Data to Live By: Understandingthe Social Media + TechnologyLandscapeMary Madden, Senior ResearcherPew Research Center’s Internet and American Life ProjectLawlor SymposiumSt. Thomas School of LawJune 12, 2013
About Pew Internet• Part of the Pew Research Center, anon-partisan “fact tank” inWashington, DC• Studies how people use digitaltechnologies• Does not promote specifictechnologies or make policyrecommendations• Research is primarily based onnationally representative surveysof adults + teens
1993“headless, anarchic, million-limbed” and “spreading likebread-mold”- Bruce Sterling, describing the internet
2013“a system that you revealyourself to in order to fullyenjoy”“It is a TV that watches you.”-Edward Snowden, describing the internet(Washington Post 6/10/13)
1 Social Media + Tech Use Among Adults2 Facebook Fatigue3 Orgs + Social Media4 Teens, Social Media + Privacy5 Parents + Privacy
Part One: Social Media + TechUse Among AdultsWho uses what?
State of the Internet 201385% of adults are online.Internet adoption still varies greatly by age and education.More than two-thirds ofall adults have broadbandat home.Increasing numbers of adultsare “cell mostly” – relying ontheir phones as a primarypoint of access.
Smartphone ownership over time% of all U.S. adults who own…
Smartphone ownership bydemographic group% within each group who own a smartphoneOwn a smartphoneAll adults (n=2,252) 56%Gendera Men (n=1,029) 59bb Women (n=1,223) 53Agea 18-24 (n=243) 79cdefb 25-34 (n=284) 81cdefc 35-44 (n=292) 69defd 45-54 (n=377) 55efe 55-64 (n=426) 39ff 65+ (n=570) 18Race/ethnicitya White, Non-Hispanic (n=1,571) 53b Black, Non-Hispanic (n=252) 64ac Hispanic (n=249) 60Source: Pew Research Center’s Internet & American Life Project,April 17-May 19, 2013 Tracking Survey. Interviews were conducted inEnglish and Spanish and on landline and cell phones. Margin of erroris +/-2.3 percentage points based on all adults (n=2,252).
How many adults use social media?• 67% of online adults use a socialnetworking site, representing morethan half of the entire adult populationin the U.S.• Young people are the heaviest users ofsocial networking sites (SNS).• Facebook is still the dominantplatform. But other sites attract awider variety of demographic groups.
SNS UsersWhich groups are most likely?• Internet users under 50• 18-29 most likely of any demographiccohort (83%)• Women• Urban more likely than rural
Twitter Users• 16% of internet usersare on Twitterthis has doubled since Nov. 2010Which groups are most likely?• Those under 50, especially 18-29• African-Americans are more likelythan whites• Urban-dwellers
Pinterest Users• 15% of internet usersare on PinterestWhich groups are most likely?• Whites• Under 50 – but 18-29 do not stand out• Well-educated• Higher Income• Women - 5x more likely than men
Instagram Users• 13% of internet users areon InstagramWhich groups are most likely?• Women• Those under 50, especially 18-29• African-Americans and Hispanics morelikely than whites• Urban-dwellers
Tumblr Users• Just 6% of internet usersare on TumblrWhich groups are most likely?• Those 18-29 (13%)
Facebook Users• Facebook remains themost-used SNS platform –two-thirds of online adultsare Facebook users (67%)Which groups are most likely?• Women• Those under 50, especially 18-29
Part Two: Facebook FatigueTaking a break or breaking the habit
Coming and Going on Facebook• Facebook fasting: 61% of current Facebook users say that at one time oranother in the past they have voluntarily taken a break from usingFacebook for a period of several weeks or more.• Facebook dropouts: 20% of the online adults who do not currently useFacebook say they once used the site but no longer do so.• Future Facebook users: 8% of online adults who do not currently useFacebook are interested in becoming Facebook users in the future.
Reasons for Facebook Breaks• 61% of Facebook users have voluntarily taken a multi-week break from thesite in the past. Here’s why:
How important is Facebook to you?• 59% of Facebook users say the social networking site is about as importantto them as it was a year ago. 53% say the amount of time they spend onFacebook is about the same as last year.• 28% of Facebook users say the site has been less important to them thanit was a year ago. 34% of users say the amount of time they spend onFacebook has decreased over the past year.• 12% of Facebook users say the site has become more important to themthan it was a year ago. 13% of users say the amount of time they spendon Facebook has increased over the past year.
