Libya - Country at glance 2006

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  • 1. COUNTRY PROFILE - AT A GLANCE, Libya Date Posted: 13-Mar-2006 Janes Sentinel Security Assessment - North Africa COUNTRY PROFILE - AT A GLANCELIBYA AT A GLANCE TOPPolitics TOPOfficial Name: Socialist Peoples Libyan Arab JamahiriyaPolitical System: Jamahiriya (State of the Masses)Declaration of Independence: 24 December 1951 (from French and UK administered UN Protectorate)Leader: Colonel Muammar Muhammad GhadaffiNext Election: Not applicableSecretary, General Peoples Committee (Prime Dr Al-Baghdaadi Ali al-MahmudiMinister):Assistant Secretary, General Peoples Committee: Muhammad Ali al_HuwayzSecretary of the General Peoples Committee for Abu-Bakr Mabruk al-MansuriAgriculture, Animal and Water Resources:Secretary of the General Peoples Committee for Nuri Dhaw al-HumaydiCulture and Information:Secretary of the General Peoples Committee for Al-Tayyib al-Safi al-TayyibEconomy, Trade and Investment:Secretary of the General Peoples Committee for Dr Ahmad Munaysi Abd-al-HamidFinance:Secretary of the General Peoples Committee for Abd el-Rahman ShalgamForeign Liaison and International Co-operation:Secretary of the General Peoples Committee for Dr Abd-al-Qadir Muhammad al-BaghdadiGeneral Education:Secretary of the General Peoples Committee for Dr Ibrahim al-Zarruq SharifHigher Education:Secretary of the General Peoples Committee for Dr Muhammad Abu-Ujaylah RashidHealth and Environment:Secretary of the General Peoples Committee for Dr Fathi Hamad Bin-ShitwanIndustry, Electricity and Mines:Secretary of the General Peoples Committee for Ibrahim Ali IbrahimInspection and Peoples Control:Secretary of the General Peoples Committee for Ali Umar al-HusnawiJustice:Secretary of the General Peoples Committee for Tahir el-Hadi JuhaymiThis page was saved from http://search.janes.com Did you know Janes Strategic Advisory Services can provide impartial, thoroughly researched market evaluation, providing© Janes Information Group, All rights reserved you with the same reliable insight you expect to find in our publications and online services?
  • 2. Planning:Secretary of the General Peoples Committee for Brig Salih Rajab al-MismariPublic Security:Secretary of the General Peoples Committee for Bakhitah Abd-al-Alim al-ShinwiSocial Affairs:Secretary of the General Peoples Committee for Ali Yusuf ZikriTelecommunications and Transport:Secretary of the General Peoples Committee for Ammar el-Mabruk LutayyifTourism:Secretary of the General Peoples Committee for Matuq Muhammad MatuqWorkforce, Training and Employment:Secretary of the General Peoples Committee for Mustafa Miftah BelidYouth, and Sports:Secretary General of the General Peoples Zanati Mohamed al-ZanatiCongress (Parliament):Deputy Secretary of the General Peoples Ahmed IbrahimCongress:Colonel Muammar Muhammad Ghadaffi TOPMuammar Muhammad Ghadaffi was born in 1942 in Sirte, on the desert coast of centralLibya. His tribe, the Ghadhafa are a relatively small tribe of mixed Berber and Arab origin.After completing school, Ghadaffi enrolled at the British Military Academy in Benghazi andentered the army in 1965.In 1969 he and a group of fellow revolutionaries seized power in a bloodless coup. Shortlyafterwards, Ghadaffi emerged as the new leader of the revolution and appointed himself headof state and commander-in-chief of the armed forces. However, he later decided to refer tohimself as Leader of the Revolution or Brother Leader and claims he has no formal role ashead of state. In reality, all power rests in his hands.In 1973 Ghadaffi launched Libyas cultural revolution and published the famous Green Book(expanded to three volumes), his answer to Mao Tse Tungs Red Book. The book details hisalternative to capitalism and communism: the Third Universal Theory, which is based on theconcepts of Islam, Arabism and socialism and denounces private enterprise and ownership asexploitative. Four years later, he declared the Establishment of the Authority of the Peopleand the start of the Jamahiriya (state of the masses). He also developed his own particularinterpretation of Sunni Maliki Islam, to which, like his other ideologies, he demands totalconformity. His other publications include Military Strategy and Mobilisation, The Story ofthe Revolution and a short story collection called The Village...the Village...the Earth...theEarth and The Suicide Of The Astronaut and Other Stories. He currently expounds hisphilosophies on his own personal website: www.qathafi.org.While certainly flamboyant and often considered unpredictable, Ghadaffi is in fact extremelypragmatic and shrewd. He has remained firmly in power despite deep foreign and domesticopposition to his policies through a combination of playing off Libyas various interest groupsand the brutal suppression of anyone who challenges his authority, whether they be insideLibya or outside of the country. During the 1980s he adopted a stray dog campaign wherebyhis henchmen assassinated dissidents living abroad, including in Europe and the US. He hasThis page was saved from http://search.janes.com Did you know Janes Strategic Advisory Services can provide impartial, thoroughly researched market evaluation, providing© Janes Information Group, All rights reserved you with the same reliable insight you expect to find in our publications and online services?
