Cyberbullying 2010: What the Research Tells Us

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An updated look at the research and definitions around bullying and cyberbullying. Presented to the Youth Online Safety Working Group assembled by NCMEC, this talk unpacks both what current research …

An updated look at the research and definitions around bullying and cyberbullying. Presented to the Youth Online Safety Working Group assembled by NCMEC, this talk unpacks both what current research can tell us about cyberbullying as well as where the gaps our understanding of this issue lie.

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  • Mariana, the information about the survey is included in the second slide in the presentation.
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  • I am writing a paper and i am supposed to cite m information. just want to know where you got our the information from the 'teen internet basics and 'how else are teens connecting' slides. i know you give the sources in the very beginning but i need to know specifically. Thanks so much and great presentation!!
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  • The figures seem accurate to what I thought and talking with adolescents. Its pretty incredible how much they rely on the internet rather than teachers, parents or others for information. I guess our role is to interpret and synthesize what they read rather than give infomation
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  • In order for us to create the most effective and targeted solutions, we have to know the exact nature of the problem.
  • Patchwork of research – different definitions of cyberbullying make cross-study comparisons difficult. Methods vary considerably – each has something to tell us.
  • Library access and CELL PHONE ACCESS is particularly important to African American, and to a lesser extent English-Speaking Hispanic students. One quarter of low income teens (HHI under $30K) and 25% of African American teens say they go online most often from school, compared to 15% of online teens overall. Fewer low SES and African American teens go online daily 53% of af-am, vs 67% of white teens 75% of high income teens go online daily, compared to 39% of low SES teens. Slight decrease in teens going online from home since we first asked – broader use/access and also wide variety of access points/mobile access.
  • Not just email, IM, but social networks, mobile devices and gaming platforms are all used to connect, talk and interact with others. And thus also may become platforms for bullying, too. This is where teens are - particularly outside of school - online, connected to each other by various means at all times.
  • Online safety concerns breakdown roughly into two parts – concerns over harmful contact and concern over harmful content. What we’re focusing on here today is online CONTACT, rather than content and specifically, online bullying aka cyberbullying.
  • Definition of bullying downloaded from http://olweus.org/public/bullying.page on May 12, 2009 and is also contained in Dan Olweus’ 1993 book “Bullying at School”: Olweus D. Bullying at School: What We Know and What We Can Do. Blackwell Publishing: Hoboken, NJ, 1993
  • Source: Willard, N. Cyberbullying & Cyberthreats: Responding to the Challenge of Electronic Aggression. Center for Safe and Responsible Internet use: Eugene, OR. 2006. Retrieved from http://www.csriu.org on May 11, 2009. Online – identity can be shrouded. Youth who are physically bullied can/do retaliate online. Can be hard to determine who instigated and where. These are the “bully-victims” and the “instigator-victims.” Other definitions of cyberbullying used in major research projects on the topic: “willful use of the Internet as a technological medium through which harm or discomfort is intentionally and repeatedly inflicted through indirect aggression that targets a specific person or group of persons.” (Williams and Guerra, 2007) “an overt, intentional act of aggression towards another person online” (19% of young and regular internet users reported experiencing this) (Ybarra, & Mitchell, 2004) “Willful and repeated harm inflicted through the medium of electronic text.” (Patchin & Hinduja, 2006)
  • Invasive – computer and the internet bring the bullying into the sphere of the home, and cell phones, which are generally personal devices carried everywhere, mean that the bullying never stops.
