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What can libraries learn from new user (and non-user!)e-reading data from the Pew Internet Project?
What can libraries learn from new user (and non-user!)e-reading data from the Pew Internet Project?
What can libraries learn from new user (and non-user!)e-reading data from the Pew Internet Project?
What can libraries learn from new user (and non-user!)e-reading data from the Pew Internet Project?
What can libraries learn from new user (and non-user!)e-reading data from the Pew Internet Project?
What can libraries learn from new user (and non-user!)e-reading data from the Pew Internet Project?
What can libraries learn from new user (and non-user!)e-reading data from the Pew Internet Project?
What can libraries learn from new user (and non-user!)e-reading data from the Pew Internet Project?
What can libraries learn from new user (and non-user!)e-reading data from the Pew Internet Project?
What can libraries learn from new user (and non-user!)e-reading data from the Pew Internet Project?
What can libraries learn from new user (and non-user!)e-reading data from the Pew Internet Project?
What can libraries learn from new user (and non-user!)e-reading data from the Pew Internet Project?
What can libraries learn from new user (and non-user!)e-reading data from the Pew Internet Project?
What can libraries learn from new user (and non-user!)e-reading data from the Pew Internet Project?
What can libraries learn from new user (and non-user!)e-reading data from the Pew Internet Project?
What can libraries learn from new user (and non-user!)e-reading data from the Pew Internet Project?
What can libraries learn from new user (and non-user!)e-reading data from the Pew Internet Project?
What can libraries learn from new user (and non-user!)e-reading data from the Pew Internet Project?
What can libraries learn from new user (and non-user!)e-reading data from the Pew Internet Project?
What can libraries learn from new user (and non-user!)e-reading data from the Pew Internet Project?
What can libraries learn from new user (and non-user!)e-reading data from the Pew Internet Project?
What can libraries learn from new user (and non-user!)e-reading data from the Pew Internet Project?
What can libraries learn from new user (and non-user!)e-reading data from the Pew Internet Project?
What can libraries learn from new user (and non-user!)e-reading data from the Pew Internet Project?
What can libraries learn from new user (and non-user!)e-reading data from the Pew Internet Project?
What can libraries learn from new user (and non-user!)e-reading data from the Pew Internet Project?
What can libraries learn from new user (and non-user!)e-reading data from the Pew Internet Project?
What can libraries learn from new user (and non-user!)e-reading data from the Pew Internet Project?
What can libraries learn from new user (and non-user!)e-reading data from the Pew Internet Project?
What can libraries learn from new user (and non-user!)e-reading data from the Pew Internet Project?
What can libraries learn from new user (and non-user!)e-reading data from the Pew Internet Project?
What can libraries learn from new user (and non-user!)e-reading data from the Pew Internet Project?
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What can libraries learn from new user (and non-user!) e-reading data from the Pew Internet Project?

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One year ago, the Pew Research Center began studying how the role of public libraries, as well as the needs and expectations of their patrons and communities, are changing in the digital age. Funded …

One year ago, the Pew Research Center began studying how the role of public libraries, as well as the needs and expectations of their patrons and communities, are changing in the digital age. Funded by the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, grounded by a Library Advisory Group, and conducted by the Pew Internet & American Life Project, the first set of reports focus on the rise of e-reading and e-books at libraries. Among the findings: 12% of e-book readers have borrowed an e-book from a library; 58% of library card holders are unsure if their library offers e-books; and a majority of e-book borrowers were unable to borrow an e-book they were seeking at their library.

At the Library 2.012 worldwide virtual conference, Pew Internet Research Analyst Kathryn Zickuhr and ALA Program Director Larra Clark will discuss key findings from these reports—including a brand new analysis focused on younger Americans' reading preferences and library use habits. The session also will explore immediate practical implications for U.S. public libraries.

