeting M is to design drugs that specifically attack the molecular pathways that cause disease, without disrupting the nor- mal functions in our cells and tissues. • anotechnology—You can’t see it, but soon it will be every- N where. Nanotechnology is the science of building microscop- ic devices at the molecular and atomic levels. In medicine, biologic molecule l aspirin molecule nanotechnology may also be used to help diagnose and treat diseases. For example, tiny gold-coated “nanoshells” could act like smart bombs, zeroing in on a tumor, entering Monoclonal Antibodies: cancer cells, and lying in wait until an infrared beam or ra- Targeted Cancer Therapy dio wave signals the particles to release an intense, deadly dose of heat energy that destroys the cancer cells. An approved monoclonal antibody (mAb) for the treatment of cancer targets the epidermal growth • ersonalized Medicine—The sequencing of the human P factor (EGFR) that is linked to the growth and genome produced a “map” of the human genes in DNA. development of many types of cancer. Originally This new genetic knowledge opens up the possibility of the mAb was approved for the treatment of EGFR- developing “targeted” therapies for people with specific expressing metastatic colorectal cancer. Additional gene sequences, and it can help physicians choose the studies have found that the presence or absence of best treatments based on individual genetic, lifestyle a certain gene mutation could predict the patients’ and environmental factors. Additionally, researchers are response to treatment. Patients without the gene developing genetic tests that can tell if we are susceptible mutation—about 65% of patients—are most likely to to certain diseases. benefit from treatment.2 OVERVIEW • Medicines in Development BIOLOGICS
  • 3. Key Biologic Medicines Approved in theLast Decade RNA Interference (RNAi) • he first genetically engineered antibody approved T RNA interference therapeutics are an exciting new to prevent the formation of new blood vessels that frontier for the development of novel therapies for provide tumors with oxygen and nutrients—a pro- patients, especially patients with genetic disorders. cess called angiogenesis. The medicine was approved There are several RNAi therapies in clinical trials for the treatment of metastatic colorectal cancer. Using which have demonstrated potential in treating angiogenesis as an approach to fight cancer was first certain neuromuscular disorders, such as Duchenne discussed more than 30 years ago. In 1989, biopharma- Muscular Dystrophy (DMD). DMD is a genetic disorder ceutical company scientists discovered a key growth impacting 1 in 3,500 newborn boys and is the most factor influencing the process that led to the discovery severe form of muscular dystrophy in childhood. One and development of the medicine. RNAi targeted therapeutic in development seeks to • first-in-class human monoclonal antibody that A restore the function of dystrophin. Early clinical trials targets the cytokines interleukin-12 (IL-12) and inter- of the drug have demonstrated significantly improved leukin-23 (IL-23). IL-12 and IL-23 are naturally occurring dystrophin expression as well as improvement in proteins that are believed to play a role in the develop- DMD patients’ ability to walk. ment of psoriasis. The medicine is delivered by injection four times a year after two initial doses within four weeks. • recombinant vaccine for the prevention of human A papillomavirus (HPV) which can lead to cervical and other cancers. The vaccine was approved for the preven- Over the past decade, biologics tion of cervical diseases caused by human papillomavirus (HPV) types 16 and 18 for use in females ages 10 to 25. have accounted for one-third of new In clinical trials, the vaccine was shown to be 93 percent medicine approvals. effective in preventing cervical pre-cancers associated with HPV 16 and 18 in women with no prior exposure to HPV of the same types. through an intravenous (IV) infusion, binds to BLyS and • he first in a new therapeutic class called autologous T prevents it from stimulating B cells. Adding this therapy cellular immunotherapy. Approved for the treatment to other lupus treatments may help reduce the abnormal of metastatic, castrate-resistant (hormone-refractory) immune system activity that contributes to disease activ- prostate cancer, the medicine was designed to induce ity in lupus. an immune response against prostatic acid phosphatase (PAP), an antigen expressed in most prostate cancers. • he first in a new class of antibody-drug conjugates T Each dose is manufactured using the patient’s own im- (ADC) which utilizes a monoclonal antibody to direct mune cells from the blood. To