  • Pew data is measuring online harassment, as our questions did not ask about repetition or power imbalance. 15% had private comm forwarded with out permission 13% had a rumor spread about them 13% received a threatening message or comm 6% had embarrassing picture posted w/out permission Limitations: we missed a big one Missing spoofed/faked profile But Teens are also endlessly creative when it comes to bullying (and many other things) e.g., Text bombing=when a person sends 1000 of texts to one number… can be difficult to block, must pay for each text – can run up $100s in bills & makes it impossible to receive communication from others. Bullying in games – e.g., killing a player’s character quickly and repeatedly so gamer can’t play the game. Sources in this slide: Lenhart, A. (2007) Cyberbullying. Pew Internet & American Life Project, Washington, DC. http://www.pewinternet.org/Reports/2007/Cyberbullying.aspx Lenhart, A., et al. (2010) Teens and Mobile Phones. Pew Research Center’s Internet & American Life Project. Washington, DC. http://www.pewinternet.org/Reports/2010/Teens-and-Mobile-Phones.aspx
  • Lenhart, A et al. (2010) Teens and Mobile Phones. Pew Research Center’s Internet & American Life Project. Washington, DC. http://www.pewinternet.org/Reports/2010/Teens-and-Mobile-Phones.aspx p. 86
  • 9% data point is from: Wolak J, Mitchell KJ and Finkelhor D. Does Online Harassment Constitute Bullying? An Exploration of Online Harassment by Known Peers and Online-Only Contacts. J Adolescent Health. 2007 Dec: 41 S51-S58 33% data point is from: Ybarra M, Mitchell KJ, Espelage D. A comparison of bullying online and offline: Findings from a national survey. Presented to AERA Annual Meeting, April 16, 2009. [presentation] Lenhart, A. Cyberbullying. Pew Internet & American Life Project:Washington, DC. 2007. Available from http://www.pewinternet.org/Reports/2007/Cyberbullying.aspx Hinduja S and Patchin JW. Cyberbullying: an exploratory analysis of factors related to offending and victimization. J Deviant Behavior 2008;29: 129-156. Data unclear on likelihood of victims knowing perpetrator – 45-89% say they know who is harassing them. No major differences in SES, race/ethnicity, parent education in likelihood of being harassed online. (Pew 2007 data)
  • Slide source: Ybarra M, Mitchell KJ, Espelage D. A comparison of bullying online and offline: Findings from a national survey. Presented to AERA Annual Meeting, April 16, 2009. [presentation]
  • Lenhart, A. Cyberbullying. Pew Internet & American Life Project:Washington, DC. 2007. Available from http://www.pewinternet.org/Reports/2007/Cyberbullying.aspx Worth noting: Journal of Adolescent Health December 2007 issue has a special issue entirely devoted to research on Cyberbullying. Other research points to girls as more likely victims, or to boys and girls experiencing online bullying and harassment equally. (Wolak et al, 2007) – answers here not 100% conclusive. Ybarra data suggests that bullying does happen more at school than online. See following slide…
  • Source: Ybarra M, Mitchell KJ, Espelage D. A comparison of bullying online and offline: Findings from a national survey. Presented to AERA Annual Meeting, April 16, 2009. [presentation]
  • Ybarra M, Mitchell KJ, Wolak J, Finkelhor D. Examining characteristics and associated distress related to Internet harassment: Findings from the Second Youth Internet Safety Survey. Pediatrics. 2006. 118A(4):e1169-1177. Ybarra ML, Diener-West M, Leaf PJ. Examining the overlap in internet harassment and school bullying: implications for school intervention. J Adolescent Health. 2007 Dec;41(6 Suppl 1):S42-50. Ybarra ML. Linkages between depressive symptomatology and Internet harassment among young regular Internet users. Cyberpsychol Behav. 2004 Apr;7(2):247-57.
  • These are the “concurrent psychosocial problems” from Ybarra’s work. Source info for statements above: (see previous slides or bibliography for full cites) Bullying is broadly associated with: School violence – (Olweus, 2009 website ) Delinquency – (Hinduja & Patchin, 2007) Suicidal ideation (Hinduja & Patchin, in press @ Archives of Suicide Research) Depression and other psychological problems (Ybarra, 2007, Wolak, 2007) Substance abuse (Ybarra, 2007, Wolak, 2007) Delinquency / School avoidance (Hinduja & Patchin, 2007) Weapon-carrying (Nansel, 2003) Poor parent/caregiver relationships/offline victimization (Ybarra, 2007, Wolak, 2006)
  • Wolak J, Mitchell KJ and Finkelhor D. Does Online Harassment Constitute Bullying? An Exploration of Online Harassment by Known Peers and Online-Only Contacts. J Adolescent Health. 2007 Dec: 41 S51-S58 Ybarra M, Mitchell KJ, Wolak J, Finkelhor D. Examining characteristics and associated distress related to Internet harassment: Findings from the Second Youth Internet Safety Survey. Pediatrics. 2006. 118A(4):e1169-1177.
