Teens, Games and Civics


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  • Teens, Games and Civics

    1. 1. Teens, Games and Civics Amanda Lenhart Games, Learning and Libraries November 2, 2008 Oak Brook, IL
    2. 2. Road Map <ul><li>Methods </li></ul><ul><li>Main Findings </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Basics about game play </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gaming as a social experience </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Parents and games </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Games and civics </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Takeaways </li></ul>
    3. 3. Research Questions <ul><li>What are the game playing habits of American youth? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Who plays video games? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What do they play? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What experiences do they have while playing? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>If we care about young people we must ask how games are impacting their lives </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Do games isolate young people? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Are games creating a generation of civically disengaged youth? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can games provide civic learning opportunities? </li></ul></ul>
    4. 4. Methods <ul><li>RDD national telephone survey </li></ul><ul><li>1,102 youth ages 12-17 and a parent in their home </li></ul><ul><li>Margin of error +/- 3 percentage points </li></ul><ul><li>Survey conducted November 1, 2007 – February 5, 2008 </li></ul>
    5. 5. Major Finding: Nearly all teens play games. <ul><li>97% of teens say they have played video games </li></ul>Creative Commons License, Flickr user fille_de_photo <ul><li>50% played a game “yesterday.” </li></ul><ul><li>86% play on consoles. </li></ul><ul><li>73% play on computers. </li></ul><ul><li>60% play on portable devices. </li></ul><ul><li>48% play on a cell phone. </li></ul>
    6. 6. Who plays games? <ul><li>99% of boys, 94% of girls </li></ul><ul><li>Boys play more often and for longer duration </li></ul><ul><ul><li>39% of boys play daily; 22% of girls do </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>34% of boys play 2+ hours a day; 18% of girls do </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Younger teens play more frequently than older </li></ul><ul><ul><li>54% of 12-14 year-olds play on any given day </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>46% of 15-17 year-olds </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Broadband users play more frequently </li></ul><ul><ul><li>28% of bbd users played “yesterday” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>20% of dial up users did so </li></ul></ul>
    7. 7. The Daily Gamer <ul><li>31% of teens play daily </li></ul><ul><li>More boys than girls (65% boys; 35% girls) </li></ul><ul><li>More younger teens (57% 12-14; 43% 15-17) </li></ul><ul><li>More likely to use portable gaming devices… </li></ul><ul><li>…But just as likely as everyone else to use computer, console or cell phone </li></ul><ul><li>Daily gamers more likely to play with others online (20% vs. 12%) </li></ul><ul><li>Daily gamers are more likely to play games as a part of a guild or group (50% vs. 38%) </li></ul><ul><li>Just as likely to spend time f2f and communicating with friends </li></ul>
    8. 8. Major Finding: Teens play a wide variety of games <ul><li>80% of teens play five or more different game genres, and 40% play eight or more types of games. </li></ul><ul><li>Girls play an average of 6 different game genres; boys average 8 different types. </li></ul>
    9. 9. Game Genres <ul><li>We asked about 14 different game genres </li></ul><ul><li>74% play racing games (NASCAR, Mario Kart) </li></ul><ul><li>72% play puzzle games (Tetris, Solitaire, Bejeweled) </li></ul><ul><li>68% play sports games (Madden, FiFA, Tony Hawk) </li></ul><ul><li>67% play action games (GTA, Devil May Cry, Ratchet & Clank) </li></ul><ul><li>66% play adventure games (Legend of Zelda, Tomb Raider) </li></ul><ul><li>61% play rhythm games (Guitar Hero, DDR) </li></ul><ul><li>59% play strategy games (Civilization, StarCraft) </li></ul><ul><li>49% play simulations (The Sims, Rollercoaster Tycoon) </li></ul><ul><li>More…. </li></ul>
    10. 10. Game Genres, Cont. <ul><li>49% play fighting games (Super Smash Bros, Tekken, Mortal Kombat) </li></ul><ul><li>47% play first person shooters (Halo, Counter-Strike, Half-Life) </li></ul><ul><li>36% play role playing games (Final Fantasy, Knights of the Old Republic) </li></ul><ul><li>32% play survival horror games (Resident Evil, Silent Hill) </li></ul><ul><li>21% play MMOGs </li></ul><ul><li>10% use virtual worlds </li></ul>