enhance their therapeutic a therapeutic drug to target the cancer cells. It was ap- response against the cancer, the immune cells are then proved to treat Hodgkin lymphoma and systemic anaplas- exposed to the PAP antigen and linked to an immune tic large cell lymphoma (ALCL), a rare type of lymphoma stimulating substance. When this process is complete, that represents only 3 percent of all non-Hodgkin lympho- the patient’s cells are returned intravenously to the pa- mas. ADCs combine a monoclonal antibody and a thera- tient to treat the cancer. peutic drug, where the antibody directs the therapeutic to target the cancerous cells. It is also the first FDA-approved • he first new medicine approved to treat adults with T drug for Hodgkin lymphoma in more than 30 years and active lupus in over 50 years and the first in a new class the first to specifically treat ALCL. It is composed of an of biologic therapies called BLyS-specific inhibitors. anti-CD30 monoclonal antibody and a microtubule Researchers identified a naturally occurring protein in disrupting agent and releases its therapeutic drug once the human body called B-lymphocyte stimulator (BLyS). inside the CD30-expressing tumor cells. Clinical studies have shown that there is a connection between higher levels of BLyS and lupus disease activity in some people. This new monoclonal antibody delivered2013 Report 3
  • 4. Medicines in the Future MAbs were first explored as a therapeutic option as a result of scientific breakthroughs that occurred in the mid-1970s andBuilding on the impressive progress to date, the 907 medi- early-1980s. By 2013, a total of 33 mAbs were approved in thecines and vaccines listed in the PhRMA report, Biologic United States. Because mAbs allow targeting of unhealthyMedicines in Development, represent the next exciting cells without harm to healthy cells, they have been particu-frontier of biopharmaceutical research. larly important in fighting cancer, and more recently, showThe report finds that the greatest amount of research is in great promise for autoimmune diseases, such as rheumatoidmonoclonal antibodies (mAbs), with 338 separate mAbs in arthritis. Vaccines have historically been used as a preventa-development, and vaccines, with 250 vaccines in clinical tive tool in infectious diseases, such as pneumonia, HIV andtrials or under review at FDA. smallpox. But today, vaccines are also being used as therapies for cancer and other diseases. Below are examples of some of the exciting new biologic medicines in the pipeline: Analysis: Cancer and Infectious Diseases and Technologies Monoclonal Antibodies (mAb) The report on biologics finds that a great deal of • mAb designed to block the IL-13 cytokine, a protein A research is focused in two diseases areas—cancer messenger between cells that triggers inflammation. and infectious diseases. Within these categories, Blockage of IL-13 may reduce the risk of asthma and biopharmaceutical researchers are investigating other respiratory diseases. several different techniques and technologies to treat and prevent disease. • mAb that targets B-cells that cause the immune system A to turn against itself and produce antibodies against the body’s own cells and tissue.Cancer • mAb for the treatment of psoriasis is an engineered A Vaccines - 89 Other - 24 human antibody to interleukin-17 (IL-17), a key cytokine Antisense - 8 involved in inducing and mediating inflammation associ- Cell ated with psoriasis. therapy - 15 • mAb directed against interleukin-6 (IL-6) alpha, a ARecombinant Geneproteins - 15 therapy - 17 signaling protein involved in the regulation of immune and inflammatory responses associated with rheumatoid arthritis. The mAb interrupts the inflammatory signaling cascade of IL-6 by blocking its binding to a certain recep- tor necessary for inflammatory cascade. Monoclonal antibodies - 170 • mAb for potential use in the regeneration of cortico- A spinal tract fibers resulting from an acute spinal injury. The antibody neutralizes a protein that inhibits growth ofInfectious Diseases spinal fibers. Antisense - 5 Antisense Cell therapy - 1 • third-generation antisense medicine in development A Gene therapy - 3 for the treatment of lymphoma inhibits production of a specific protein which regulates many key genes import- Monoclonal antibodies - 22 ant in cancer growth—angiogenesis, cell metabolism, cell proliferation, cell death and cell invasion. An overex- pression of the protein in tumors results in resistance to Vaccines - 134 Recombinant treatment. By reducing the amount of the protein in can- proteins – 2 cer cells, the antisense medicine may be able to enhance the effectiveness of current anticancer treatment.4 OVERVIEW • Medicines in Development BIOLOGICS