  • 3. expertly managed and manipulated Libyas tribal system and created a multilayered securityapparatus that has bred a climate of suspicion and fear. He has also maintained a close innercircle around him drawn from old friends and family members. He has one son, Mohamed,from a previous marriage, and seven children from his second wife, Saffiyya Ferkash el-Haddad.Shukri Ghanem TOPShukri Ghanem is the Secretary of the General Peoples Committee, a position at the head ofthe Libyan government and conventionally referred to as that of prime minister.He was born in 1942 and educated at Harvard University in the US and the School ofOriental and African Studies (SOAS) in London. He subsequently worked as an economistwith the Organisation of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) secretariat in Vienna, risingto become its acting secretary-general. He was appointed Minister of Economics and Trade atthe very end of 2001. In mid-June 2003 he was appointed to replace Mubarak Abdallah el-Shamikh as de jure head of the government. In contrast to Ghadaffi, he is known for his freemarket views and is expected to oversee the privatisation of parastatal assets as well as newinvestment in the oil sector.However, Ghanem is frustrated by his limited room for manoeuvre as he is unable to choosehis staff, has limited resources and is facing significant opposition from the old guard withinthe regime. Ghanem is very close to Saif el-Islam Ghadaffi, who reportedly persuaded hisfather to appoint him to the post of premier, but is regarded by many within the regime andamong the wider population as an outsider. There is also much speculation and resentment inLibya about his reported personal wealth. He maintains a private consultancy in Vienna.Dr Abd el-Rahman Shalgam TOPAbd el-Rahman Shalgam is the Secretary of the General Peoples Congress for ForeignLiaison and International Co-operation, or foreign minister, a post he has held since 2001.He was born in 1948 and originates from the Fezzan in the south. He attended university inEgypt where he graduated with a BA degree in Journalism in 1973 and returned to GhadaffisLibya, working as a journalist on a number of Libyan publications. In 1984 he joined Libyasdiplomatic corps and was appointed Ambassador to Italy. However, he soon returned toLibya where he became an aide of Ghadaffi. After a short stint in the Ministry of CulturalAffairs he became foreign minister in 2001.He is close to Ghadaffi and is relied upon heavily in the international sphere. He wasinstrumental in the UTA and Lockerbie talks, both of which led to settlements that haveenabled Libya to pull itself out of its isolation. Shalgam is considered to be reliable and alinchpin of the current cabinet. He is thought to favour reform, but has his differences withthe Prime Minister Shukri Ghanem due primarily to political rivalries and competinginterests, but also over the speed and manner with which Ghanem is trying to adopt reforms.He is particularly close to the current Libyan Ambassador to the UK and former Minister ofJustice, Mohammed el-Zwai.This page was saved from http://search.janes.com Did you know Janes Strategic Advisory Services can provide impartial, thoroughly researched market evaluation, providing© Janes Information Group, All rights reserved you with the same reliable insight you expect to find in our publications and online services?
  • 4. Saif el-Islam Ghadaffi TOPSaif el-Islam was born on 25 June 1972 in the Bab el-Azizya compound in Tripoli. He is theoldest son from Ghadaffis second marriage, and as such is regarded as the most importantson. There is significant rivalry between him and his brother Saadi, but he is thought to bevery close to his sister, Aisha.Saif undertook his studies at El-Fateh University in Tripoli, where he specialised inarchitectural engineering. He graduated in 1994 and then undertook national service for ayear, opting for civil rather than military duties. After completing a masters degree in Vienna,Saif el-Islam returned to Tripoli, but later enrolled for a PhD in International Governance atthe London School of Economics and Political Science (LSE) in the UK, where he spendspart of the year.Since his return from Vienna, Saif el-Islam has come to play an increasingly important role inLibyas political and economic life, prompting widespread speculation that he is tipped totake over from his father, though he denies this. He presents the more pro-reformist face ofthe regime and is a strong advocate of economic liberalisation, although like his father he isstill averse to any criticism of the regime or to genuine political pluralism.He has undertaken a number of high profile international visits and has played a key role inthe negotiations over compensation in the Lockerbie, UTA and La Belle cases. In 1997, Saifel-Islam founded the Ghadaffi International Charity Foundation, which has enabled him toplay an active international role with almost no constraints while claiming that his activitiesare of a purely charitable nature. Under the auspices of this charity, Saif el-Islam wasresponsible for securing the release of hostages held by the Abu Sayaf group in thePhilippines in 2000 and of former Arab fighters held in Pakistan after the fall of Afghanistanin 2001. He is also pushing for a more open approach to the issue of human rights insideLibya, having set up a Human Rights Association. He has been behind a push to release anumber of Islamist prisoners from the banned Muslim Brotherhood Movement, although thishas yet to bear fruit. Despite these moves, he has been accused of only making cosmeticchanges in these fields.Saif el-Islam is also involved with a number of businesses and companies, including his OneNine Investment Company, active in the energy sector. He also finds time to indulge hispassion for art and is a keen painter, regularly exhibiting his work in European capitals.2006 Janes Information GroupThis page was saved from http://search.janes.com Did you know Janes Strategic Advisory Services can provide impartial, thoroughly researched market evaluation, providing© Janes Information Group, All rights reserved you with the same reliable insight you expect to find in our publications and online services?