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Effects of the termination of non-therapeutic antimicrobials on the Danish swine and broiler industry
Effects of the termination of non-therapeutic antimicrobials on the Danish swine and broiler industry
Effects of the termination of non-therapeutic antimicrobials on the Danish swine and broiler industry
Effects of the termination of non-therapeutic antimicrobials on the Danish swine and broiler industry
Effects of the termination of non-therapeutic antimicrobials on the Danish swine and broiler industry
Effects of the termination of non-therapeutic antimicrobials on the Danish swine and broiler industry
Effects of the termination of non-therapeutic antimicrobials on the Danish swine and broiler industry
Effects of the termination of non-therapeutic antimicrobials on the Danish swine and broiler industry
Effects of the termination of non-therapeutic antimicrobials on the Danish swine and broiler industry
Effects of the termination of non-therapeutic antimicrobials on the Danish swine and broiler industry
Effects of the termination of non-therapeutic antimicrobials on the Danish swine and broiler industry
Effects of the termination of non-therapeutic antimicrobials on the Danish swine and broiler industry
Effects of the termination of non-therapeutic antimicrobials on the Danish swine and broiler industry
Effects of the termination of non-therapeutic antimicrobials on the Danish swine and broiler industry
Effects of the termination of non-therapeutic antimicrobials on the Danish swine and broiler industry
Effects of the termination of non-therapeutic antimicrobials on the Danish swine and broiler industry
Effects of the termination of non-therapeutic antimicrobials on the Danish swine and broiler industry
Effects of the termination of non-therapeutic antimicrobials on the Danish swine and broiler industry
Effects of the termination of non-therapeutic antimicrobials on the Danish swine and broiler industry
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Effects of the termination of non-therapeutic antimicrobials on the Danish swine and broiler industry

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Hanne-Dorthe Emborg, DVM, PhD …

Hanne-Dorthe Emborg, DVM, PhD
National Food Institute, Technical University of Denmark

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  • 1. Effects of the termination of non-therapeutic antimicrobials (NTA) on overall drug usage, resistance and productivity in the Danish swine and broiler industry
    Hanne-Dorthe Emborg, DVM, PhD
    National Food Institute, Technical University of Denmark
  • 2. Development in pig herd structure in Denmark
    Denmark has
    The world’s largest export of pork
    Highly modern production
    Well educated farmers
    High level of animal welfare, hygiene and management
    80% increase in production in 20 years
  • 3. World Pig meat Production 2008
    (m tonnes)
    Denmark has
    • The world’s largest export of pork
    • 4. Highly modern production
    • 5. Well educated farmers
    • 6. High level of animal welfare, hygiene and management
    • 7. 80% increase in production in 20 years
  • The Danish broiler production
    Rotations
    Broilers are intensively raised with several flocks produced per house per year
    All-in/all-out production
    Modern production with high levels of hygiene, welfare and management
    From 1990 to 2008 the production increased from 116 million kg to 186 million kg, a 38% increase
    From 1993 to 2008 the average number of broilers produced pr farm pr year increased by 49%
  • 8. Termination of non-therapeutic antimicrobial (NTA) use in Denmark
    In 1995, the Danish Minister for Food, Agriculture and Fisheries banned the glycopeptideavoparcin
    In 1997, avoparcin was suspended in EU
    In 1998, virginiamycin, a streptogramin, was banned in Denmark
    Early 1998, the Danish cattle and broiler industries voluntarily decided to stopped all use of NTA’s, and the pig industry stopped all use of NTA’s in pigs over 35 kg (Fines imposed on those not agreeing to phase out.)
    In July 1999, 4 NTA’s were suspended in EU: spiramycin, tylosin, bacitracin and virginiamycin
    In 1999, EU banned olaquindox and carbadox due to toxicity to humans
    The remaining use of NTA’s in Danish pigs was voluntarily phased out during 1999 (Fines imposed on those not agreeing to phase out.)
    In the European Union, all NTA’s were phased out by the end of 2005
  • 9. Antimicrobial use in Danish swine production
    No sales profit
    Avoparcin ban
    Virginiamycin
    ban
    Ban on NTA use
    for finishing pigs
    Ban on NTA use
    for weaning pigs
    NTA
  • 10. Comparisons of tetracycline and macrolide consumption in danish pig production 1992-2008
  • 11. Production of poultry and consumption of NTA and therapeutic antimicrobials
  • 12. Consumption of antimicrobials in Denmark
  • 13. Consumption of antimicrobials in Denmark and the USA
    * Based on data from Animal Health Institute and USDA
  • 14. Effects on resistance
    The purpose of the interventions were to reduce a reservoir of antimicrobial resistance in food animals
    The NTA’s used in Europe had mainly activity against Gram positive bacteria. Thus, susceptibility in Salmonella and E. coli are not relevant as an indicator for NTA termination
  • 15. Occurrence of VRE
    Avoparcin consumption and resistanceto avoparcin among E. faecium
  • 16. Macrolide consumption and resistance to macrolides among entorococci from pigs
  • 17. Macrolide consumption and resistance to macrolides among Campylobacter coli from pigs
  • 18. Macrolide consumption and resistance to macrolides among Staphylococcus hyicus from pigs
  • 19. Virginiamycin consumption and resistance to virginiamycin among E. faecium from pigs and broilers
  • 20. Conclusions
    Major increase in Danish food animal production
    Total antimicrobial consumption reduced from 100 to 49 mg/kg (51%) from 1992 to 2008
    Major reductions in resistance to the antimicrobial agents which were reduced, among animal pathogens, indicator bacteria and zoonotic bacteria
  • 21. Broiler productionPercent dead broilers in total (Nov. 1995 – June 2002)
    NTA stop
    Data: Danish Poultry Council
  • 22. Temporal association between NTA termination in weaners and productivity measures in weaners
    Data: National Committee for pig production
  • 23. Conclusions
    The NTA stop had minor influence on the productivity in both the broiler and the pig production
    Economic impact
    • No impact in the broiler production
    Short term impact on number of pigs treated for diarrhoea in a minor part of the herds, after that no economic impact

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