  • 5. Therapeutic Vaccines RNAi—RNA Interference • virus-based therapeutic vaccine in development for the A • n RNAi-targeted therapeutic in development seeks to A treatment of melanoma is genetically-modified to repli- restore the function of dystrophin. Early clinical trials of cate selectively in tumor cells and express a gene for an the medicine have demonstrated significantly improved immune-stimulating protein. It is injected directly into the dystrophin expression as well as improvement in DMD tumor where it replicates and spreads within the tumor, patients’ ability to walk. causing the death of cancer cells and stimulating the immune system to destroy cancer cells. Stem Cell Therapy • n immunotherapeutic designed to train the immune A • Researchers are exploring transplantation of a patient’s system to recognize and eliminate cancer cells in a highly own bone marrow cells into damaged heart tissue to specific way. The medicine is a combination of tumor anti- regenerate heart tissue. It is believed that a patient’s im- gens, delivered as recombinant proteins, and a proprietary mune system will not attack the newly transplanted cells adjuvant (an agent that modifies another substance in its because they are native to the patient. action) to stimulate the immune response to cancer cells. It is intended to only affect cancer tissue and not harm Gene Therapy normal tissue. • gene therapy employs an adeno-associated virus (AAV) A as a vector to deliver to the gene neurturin, which has been found to restore cells damaged in Parkinson’s pa- tients and protect them from further degeneration.Biologic Medicines in Development—by Therapeutic CategorySome medicines are listed in more than one category Autoimmune Disorders 71 Blood Disorders 43 Cancer/Related Conditions 338 Cardiovascular Disease 58 Diabetes/Related Conditions 28 Digestive Disorders 26 Eye Conditions 25 Genetic Disorders 30 Infectious Diseases 176 Musculoskeletal Disorders 34 Neurologic Disorders 39 Respiratory Disorders 38 Skin Diseases 30 Transplantation 13 Other 58Biologic Medicines in Development—by Product Category Antisense 30 Cell Therapy 69 Gene Therapy 46 Growth Factors 7 Interferons 10 Monoclonal Antibodies (mAb) 338 Recombinant Hormones/Proteins 93 RNA Interference 15 Vaccines 250 Other 492013 Report 5
  • 6. Encouraging ContinuedBiopharmaceutical Innovation The Future of Research Should Be Protected by Adequate Incentives forThe development of new biologics is a long, complex and Innovation; 12-Years of Data Protection iscostly endeavor. It takes about 10–15 years, on average, to Critical for Patientsbring a medicine through the discovery and clinical trialphases to patients, and the average RD investment for each A biosimilar is similar to—but not the same as—annew medicine is $1.2 billion, including the cost of failures. innovator biologic. A pathway for the approval of biosimilars in the United States was included in theAnother report on medicines in the pipeline found that more Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010.than 5,000 potential new medicines—which may become The pathway, which received broad bipartisanavailable to U.S. patients—are in the pipeline globally—in support in both chambers of Congress, struck anlarge part funded by the more than $500 billion invested appropriate balance between promoting increasedin research and development (RD) since 2000 by PhRMA competition and providing adequate incentives tomember companies. These promising candidates build on support continued innovation of new treatments andthe more than 300 medicines that have been approved by cures through a 12-year period of data protection.the FDA in the last decade. This is critical to spurring the investment in researchIn order to realize the full potential of biologics, it is essential and development needed to seize the extraordinarythat the United States maintain strong policy and regulatory opportunities for medical advances against our mostenvironments that help foster the discovery and develop- costly and challenging diseases and the resultingment processes. jobs supported across the U.S. economy. The Promise of PDUFA V Human Clinical Trials An efficient, consistent and predictable science-based Phase I—Researchers test the biologic/drug in a small regulatory system is critical to providing innovative new group of people, usually between 20 and 80 healthy medicines to patients. The recently reauthorized Prescrip- adult volunteers, to evaluate its initial safety and tion Drug User Fee Act (PDUFA V) will help foster timely tolerability profile, determine a safe dosage range, and patient access to new medicines, enhance the FDA’s reg- identify potential