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  • Some 78% of those 16 and older had read at least one book in any format in the previous 12 months. 19% of adults say they read NO books in the past year, in any format. This group is more likely to be: male than female (23% vs. 14%), Hispanic than white or black (28% vs. 17% and 16%), age 65 or older (27%), lacking a high school diploma (34%), living in households earning less than $30,000 (26%), unemployed (22%), and residents of rural areas 25%. Those who did not read a book last year also tended not to be technology users.
  • Some 78% of those 16 and older had read at least one book in any format in the previous 12 months. 21% of American adults read an e-book in the last year 68% read a print book 11% listened to an audiobook 19% of adults say they read NO books in the past year, in any format
  • Readers of e-books are more likely than other readers to be: Under age 50 College educated Living in households earning $50K+ Other key characteristics: They read more books, more often, and for a wider range of reasons More likely to buy than borrow
  • 29% of US adults own a specialized e-reading device (either a tablet or an e-reader) E-reader and tablet ownership are strongly correlated with income & education Women are more likely than men to own e-readers Parents are more likely than non-parents to own tablets
  • E-books don’t seem to supplant print books so much as supplement them in readers’ habits.
  • In general, library card holders are pretty heavy readers, but most are not aware they can borrow e-books.
  • A majority of print readers (54%) and e-book readers (61%) prefer to purchase their own copies of these books; most audiobook listeners (61%) prefer to borrow their audiobooks.
  • A majority of print readers (54%) and e-book readers (61%) prefer to purchase their own copies of these books; most audiobook listeners (61%) prefer to borrow their audiobooks.
  • About half of e-book borrowers have encountered waiting lists for books they wanted to check out, and a similar number had wanted to borrow a book but found the library did not carry it. Patrons’ vision of e-book borrowing: “ Fast, easy, plentiful. ”
  • Among these folks, just 4% had tried to borrow and e-book from their library; 96% had not.
  • In particular, African-Americans and Hispanics are more likely to be interested in these services compared with whites, as are those who live in lower-income households (compared with those in higher-income households). Women are more interested than men in taking classes on how to use handheld reading devices such as e-readers or tablets. While adults ages 65+ are least likely to be interested in any of the ideas, adults ages 50-64 are more interested in taking classes on using e-readers or downloading e-books than any other age group. Urban users are more interested than suburban or rural users in pre-loaded e-readers, while rural users are the least interested geographic group. Urban users are also somewhat more likely than users in other areas to be interested in classes on using handheld reading devices. Younger readers are the most likely to say they would be likely to borrow pre-loaded readers (60%).
  • Readers of e-books are more likely than other readers to be: Under age 50 College educated Living in households earning $50K+ Other key characteristics: They read more books, more often, and for a wider range of reasons More likely to buy than borrow
  • Readers of e-books are more likely than other readers to be: Under age 50 College educated Living in households earning $50K+ Other key characteristics: They read more books, more often, and for a wider range of reasons More likely to buy than borrow
  • What these changes [could] mean for libraries
  • A patron respondent had a similar story: “Fifteen years ago, I regularly visited the library twice a week. Now I go about once a month and often that is just to drop off books that are due or pick up books that I have reserved. I would prefer to do ALL of my library business online and have many more materials available in e-book format.” One patron’s description of her library habits was representative of many in our online panel: “I go to the library branch much less often and I use the library website several times per week. Before I got my e-book reader, I visited my library at least weekly and almost never used the website, except to reserve books.” Patrons with limited access to their library’s physical branch, including adults living with disability and those who live in very rural areas, mentioned how e-books helped them read more. “A few months ago I was housebound due to a nasty illness,” one told us, and “thanks to the digital download system I was able to check out books and was able to keep on reading. That was an immense help since I live by myself and there was no one who could go get books for me.”