    11. 11. MMOGs and Virtual Worlds <ul><li>20% of teens use MMOGs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>30% of boys have played them; 11% of girls </li></ul></ul><ul><li>10% of teens use virtual worlds </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Boys just as likely as girls </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Younger teens more likely than older teens: 13% of 12-14 year olds; 8% of 15-17 year olds. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Daily gamers more likely to play MMOGs and in Virtual worlds </li></ul>Image courtesy of rosefirerising via flickr under creative commons
    12. 12. Games, Genre & Gender <ul><li>Boys play a greater number of genres of games </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Boys average 8 genres, girls 6 genres </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Girls top 5 genres: Puzzle, Racing, Rhythm, Adventure, Sports/Strategy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Boys top 5 genres: Action, Sports, Racing, Adventure, FPS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Genres with equal levels of popularity between boys and girls: Racing games, Rhythm games, Simulations and Virtual worlds. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Daily gamers play a similar range of genres as boys. </li></ul>
    13. 13. Major Finding: Majority of most popular games are not violent The Sims Halo Grand Theft Auto Tetris Madden NFL ‘08 Dance Dance Revolution Solitaire Madden NFL Halo 3 Guitar Hero 10 Most Frequently Played Games
    14. 14. The industry rating system doesn’t always work <ul><li>32% of gaming teens report that at least one of their three favorite games is rated Mature or Adults Only. </li></ul><ul><li>79% of M- and AO-rated game players are boys, and 21% are girls. </li></ul><ul><li>12- to 14-year-olds are equally as likely to play M- or AO-rated games as their 15- to 17-year-old counterparts. </li></ul>
    15. 15. Major Finding: Teens encounter both pro-social and anti-social behavior while gaming <ul><li>78% of teens who play games report they frequently or sometimes see other players being kind and helpful to those who are gaming </li></ul><ul><li>63% report seeing or hearing “people being mean and overly aggressive while playing” </li></ul><ul><li>49% report seeing or hearing “people being hateful, racist, or sexist” while playing </li></ul><ul><li>------------ </li></ul><ul><li>Three quarters of teens who see uncivil behavior regularly see others respond. </li></ul>
    16. 16. Major Finding: Teen gaming is social. Creative Commons License, Flickr user tracer.ca <ul><li>76% play games with others at least some of the time. </li></ul><ul><li>65% play with other people in the room with them. </li></ul><ul><li>27% play with others through the Internet. </li></ul><ul><li>82% play games alone. </li></ul>
    17. 17. Games are social (2) <ul><li>59% of games play in multiple ways </li></ul><ul><ul><li>42% most often play with friends in person </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>15% most often play with friends online </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>42% most often play alone </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Dial up users less likely to play with friends online (6% vs. 19% of bbd users) </li></ul>
    18. 18. Games are social (3) <ul><li>47% of online gamers play mostly with people they know from their community & offline friends </li></ul><ul><li>27% of online gamers only play with people they met online </li></ul><ul><li>23% of online gamers play with a mix of people they met online and people they met offline </li></ul><ul><li>Online gamers are more likely to play in groups – 43% game in a group or guild </li></ul><ul><li>Girls are more likely to play exclusively with people they know from their offline lives. </li></ul><ul><li>MMOG players much more likely to play with others they met online, and play in groups. </li></ul>
    19. 19. Major Finding: Parental monitoring of game play varies. <ul><li>55% of parents say they “always” check a game’s rating before letting their kids play it. </li></ul><ul><li>Parents are more likely to monitor game play for boys and younger children. </li></ul><ul><li>Parental monitoring does not reduce M/AO rated game play or witnessing of anti-social behavior in games. </li></ul>Octoer≈10, 2008 Creative Commons License, Flickr user Reggie fun.