side effects. ulatory science capacity and encourage future innovation while strengthening the Agency’s high safety standards. It Phase II—The biologic/drug is given to volunteer provides for increased scientific communication between patients, usually between 100 and 300, to see if it FDA and drug sponsors during the regulatory review of new is effective, identify an optimal dose, and to further medicines which has the potential to increase first-cycle evaluate its short-term safety. approval rates and bring new medicines to patients fast- er. PDUFA V will also advance regulatory science through Phase III—The biologic/drug is given to a larger, more resources to validate the use of new scientific tools (such diverse patient population, often involving between as pharmacogenomics and biomarkers) and meta-analyses 1,000 and 3,000 patients (but sometime many more that will help decrease drug development time. thousands), to generate statistically significant evidence to confirm its safety and effectiveness. They are the longest studies, and usually take place in multiple sites around the world. U.S. pharmaceutical companies account for 80% of the world’s RD in health care biotechnology.6 OVERVIEW • Medicines in Development BIOLOGICS
  • 7. The Biomedical Research Ecosystem Corporate Venture Capital InvestmentsThe collaborative ecosystem that exists in the United States are Helping Advance Biotechnology RDbetween the government, academia, and biopharmaceutical Another evolving aspect of the biomedical research ecosys-companies is among our greatest strengths in moving medical tem relates to the investment necessary to support emergingadvances forward and has helped position the United States biopharmaceutical companies. Historically, venture capitalas the worldwide leader in biopharmaceutical innovation. and other forms of private capital have been key sources of financing for start-up and emerging biopharmaceuticalBiopharmaceutical companies today are engaging in a wide companies.range of partnerships in new and promising ways. Suchpartnerships include unrestricted research support, academic But, as traditional venture capital has recently declined due todrug discovery centers and pre-competitive research centers. several factors including regulatory challenges and concerns about coverage and payment of new medical innovations,As scientists have probed deeper into the causes and signs of the corporate venture arms of established biopharmaceuticaldisease the amount of information that is available has explod- companies have become an increasingly important source ofed, but making sense of all the data is a colossal undertaking capital to help fill this gap. Between 2010 and 2011, biophar-that no single individual or institution can handle alone. maceutical companies invested nearly $700 million in ventureAs a result, biopharmaceutical research companies are capital in biotechnology start-ups, according to a 2011 Mon-working with other companies, academic medical centers, eyTree report. And corporate venture activity is on the rise.the government, and in some cases non-profit organiza- According to a recent report by the Boston Consulting Group,tions to share, organize and make sense of huge volumes of 63% of the 30 largest biopharmaceutical companies currentlyinformation. In some instances, they are working together participate in corporate venture capital investments—upin innovative ways to share information to advance progress from 50% in 2007.against disease.An example of this kind of collaboration is the Alzheimer’s SummaryDisease Neuroimaging Initiative, which includes federal The 907 biologic medicines and vaccines currently in de-agencies, non-profit organizations, and biopharmaceuti- velopment offer great hope for patients, building upon thecal industry members. The goal of the Initiative is to track significant progress in the last few decades across a wideAlzheimer’s disease progression, establish quality standards array of diseases. America’s biopharmaceutical researchand validate biomarkers to be used in clinical trials. Data ecosystem is uniquely positioned to deliver on the greatcollected are made available at no cost to researchers when promise of science if supported by policy and regulatorydesigning clinical trials and research projects. environments that encourage continued innovation.In the human bodythere are12 trillion cells,200,000 proteins and25,000 genes2013 Report 7
  • 8. Pharmaceutical Research and Manufacturers of America Pharmaceutical Research and Manufacturers of America950 F Street,Street, NW, Washington,20004 950 F NW, Washington, DC DC 20004www.phrma.org www.phrma.org

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