• Women are more likely thanmen to report increasedimportance and time spent onFacebook.• 42% of Facebook users ages18-29 and 34% of those ages30-49 say their time spent onFacebook has decreased overthe past year.• Just 23% of Facebook usersover age 50 reporteddecreased Facebook usage.
In the coming year:3% of Facebook users saythey plan to spend moretime on the site.27% say they plan tospend less time on thesite.69% plan to spend thesame amount of time onthe site.Young people are themost likely to say theirtime spent on Facebookwill decrease.
Part Three: Orgs + Social MediaWe’re all in this together…
The social media platforms that arts organizations useSource: Pew Research Center’sInternet & American Life ProjectArts Organizations Survey.Conducted between May 30-July20, 2012. N for respondents whoanswered this question=1,202.
The number of platforms that arts orgs useThe majority of artsorganizations that usesocial media maintainprofiles on at leastfour different socialmedia sites.1021381481531411329570483631169103211 platform2 platforms3 platforms4 platforms5 platforms6 platforms7 platforms8 platforms9 platforms10 platforms11 platforms12 platforms13 platforms14 platforms15 platforms16 platforms17 platforms
What arts organizations do with social media52%65%77%82%0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100%Get feedback from the public or"crowdsource" an ideaLearn more about your audience,patrons, or stakeholdersMonitor what people are sayingabout your organizationEngage with audience memberseither prior to, during, or followingan event
Methodology• Nationally representative phone survey of 802 parents and802 teens ages 12-17 in the same families.• Conducted between July 26 and September 30, 2012 andincluded an oversample of minority families.• Interviews in English and Spanish and on landline and cellphones.• Margin of error for the full sample is ± 4.5 percentage points.
Teens are sharing more informationabout themselves on social media sitesthan they did in the past.7949612929171 7153200102030405060708090100Photo ofyourselfSchool name City or townwhere youliveEmailAddressCell phonenumber20062012Social media profiles: What teens post — 2006 vs. 2012
Teen Twitter use has grown significantly:24% of online teens use Twitter, up from16% in 2011.55%60%65%73%80%81%16%29%47%64%67%8%16% 24%12%16%0%10%20%30%40%50%60%70%80%90%2006 2007 2008 2009 2011 2012Teens - socialnetworking sitesAdults - socialnetworking sitesTeens - TwitterAdults - TwitterTeen and adult use of SNS + Twitter — change over time
Twitter + SNS usage demographicsAmong teen internet usersUse a socialnetworking siteUse TwitterAll teen internet users (n=778) 81% 24%Gendera Boys (n=395) 79 19b Girls (n=383) 84 31aAgea 12-13 (n=234) 65 13b 14-17 (n=544) 89a 30aAge/Gendera Boys, 12-13 (n=118) 64 11b Girls, 12-13 (n=116) 66 14ac Boys, 14-17 (n=277) 85ab 22ad Girls, 14-17 (n=267) 93abc 39abcRace/Ethnicitya White, non-Hispanic (n=535) 81 23b Black, non-Hispanic (n=115) 88 39acc Hispanic (n=84) 77 19Annual Household Incomea Less than $50,000 (n=292) 83 24b $50,000 or more (n=440) 78 24
Where teens have social media profiles or accounts% of teen social media users…2011 2012Facebook 93% 94%Twitter 12 26Instagram n/a 11MySpace 24 7YouTube 6 7Tumblr 2 5Google Plus n/a 3Yahoo (unspecified) 7 2myYearbook 2 *Pinterest n/a 1Gmail n/a 1Meet Me n/a 1Other 8 6Don’t know / Don’t have own profile 2 1
Focus group discussions with teenssuggest that they have waningenthusiasm for Facebook.Male (age 16): “A lot of friends convinced me to make aTwitter. Because everyones saying Facebooks dead.”Teens expressed negative views about:• the increasing adult presence• people sharing excessively• stressful “drama” associated with interactions on the site…but they keep using it because participation is animportant part of overall teenage socializing.