  • Ybarra, Michele. (2010) “ Youth Internet Victimization: Myths and Truths,” [Presentation] NASPAG conference, Las Vegas, April 15, 2010 http://is4k.com/wp-content/uploads/2010/04/NASPAG_2010_Las-Vegas-NV2.pdf
  • Ybarra, Michele. (2010) “ Youth Internet Victimization: Myths and Truths,” [Presentation] NASPAG conference, Las Vegas, April 15, 2010 http://is4k.com/wp-content/uploads/2010/04/NASPAG_2010_Las-Vegas-NV2.pdf
  • Lenhart, A et al. (2010) Teens and Mobile Phones. Pew Research Center’s Internet & American Life Project. Washington, DC. http://www.pewinternet.org/Reports/2010/Teens-and-Mobile-Phones.aspx
  • Lenhart, A. (2009) Teens and Sexting. Pew Research Center’s Internet & American Life Project. Washington, DC. http://www.pewinternet.org/Reports/2009/Teens-and-Sexting.aspx
  • Lenhart, A. (2009) Teens and Sexting. Pew Research Center’s Internet & American Life Project. Washington, DC. http://www.pewinternet.org/Reports/2009/Teens-and-Sexting.aspx
  • Lenhart, A. (2009) Teens and Sexting. Pew Research Center’s Internet & American Life Project. Washington, DC. http://www.pewinternet.org/Reports/2009/Teens-and-Sexting.aspx
  • Lenhart, A. (2009) Teens and Sexting. Pew Research Center’s Internet & American Life Project. Washington, DC. http://www.pewinternet.org/Reports/2009/Teens-and-Sexting.aspx
  • Lenhart, A. (2009) Teens and Sexting. Pew Research Center’s Internet & American Life Project. Washington, DC. http://www.pewinternet.org/Reports/2009/Teens-and-Sexting.aspx
  • Bibliography: Burgess-Proctor A, Patchin JW, and Hinduja S. Cyberbullying and Online Harassment: Reconceptualizing the victimization of adolescent girls in V. Garcia and J. Clifford [Eds.]. Female crime victims: Reality reconsidered . Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall. 2008 Hinduja S and Patchin JW. Cyberbullying: an exploratory analysis of factors related to offending and victimization. J Deviant Behavior 2008;29: 129-156 Hinduja S and Patchin JW. Offline Consequences of Online Victimization: School Violence and Delinquency. J School Violence 2007;6(3): 89-112 Lenhart, A. Cyberbullying. Pew Internet & American Life Project:Washington, DC. 2007. Available from http://www.pewinternet.org. Lenhart, A. Teens and Sexting. Pew Research Center’s Internet & American Life Project. Washington, DC. (2009) http://www.pewinternet.org/Reports/2009/Teens-and-Sexting.aspx Lenhart, A et al. Teens and Mobile Phones. Pew Research Center’s Internet & American Life Project. Washington, DC.(2010) http://www.pewinternet.org/Reports/2010/Teens-and-Mobile-Phones.aspx Nansel TR, Overpeck M, Pilla RS et al. Bullying behaviors among U.S. youth: Prevalence and association with psychological adjustment. JAMA 2001;285: 2094-2100. Olweus D. Bullying at School: What We Know and What We Can Do. Blackwell Publishing: Hoboken, NJ, 1993. Material downloaded from http://olweus.org/public/bullying.page on May 11, 2009. Palfrey J, Sacco D, boyd d, Debonis D. Enhancing Child Online Safety: Final Report of the Internet Safety Technical Taskforce to the multi-state working group on social networking of United States Attorneys General. Berkman Center for Internet & Society at Harvard University:Cambridge, MA. December 31, 2008. pp. 22-28. Available online at http://cyber.law.harvard.edu/publications/2009/ISTTF_Final_Report Patchin JW and Hinduja S. Bullies Move Beyond the Schoolyard: A Preliminary Look at Cyberbullying. Youth Violence and Juvenile Justice 2006;4: 148-169. Willard, N. Cyberbullying & Cyberthreats: Responding to the Challenge of Electronic Aggression. Center for Safe and Responsible Internet use: Eugene, OR. 2006. Retrieved from http://www.csriu.org on May 11, 2009. Williams KR and Guerra NG. Prevalence and Predictors of Internet Bullying. J Adolescent Health. 