  • “ Many of our older patrons received electronic devices as gifts over the past two years. This group of library users asks for lots of help with their devices, from plugging them in to turning them on to trying to make them interface with the e-book portion of the library website.” “ Showing patrons how to use digital content and e-book readers is not much different than showing people how to use the micro-film machine or our public computers except it might take a little more time.” Many of the library staff members who responded to our online questionnaire wrote that they not only provide access to technology, but also must help patrons learn tech fundamentals. Their patrons often need help with many basic tasks, from setting up an email account and filling out online forms, to finding and navigating necessary websites. As one library staff member explained, “The greatest change has been the need not only for computer access, but computer assistance. Since people are required to apply for jobs and government services online, and many people in our area lack the skills to do so, we have seen a substantial rise in the need for computers, computer classes, and especially one-on-one assistance.”
  • Read the e-book fine print, negotiate for your rights, and look for consortial opportunities to leverage limited resources. Reference ALA biz models and e-supplements. Are libraries (and our collections) getting lost in the digital world? Even library borrowers look first to online bookstores. How can we support discovery and serendipity online (or even in physical spaces)? Does this require some kind of compromise on patron privacy? How might programming add value or create new connections to our digital content? A key theme is the interest of patrons in getting help using new technology – devices, software and web forms. How do we turn this into an opportunity, as well as a challenge? While most data focuses on commercial content, an emerging trend is toward content creation and digitization of local content that the library (and/or its users) may own. What is the impact of 58% of library card holders NOT knowing that their library offers ebooks? How do we change people’s vision of what a library is and can be in the 21 st century? This issue of promotion directly relates to advocacy – speaking up for our libraries, but also on behalf of our communities’ equitable access to resources.
  • Transcript

    • 1. ALA PRESENTS:What can libraries learn fromnew user (and non-user!)e-reading data from the PewInternet Project?Library 2.012October 4, 2012Larra Clark, Program DirectorAmerican Library AssociationKathryn Zickuhr, Research AnalystPew Research Center’s Internet & American Life Project
    • 2. Larra ClarkOffice for Information Technology PolicyDirector, Program on NetworksAssoc. Director, Program on AmericasLibraries for the 21st CenturyAmerican Library Associationlclark@alawash.org
    • 3. Kathryn ZickuhrResearch AnalystPew Research Center’sInternet & American Life Projectkzickuhr@pewinternet.org@kzickuhr@pewinternet@pewresearch
    • 4. About Pew Internet• Part of the Pew Research Center, a non-partisan “fact tank” in Washington, DC• Studies how people use digital technologies• Does not promote specific technologies or make policy recommendations• Data for this talk is from nationally representative telephone surveys (on landlines & cell phones) of Americans ages 16 & older; quotes are from online panelsAll slides and reports are available atpewinternet.org
    • 5. About our libraries research• Goal: To study the changing role of public libraries and library users in the digital age• Funded by a three-year, $1.4 million grant from the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation libraries.pewinternet.org
    • 6. Americans’reading habitsand the rise ofe-reading
    • 7. Why Americans read% in each age group who read any type of material (including books,magazines, journals, newspapers, & online content) for the following reasonsSource: Pew Internet December 2011 survey. libraries.pewinternet.org
    • 8. Book reading by age group% of each age group who have read a book (including print books, e-books,and audiobooks) in whole or in part in the past 12 monthsSource: Pew Internet December 2011 survey. libraries.pewinternet.org
    • 9. The rise of e-readingOne in five adults has read an e-book in the past yearNote: Due to multiple responses, categories do not add up to 100%
    • 10. The book format used by readers on any given day is changing % of adult book readers (age 18+) using this format on an average day, as of June 2010 and December 2011Source: Pew Internet December 2011 survey. libraries.pewinternet.org