Female (age 19): “Yeah, thats why we go on Twitter andInstagram [instead of Facebook]. My mom doesnt havethat.”Male (age 18): “Facebook doesnt have a limit tocharacters on it. So in Twitter, theres only so much youcan say. On Facebook, they say so many details of thingsthat you dont want to know. Youd be like, are youserious? No one really cares that much.”Female (age 14): "OK, heres something I want to say. Ithink Facebook can be fun, but also its drama central. OnFacebook, people imply things and say things, even just bya like, that they wouldnt say in real life.”
Teens, like adults, are finding waysto “diversify” their social mediaportfolio for different purposes.In some cases, it helps them to compartmentalizesmaller groups of friends and certain kinds ofinteractions.In other cases, the newer platforms are appealing forthe specific features and functionality they offer.
Female (age 15): “I like Tumblr because I don’t have topresent a specific or false image of myself and I don’thave to interact with people I don’t necessarily want totalk to.”Male (age 17): “[Instagram] It’s more safe... It’s lesssocial [than Facebook].”Female (age 17): [Snapchat] “And its just kind of fun.Because its like texting, but you get to use your face asthe emoticon instead of an actual emoticon.”
Most teen FB users keep their profilesprivate and express confidence intheir ability to manage settings.Facebook privacy settingsAmong teen Facebook usersPublic14%PartiallyPrivate25%Private60%Dont know1%
Privatetweets24%Publictweets64%Dontknow12%Tweets: Public or private?Among teen Twitter usersThe majority of teen Twitter usershave public accounts.
Many focus group participants felt theyhad the sharing of personal information“under control”.Male (age 13): “I think my understanding in general,my privacy on the Internet is pretty good.”Female (age 13): “Mine is completely private. Imean, if you want to see my profile, I have to acceptyou.”Female (age 13): “I feel like I kind of just have a filterin my brain. I just know thats not a good idea [topost revealing content].”
Teens take other steps to shape theirreputation, manage their networks, andmask info74% of teen social media users have deleted people from their network orfriends list.59% have deleted or edited something that they posted in the past.53% have deleted comments from others on their profile or account.45% have removed their name from photos that have been tagged toidentify them.31% have deleted or deactivated an entire profile or account.19% have posted updates, comments, photos, or videos that they laterregretted sharing.
The typical (median) teen Facebook userhas 300 friends.1-15027%151-30027%301-60024%601+20%Facebook network sizeAmong teen Facebook users...Don’tknow 2%
98%91% 89%76%70%33%30% 30%0%10%20%30%40%50%60%70%80%90%100%Types of Facebook friends
27%44% 44%65%24%25%31%17%27%23%18%13%21%8% 7% 4%0%10%20%30%40%50%60%70%80%90%100%1-150 friends 151-300 friends 301-600 friends 601+ friendsSeveral times per day Once per day Weekly Less oftenTeens with large FB networks visit SNS with greaterfrequency than those with smaller networks
Teens with large FB networks have profiles on awider range of social media platforms2%11% 12% 12%13%21%32%46%0%20%40%60%80%1-150 friends 151-300 friends301-600 friends 601+ friendsHave Instagram profile Have Twitter profile
Network size vs. network variety% of teen Facebook users with the following number of people in their FB network who are friends with ...All teenFacebookusersn=5881-150friendsn=152(a)151-300friendsn=152(b)301-600friendsn=150(c)601+friendsn=123(d)Friends at school 98 94 99 100a 100aExtended family 91 90 91 92 93Other friends that don’t go to your school 89 78 94a 90a 99acBrothers or sisters 76 76 71 79 80Parents 70 79d 70 69 60Other people you have never met in person 33 19 31 32a 59abcTeachers or coaches 30 18 31a 28 49abcCelebrities, musicians, or athletes 30 18 39a 29 38aSource: Pew Internet Parent/Teen Privacy Survey, July 26-September 30, 2012. n=802 teens ages 12-17. Interviews wereconducted in English and Spanish and on landline and cell phones. Margin of error for results based on teen Facebookusers is +/- 5.3 percentage points.
Teen social media users do not express ahigh level of concern about third-partyaccess to their data; just 9% say they are“very” concerned.Focus group findings suggest that some teens havemixed feelings about advertising practices and may nothave a good sense of whether the info they share onSNS is being used by third parties.
