Effects of the termination of non-therapeutic antimicrobials (NTA) on overall drug usage, resistance and productivity in t...
Development in pig herd structure in Denmark<br />Denmark has<br />The world’s largest export of pork<br />Highly modern p...
 World Pig meat Production 2008<br />(m tonnes)<br />Denmark has<br /><ul><li> The world’s largest export of pork
 Highly modern production
 Well educated farmers
 High level of animal welfare, hygiene and management
 80% increase in production in 20 years</li></li></ul><li>The Danish broiler production<br />Rotations<br />Broilers are i...
Termination of non-therapeutic antimicrobial (NTA) use in Denmark <br />In 1995, the Danish Minister for Food, Agriculture...
Antimicrobial use in Danish swine production<br />No sales profit<br />Avoparcin ban<br />Virginiamycin<br />ban<br />Ban ...
Comparisons of tetracycline and macrolide consumption in danish pig production 1992-2008<br />
Production of poultry and consumption of NTA and therapeutic antimicrobials<br />
Consumption of antimicrobials in Denmark<br />
Consumption of antimicrobials in Denmark and the USA<br />* Based on data from Animal Health Institute and USDA<br />
Effects on resistance<br />The purpose of the interventions were to reduce a reservoir of antimicrobial resistance in food...
Occurrence of VRE<br />Avoparcin consumption and resistanceto avoparcin among E. faecium<br />
Macrolide consumption and resistance  to macrolides among entorococci from pigs<br />
Macrolide consumption and resistance  to macrolides among Campylobacter coli from pigs<br />
Macrolide consumption and resistance to macrolides among Staphylococcus hyicus from pigs<br />
Virginiamycin consumption and resistance  to virginiamycin among E. faecium from pigs and broilers<br />
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Effects of the termination of non-therapeutic antimicrobials on the Danish swine and broiler industry

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Hanne-Dorthe Emborg, DVM, PhD
National Food Institute, Technical University of Denmark

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Effects of the termination of non-therapeutic antimicrobials on the Danish swine and broiler industry

  1. 1. Effects of the termination of non-therapeutic antimicrobials (NTA) on overall drug usage, resistance and productivity in the Danish swine and broiler industry<br />Hanne-Dorthe Emborg, DVM, PhD <br />National Food Institute, Technical University of Denmark<br />
  2. 2. Development in pig herd structure in Denmark<br />Denmark has<br />The world’s largest export of pork<br />Highly modern production <br />Well educated farmers<br />High level of animal welfare, hygiene and management<br />80% increase in production in 20 years<br />
  3. 3. World Pig meat Production 2008<br />(m tonnes)<br />Denmark has<br /><ul><li> The world’s largest export of pork
  4. 4. Highly modern production
  5. 5. Well educated farmers
  6. 6. High level of animal welfare, hygiene and management
  7. 7. 80% increase in production in 20 years</li></li></ul><li>The Danish broiler production<br />Rotations<br />Broilers are intensively raised with several flocks produced per house per year<br />All-in/all-out production<br />Modern production with high levels of hygiene, welfare and management<br />From 1990 to 2008 the production increased from 116 million kg to 186 million kg, a 38% increase<br />From 1993 to 2008 the average number of broilers produced pr farm pr year increased by 49% <br />
  8. 8. Termination of non-therapeutic antimicrobial (NTA) use in Denmark <br />In 1995, the Danish Minister for Food, Agriculture and Fisheries banned the glycopeptideavoparcin<br />In 1997, avoparcin was suspended in EU<br />In 1998, virginiamycin, a streptogramin, was banned in Denmark <br />Early 1998, the Danish cattle and broiler industries voluntarily decided to stopped all use of NTA’s, and the pig industry stopped all use of NTA’s in pigs over 35 kg (Fines imposed on those not agreeing to phase out.)<br />In July 1999, 4 NTA’s were suspended in EU: spiramycin, tylosin, bacitracin and virginiamycin<br />In 1999, EU banned olaquindox and carbadox due to toxicity to humans <br />The remaining use of NTA’s in Danish pigs was voluntarily phased out during 1999 (Fines imposed on those not agreeing to phase out.)<br />In the European Union, all NTA’s were phased out by the end of 2005 <br />
  9. 9. Antimicrobial use in Danish swine production<br />No sales profit<br />Avoparcin ban<br />Virginiamycin<br />ban<br />Ban on NTA use<br />for finishing pigs<br />Ban on NTA use<br />for weaning pigs<br />NTA<br />
  10. 10. Comparisons of tetracycline and macrolide consumption in danish pig production 1992-2008<br />
  11. 11. Production of poultry and consumption of NTA and therapeutic antimicrobials<br />
  12. 12. Consumption of antimicrobials in Denmark<br />
  13. 13. Consumption of antimicrobials in Denmark and the USA<br />* Based on data from Animal Health Institute and USDA<br />
  14. 14. Effects on resistance<br />The purpose of the interventions were to reduce a reservoir of antimicrobial resistance in food animals<br />The NTA’s used in Europe had mainly activity against Gram positive bacteria. Thus, susceptibility in Salmonella and E. coli are not relevant as an indicator for NTA termination<br />
  15. 15. Occurrence of VRE<br />Avoparcin consumption and resistanceto avoparcin among E. faecium<br />
  16. 16. Macrolide consumption and resistance to macrolides among entorococci from pigs<br />
  17. 17. Macrolide consumption and resistance to macrolides among Campylobacter coli from pigs<br />
  18. 18. Macrolide consumption and resistance to macrolides among Staphylococcus hyicus from pigs<br />
  19. 19. Virginiamycin consumption and resistance to virginiamycin among E. faecium from pigs and broilers<br />
  20. 20. Conclusions<br />Major increase in Danish food animal production<br />Total antimicrobial consumption reduced from 100 to 49 mg/kg (51%) from 1992 to 2008<br />Major reductions in resistance to the antimicrobial agents which were reduced, among animal pathogens, indicator bacteria and zoonotic bacteria<br />
  21. 21. Broiler productionPercent dead broilers in total (Nov. 1995 – June 2002)<br />NTA stop<br />Data: Danish Poultry Council<br />
  22. 22. Temporal association between NTA termination in weaners and productivity measures in weaners<br />Data: National Committee for pig production<br />
  23. 23. Conclusions<br />The NTA stop had minor influence on the productivity in both the broiler and the pig production<br />Economic impact <br /><ul><li>No impact in the broiler production</li></ul>Short term impact on number of pigs treated for diarrhoea in a minor part of the herds, after that no economic impact<br />

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