    • 11. Who reads e-books?E-book readers are more likely than other readers to be:• Under age 50• College educated• Living in households earning $50K+Other key characteristics:• They read more books, more often• More likely to buy their books than borrowSource: Pew Internet December 2011 survey. libraries.pewinternet.org
    • 12. How e-readers read their e-books Among all Americans in each age group who read an e-book in the past 12 months, as of December 2011Source: Pew Internet December 2011 survey. libraries.pewinternet.org
    • 13. Which is better for these purposes, a printedbook or an e-book?Among people ages 16+ who read both an e-book & a print book in the past year
    • 14. E-books atlibraries
    • 15. Library users by age groupAmong each group of Americans ages 16+, the percentage who have usedthe library in the past yearSource: Pew Internet December 2011 survey. libraries.pewinternet.org
    • 16. How Americans used the libraryin the past yearAmong Americans ages 16+ who used the library for the following purposes inthe past yearSource: Pew Internet December 2011 survey. libraries.pewinternet.org
    • 17. 12% of e-book readers borrow e-books from the librarySource: Pew Internet December 2011 survey. libraries.pewinternet.org
    • 18. When you want to read a particulare-book, where do you look first?Among all people ages 16+ who read an e-book in the past year
    • 19. When you want to read a particulare-book, where do you look first?Among people who borrowed an e-book from the library in the past year n=111
    • 20. Have you ever wanted to borrow a particulare-book from the library and found that...Among e-book borrowersSource: Pew Internet December 2011 survey. libraries.pewinternet.org
    • 21. 62% of all Americans ages16 and older, including 58%of library card holders, saythey do not know if theirlibrary lends e-books.
    • 22. What is the main reason you do not borrowe-books from your public library?Among e-book readers who do not get e-books at the public library % of e-book readers who doReason not get e-books at the public libraryInconvenient / easier to get another way 22%Didn’t know I could / didn’t know library offered e-books 19Don’t use library / no library nearby 8No interest / no real need 7Just found out about it / haven’t had a chance to try it yet 6E-books still new to me / no time to learn 5Just never thought to 5Don’t read a lot / don’t use e-reader much 4Prefer to own my own copy 4My library doesn’t offer e-books 4Prefer print books 3Poor e-book selection at library 2Do not have format I need 2Cumbersome process / wait list / short borrowing period 2Other 6
    • 23. Among those who do not currently borrow e-booksfrom libraries, the % who say they would be likely to… All three ideas are most popular with: African-Americans and Hispanics Those under age 65 Those in households making less than $30k per year Those who had not completed high school Parents of minor childrenSource: Pew Internet December 2011 survey. libraries.pewinternet.org
    • 24. Younger Americans (16-29)83% read a book in the past year19% read an e-book in the past year. They read their e-books on:• Computers (55%)• Cell phones (41%)• E-book readers (23%)• Tablets (16%)Source: Pew Internet December 2011 survey. libraries.pewinternet.org
    • 25. Younger Americans (16-29)60% used the library in the past year10% of e-book readers borrowed an e- book from the library in the past year58% of non-e-book borrowers would be interested in pre-loaded e-readersSource: Pew Internet December 2011 survey. libraries.pewinternet.org
    • 26. What thesechanges[could] meanfor libraries
    • 27. “Our customers are still usingthe library but in different ways.They browse our catalog online,place reserves on the items theywant, then pick them up at theirlocation of choice. Many fewerbrowse the collection in person,” – Library staff member
    • 28. “We spend a significant part ofour day explaining how to getlibrary books onto e-bookreaders.” – Library staff member
    • 29. “It all feels pretty murky. Someclarity and good advice would benice. It’s OK for libraries with bigbudgets to plunge into e-bookreaders. As a small library withlimited collection funds, we haveto be more careful.” – Library staff member
    • 30. Connecting the (E-)Dots• Negotiation and aggregation• Discovery• Lifelong learning and tech support• Content creation and digitization• Promotion• Advocacy
    • 31. “Our library is a criticallink in our community. Itprovides access tobooks, computers,[and] knowledge, and isa critical social center.” – E-book-borrowing patron
    • 32. Thank you!Larra Clark, Program DirectorAmerican Library AssociationKathryn Zickuhr, Research AnalystPew Internet & American Life ProjectAll data, slides, and reports available atpewinternet.org

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