In broad measures of online experience,teens are considerably more likely toreport positive experiences than negativeones.52% of online teens say they have had an experience onlinethat made them feel good about themselves.17% of online teens report some kind of contact that madethem feel scared or uncomfortable (24% girls vs. 10% for boys).4% of online teens say they have shared sensitive informationonline that later caused a problem for themselves or othermembers of their family.4% have posted information online that got them in trouble atschool.
Parental Concerns81% are concerned about how much information advertisers canlearn about their child’s online behavior.72% are concerned about how their child interacts online withpeople they do not know.70% are concerned that their child’s online activity might affecttheir future academic or employment opportunities.69% are concerned about the way their child manages theirreputation online.*All questions asked of parents of online teens
Parental Concern – variations by issue81171591812161026352019444649530 20 40 60 80 100Impact on Future OpportunitiesInformation Available to AdvertisersReputation ManagementInteraction with Strangers Online% of parents with online teensDoes not apply (VOL)Not at all concernedNot too concernedSomewhat concernedVery concerned
Parental Concern – variations by ageParents of younger teens (12-13) tend to be more concerned abouttheir children’s online presence than parents of older teens (14-17)when considering:• How their child interacts with people they do not know online(63% of parents of younger teens vs. 48% of parents of older teensare very concerned)• How their child manages his or her reputation online(57% of parents of younger teens vs. 45% of parents of older teensare very concerned)
Parental Concern – other variations• Strangers – Parents living in households with an annual income of<$30K are significantly less concerned about their children’s onlineinteraction with people their child does not know than parents inhigher income households. (39% vs. 57%)• Advertisers – 62% of African-American parents are“very concerned” about information advertisers can gather abouttheir children online, compared with 47% of white parents.• Future Opportunities – African-American parents are also morelikely than white parents to express concern about how their child’sonline activity might affect future academic and job opportunities(59% vs. 41%).
Parent Use of Social MediaA growing number of parents are becoming social media users:• 66% of parents say they use SNS, up from 58% in 2011.• 82% of parents under age 40 say they use SNS, while only 61% of parentsover age 40 use the sites.• Mothers and fathers are equally likely to use SNS, but parents who arecollege-educated are bigger users of social media.• And many are interacting with their children on the sites…
Parental Controls – 50%White parents, those with higher incomeand education levels are more likely thanother groups to use parental controls.These trends are consistent with 2011results, except for a notable decreaseamong African-American parents (61% in2011, 31% today).
Talked w/ teen about profile – 46%Among parents of teen SNS users, 59% have done this:• Parents who use social media are more likely to talk with their teens abouttheir online activities than parents who are not SNS users. (65% vs. 45%)Striking lack of variation across groups:• Conversations prompted by concerns over social media content areequally prevalent among a wide array of parents from differentbackgrounds and ages.
Searched for child’s name – 42%43442548326101020304050607012 13 14 15 16 17Childs AgeSearched for Child’s Name, by Age%of parents with online teensParents are more likely to search for results connectedto their child’s name once he or she turns 17.
Helped with privacy settings – 31%(39% among parents of teen SNSusers)Parents with younger teens, whiteparents, and parents living in thehighest-income households ($75K+/yr)are more likely to help their children setup privacy settings.
Parent Posting on Teen Profile(OMG!)• 50% of parents who use SNS (and have teens onSNS) say they have commented or respondeddirectly to something that was posted to their child’sprofile or account.• Moms and Dads do this in equal numbers. Noclear variations by the age or gender of the child oracross various socio-economic groups.
Takeaways• Teens and parents are deeply engaged with social media, butplatform preferences will always be shifting.• Optimizing for mobile will become an increasingly importantpriority for many institutions. Expect more “just-in-time”searches.• Privacy will always be complicated (not an on/off switch).Teens and young adults do care about privacy, but perhapsnot in the same way you do.• We’ll all get more comfortable with mixed messages formultiple audiences. Assume a mix of “continuous partialattention”+ info snacking with motivated deep dives.• “Meat space” is still an important meeting space. Sometimesseeing is believing (and nothing else will do).
Where we live: Pew Internet• Twitter: https://twitter.com/pewinternet;@pewinternet• Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/pewinternet• Tumblr: http://pewinternet.tumblr.com/• Slideshare: http://www.slideshare.net/PewInternet• Google+:https://plus.google.com/115622082336717197010/posts• YouTube:https://www.youtube.com/user/PewResearchCenter