2007 Dec: 41 S14-S21. Wolak J, Mitchell KJ and Finkelhor D. Does Online Harassment Constitute Bullying? An Exploration of Online Harassment by Known Peers and Online-Only Contacts. J Adolescent Health. 2007 Dec: 41 S51-S58 Ybarra M, Mitchell KJ, Espelage D. A comparison of bullying online and offline: Findings from a national survey. Presented to AERA Annual Meeting, April 16, 2009. [presentation] Ybarra M, Espelage DL, Mitchell KJ. The Co-occurrence of Internet Harassment and Unwanted Sexual Solicitation Victimization and Perpetration: Associations with Psychosocial Indicators. J Adolescent Health 2007: 41: S31-S41 Ybarra ML, Diener-West M, Leaf PJ. Examining the overlap in internet harassment and school bullying: implications for school intervention. J Adolescent Health. 2007a Dec:41(6 Suppl 1):S42-50. Ybarra M, Mitchell KJ, Wolak J, Finkelhor D. Examining characteristics and associated distress related to Internet harassment: Findings from the Second Youth Internet Safety Survey. Pediatrics. 2006. 118A(4):e1169-1177. Ybarra ML. Linkages between depressive symptomatology and Internet harassment among young regular Internet users. Cyberpsychol Behav. 2004 Apr;7(2):247-57.

Transcript

  • 1. Cyberbullying What the research is telling us… Amanda Lenhart Youth Online Safety Working Group May 6, 2010 Washington, DC
  • 2. Sources & Methodology
    • Pew: Interviewed 800 parent-child pairs in Sept 2009, 700 parent-child pairs in November 2007 and 935 parent – child pairs in Oct-Nov 2006
    • Teens ages 12-17
    • Nationally representative sample
    • -------------
    • Journal of Adolescent Health Special Issue (2007)
    • UNH Crimes Against Children Research Center data (YISS-1 & YISS-2) (Wolak, Finkelhor et al)
    • Internet Solutions for Kids (Growing up with Media)(Ybarra et al)
    • Hinduja & Patchin
  • 3. Teen internet use basics
    • 93% of teens 12-17 go online
    • 63% of online teens go online daily
    • 89% of online teens go online from home, and most of them go online from home most often
    • 77% of teen go online at school
    • 71% go online from friends or relatives house
    • 60% go online from a library
    • 27% go online on their mobile phone
    • 76% of households with teens go online via broadband, 10% via dial up, and 12% do not have access at home.
  • 4. What are teens doing online?
    • 94% go online to do research for school assignments; 48% do so on a typical day.
    • 81% go to websites about movies, TV shows, music groups, or sports stars
    • 64% of online teens have created some kind of content online
    • 62% go online to get news
    • 57% have watched a video on a video-sharing site like YouTube or GoogleVideo
    • 55% go online to get information about a college, university or other school that they are thinking about attending.
    • 48% have bought something online like books, clothes or music
    • 31% have looked online for health, dieting or physical fitness information; 17% have looked online for sensitive health information
  • 5. How else are teens connecting?