    20. 20. Parental monitoring of game playing varies (2) <ul><li>90% of parents say they always or sometimes know what games their children play. </li></ul><ul><li>72% say they always or sometimes check the ratings before their children are allowed to play a game. </li></ul><ul><li>46% of parents say they always or sometimes stop their kids from playing a game. </li></ul><ul><li>31% of parents say they always or sometimes play games with their children. </li></ul>
    21. 21. Parental views on the impact of games <ul><li>62% of parents of gamers say video games have no effect on their child one way or the other. </li></ul><ul><li>19% of parents of gamers say video games have a positive influence on their child. </li></ul><ul><li>13% of parents of gamers say video games have a negative influence on their child. </li></ul><ul><li>5% of parents of gamers say gaming has some negative influence/some positive influence, but it depends on the game. </li></ul>
    22. 22. Civics – Why is this important? <ul><li>The qualifications of self-governance are not innate. They are the result of habit and long training. </li></ul><ul><li>-- Thomas Jefferson </li></ul>
    23. 23. Civics – Why is this important? <ul><li>Many students lack basic civic knowledge… </li></ul><ul><li>50% could not identify the correct function of the Supreme Court </li></ul><ul><li>33% could not identify either of California’s U.S. Senators from among a list of options (Kahne et al) </li></ul><ul><li>And among adults… </li></ul><ul><li>38% of adults could name the three branches of government </li></ul><ul><li>59% could name the three Stooges </li></ul>
    24. 24. What works? <ul><li>Instruction in Government, History, Econ… </li></ul><ul><li>Discussions of Current Events </li></ul><ul><li>Service Learning </li></ul><ul><li>Extracurricular Activities </li></ul><ul><li>Student Voice in Schools and Classrooms </li></ul><ul><li>Simulations </li></ul><ul><li>36% reported never participating in a role-play or simulation while in high school </li></ul>
    25. 25. Civic Gaming Experiences <ul><li>Playing games where you: </li></ul><ul><li>Help or guide other players </li></ul><ul><li>Think about moral ethical issues </li></ul><ul><li>Learn about a problem in society </li></ul><ul><li>Learn about social issues </li></ul><ul><li>Help make decisions about how a community, city or nation should be run </li></ul><ul><li>Organize or manage game groups or guilds </li></ul>
    26. 26. Democracy
    27. 27. Civilization IV Image courtesy of graye via flickr under creative commons
    28. 28. Major Finding: civic gaming experiences do relate to civic engagement <ul><li>The overall frequency of game play is not related to civic and social isolation. </li></ul><ul><li>But having frequent civic gaming experiences is related to greater levels of civic engagement. </li></ul>
    29. 29. Major Finding: More civic gaming experiences = more civic engagement. * Indicates statistically significant difference when compared with the percent of teens with the fewest civic gaming experiences. Gaming and Civic/Political Life 55 54 53 Volunteer 15* 7 6 Participate in a protest march/demonstration. 34* 23 17 Persuade others how to vote in an election. 60* 59* 49 Stay informed about political issues/current events. 70* 61* 51 Give or raise money for charity. 70* 64* 55 Go online to get information about politics/current events. % of teens with frequent civic gaming experiences % of teens with average civic gaming experiences % if teens with few civic gaming experiences
    30. 30. Major Finding: Social game play correlates with civic engagement. <ul><li>Teens who play games with others in the room exhibit more civic participation. They are more likely to: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Go online to get information about politics </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Raise money for charity </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Be committed to civic participation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Try to persuade others how to vote in an election </li></ul></ul></ul>Creative Commons License, Flickr user sean dreillinger
    31. 31. Major Finding: Social interaction related to games increases engagement. Game players who post to gaming websites or discussion boards are more likely to report they: <ul><li>Are committed to civic participation </li></ul><ul><li>Go online to get information about politics or current events </li></ul><ul><li>Have raised money for charity </li></ul><ul><li>Stay informed about current events </li></ul><ul><li>Are interested in politics </li></ul><ul><li>Have tried to persuade others how to vote in an election </li></ul><ul><li>Have attended a march or protest. </li></ul>
    32. 32. Major Finding : Civic Gaming experiences more equitably distributed <ul><li>Unlike civic experiences in classrooms, which are more likely to be experienced by white, affluent teens… </li></ul><ul><li>… civic gaming experiences are equally distributed among different groups – race/ethnicity, SES, location </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Except gender – girls are less likely to have civic gaming experiences than boys, even controlling for their lower frequency of game play. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>34% of teens have played a video/computer/console game for school or a classroom assignment </li></ul>
    33. 33. Other ways to think about games and learning <ul><li>Not just about game play, but about using games as an engine of creativity, narrative </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Modding </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Machinima </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(Machinima = Machine + Cinema) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>37% of teens have used cheats or game hacks </li></ul><ul><li>28% of teens have used mods to alter a game </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=S1pnYeJgrsc </li></ul>
    34. 34. Takeaways <ul><li>Gaming is nearly universal among teens </li></ul><ul><li>Teens play a wide variety of games that offer many different types of experiences </li></ul><ul><li>Games are a social space for teens </li></ul><ul><li>There are genres of games that are more broadly popular than others, some of which lend themselves to group play. </li></ul><ul><li>Games offer promise for civic teaching and learning </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Playing games with certain mechanics and civic opportunities relates to a greater involvement and engagement with community and politics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Playing games in certain ways (with others, in person) and being engaged in materials and discussion about games also relates to greater levels of civic engagement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>CAVEAT: Findings Not Causal </li></ul></ul>
    35. 35. Full Report @ http://www.pewinternet.org Civics White Paper @ http://www.civicsurvey.org/ Amanda Lenhart Pew Internet & American Life Project [email_address] http://www.pewinternet.org