    • 75% of teens have a cell phone
      • No gender or race/ethnic differences in ownership
      • 50% of teens with phones talk to friends daily
      • 54% of teens send text messages daily
      • 27% use their phone to go online
    • 73% of teens use an online social network site
      • 37% of SNS users send messages through social networks daily
    • 80% of teens have a game console
    • 51% of teens have a portable gaming device
      • Teens connect and interact with others online through games
  • 6. Concerns in Online Safety Sphere
    • Inappropriate contact
      • Strangers
      • Bullies
    • Inappropriate content
      • Accidental Exposure
      • Deliberate Exposure
  • 7. Bullying
    • Olweus (1993)
    • “ A person is bullied when he or she is exposed, repeatedly and over time, to negative actions on the part of one or more other persons, and he or she has difficulty defending himself or herself."
    • This definition includes three important components:
    • 1. Bullying is aggressive behavior that involves unwanted, negative actions.
    • 2. Bullying involves a pattern of behavior repeated over time
    • 3. Bullying involves an imbalance of power or strength.”
    • Bullying
      • Physical
      • Relational/Verbal
      • -Internet
  • 8. Online Harassment & Cyberbullying
    • Online harassment: aggressive behavior, “harm doing,” insults, denigration, impersonation, exclusion, outing, activities associated with hacking – stealing information, breaking into accounts, damaging websites, profiles etc. (Willard, 2006)
    • Cyberbullying: online harassment that is
      • repeated over time
      • Involves a power imbalance between a perpetrator and a victim. Power imbalance may be differences in online skills.
    • Other complicating factor -- perpetrators are also often victims, sometimes online, sometimes elsewhere. Internet bullying can be particularly hard to disentangle. (Willard, 2006)
  • 9. What makes online harassment & bullying different?
    • Technology is vehicle
    • Persistence of content
      • Editable, alterable
    • Distributability of content
      • Speed
      • Breadth
    • Dis-inhibition over computer-mediated communication
    • Invasive
  • 10. Pew Internet: Online Harassment
    • 32% of online teens have experienced one of the following forms of online harassment:
      • 15% of teens reported having private material (IM, txt, email) forwarded without permission
      • 13% had received threatening messages
      • 13% said someone had spread a rumor about them online
      • 6% had someone post an embarrassing picture of them online without permission
      • (Lenhart, 2007)
    • 26% of teens have been harassed via their cell phones either by voice or text
      • (Lenhart, 2010)
  • 11.  
  • 12. Cyberbullying
    • Other research shows prevalence of cyberbullying or online harassment between 9% and 33% of youth ages 10-18. (Wolak et al, 2007, Ybarra et al, 2007)
    • Much of the difference is definitional and depends on how the question was asked. Specific activities often yield higher levels of response than blanket definitions.
    • Mid-teens (ages 14-17) is the age of greatest prevalence of online harassment & bullying (Pew, 2007, Hinduja & Patchin, 2008)
    • Perpetrators of online bullying (similar to offline bullying) are generally the same age as their victim. (Wolak, 2007)
  • 13. Frequency of bullying victimization among 11-16 year olds ( n =1,193) (Ybarra, 2009)
  • 14. Online Harassment (2)
    • Girls, particularly older girls, report more online harassment; 38% of all online girls reported experiencing some type of harassment (Pew, 2007)
    • Social network users are also more likely to report online harassment – 39% of SNS users have experience it. (Pew, 2007)
    • But most teens (67%) think bullying & harassment happens more OFFLINE. (Pew, 2007)
  • 15. Frequency of bullying victimization among 11-16 year olds by environment ( n =1,193) (Ybarra, 2009)
  • 16. Online (or not) Harassment
    • School is by far the most common place youth report being bullied (31%) versus elsewhere (e.g., 13% online)
    • The prevalence rate of Internet harassment (both perpetration and victimization) appears to be stable (2006-2008) .
    • The majority (59%) of Internet harassment comes from other minors
    • Youth who report being harassed online report a myriad of concurrent psychosocial problems offline, too
    • Source: Michele Ybarra & colleagues work on the 2005 Youth Internet Safety Survey fielded by UNH CCRC & 2007-2008 Growing up with Media research funded by the CDC.
  • 17. Why should we worry?
    • Bullying is broadly associated with:
      • School violence
      • Delinquency
      • Suicidal ideation
    • Bullied teens (and often bullies themselves) have higher levels of:
      • Depression and other psychological problems
      • Substance abuse
      • Delinquency / School avoidance
      • Weapon-carrying
      • Poor parent/caregiver relationships
      • Offline victimization/sexual abuse/physical abuse
  • 18. Why should we worry (2)?
    • Some research suggests that significant portions of teens aren’t bothered by online harassment or bullying
    • Research suggests that 1/3 of teens (34%) are distressed by online harassment. (Wolak et al, 2007)
      • Distressed = “Extremely or very upset or afraid”
    • Teens who are high internet users are more likely to be distressed (Wolak, 2007)
  • 19. Overlap of cyberbullying & internet victimization (Ybarra, 2010)
  • 20. Differences between cyberbullying & internet harassment
    • Cyberbullying is not more common than Internet harassment
    • On average (between 2007-2008): 37% were harassed, 14% were bullied online in the past year
    • Cyberbullying is not more damaging than Internet harassment
    • Among those cyberbullied, 15% report being very / extremely upset
    • Among those harassed, between 17-34% report being very / extremely upset
  • 21. Cell phone-based harassment
    • 75% of teens have cell phones
    • 54% of all teens text message daily
    • 26% have been harassed through their cell phone by voice calls or text messages
    • 47% have sent a text message they regretted sending
    • And then there’s sexting – which is generally not a form of harassment itself, but when the images are shared, can lead to harassment and bullying.
  • 22.  
  • 23. Sending Sexts
    • No difference by gender
    • Oldest teens most likely to have sent
      • 8% of 17 year olds
      • 4% of 12 year olds
    • 17% who pay for all the costs of the phone send sexts vs. 3% of others
  • 24. Receiving Sexts
    • Again, no gender differences and increases by age
      • 4% of 12 year olds
      • 20% of 16 year olds
      • 30% of 17 year olds
    • Sending texts, having unlimited texting plan increases receipt
  • 25. Sexting Scenarios
    • Between two romantic partners, as a part of, instead of, or as a prelude to sex – never leaves couple
    • Between two romantic partners – but shared with others
    • Between two people where at least one would like to be in a relationship – shows interest
  • 26. Element of coercion for some sexting
    • “ When I was about 14-15 years old, I received/sent these types of pictures. Boys usually ask for them or start that type of conversation. My boyfriend, or someone I really liked asked for them. And I felt like if I didn’t do it, they wouldn’t continue to talk to me. At the time, it was no big deal. But now looking back it was definitely inappropriate and over the line.” - 17 year old girl
  • 27. Summary
    • Somewhere between 1/10 th and 1/3 rd of teens are being bullied online
    • Bullying still happens more offline – at school – than online.
    • For the majority of teens, it isn’t distressing, but for a minority, cyberbullying is extremely serious and paired with major problems that can affect their lives, their schools and their community.
    • Venues for bullying have diversified, and with it comes increased visibility. But impulse behind behaviors hasn’t changed – just the vehicle.
  • 28. Final Thoughts
    • Need more high-quality, national data on this issue.
    • Coordination in the definitions of cyberbullying.
    • When thinking about solutions, important to remember that bullying crosses boundaries – it’s everywhere that children are
    • Stay tuned for more work from Growing up with Media study (Ybarra - CDC) and research on cyberbullying and suicide by Hinduja & Patchin
  • 29. THANK YOU Amanda Lenhart Pew Internet & American Life Project http://www.pewinternet.org Twitter: @amanda_lenhart