Innovative Curriculum Materials And Approaches For Teaching Multicultural Groups


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Presents an intervention to improve intercultural interactions in case discussion based tutorials in a first year undergraduate management class at Griffith University.
Presentation to the Australian Business Deans Council Teaching and Learning Network, Brisbane, January 2013

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  • Michelle
  • Add names of other Business courses
  • Peter
  • Ask students to pull out blank cultural maps.
  • Lower scores mean higher cultural learning and higher cultural inclusiveness.
  • Innovative Curriculum Materials And Approaches For Teaching Multicultural Groups

    1. 1. Innovative Curriculum Materials And Approaches For Teaching Multicultural Groups Dr Peter Woods Griffith Business School
    2. 2. Presentation to: Australian Business Deans Council • ABDC T&L Network meeting • Brisbane • Thursday 31 January, 2013•Griffith Business School
    3. 3. Dr. Peter Woods • Management experience in private, government and not for profit organisations • Australian University Teaching Award in 2010 (priority area internationalisation), and also in 2004(Institutional award) • Griffith teaching award in 2010 (and 2004) • Brisbane’s best lecturer 2012 (Golden Key) • Co-author of 2 Management textbooks • Degree in Mandarin and research interests in cross-cultural management, Chinese management, Indonesian leadership, teaching in the multicultural classroom•Griffith Business School
    4. 4. Learning Objective • That participants can utilise some of the successful approaches to teaching multicultural groups trialed at Griffith Business School.•Griffith Business School
    5. 5. Outline • Introduction • Alliance building • Cultural mapping • Implementation issues • Questions and comments•Griffith Business School
    6. 6. Acknowledgements • University of Canberra and Griffith University - ALTC Priority Program grant for 2011- 2012 (Prof. Michelle Barker (GU), Prof. Anita Mak (UC) • "Internationalisation at Home: Enhancing Intercultural Capabilities of Business and Health Teachers, Students and Curricula. ••Griffith Business School
    7. 7. Problems • Limited ability of students from a variety of socio-cultural and educational backgrounds to effectively lead and participate in problem-based classroom discussions. • Poor engagement/ class involvement/ attendance • Why bother coming to class when I can access all the information I need on my smartphone?•Griffith Business School
    8. 8. Aims • To open the class to a range of peer contributions, including a variety of cultural perspectives. • To build bridges across cultures between students • To equip students with competence and confidence to effectively lead and participate in small-group classroom discussions.•Griffith Business School
    9. 9. Theoretical Framework • Social learning about culture (Bandura, 1977) through peer interaction. • Intercultural competence (Byram and Nichols, 2001) through social interactions. • Productive diversity (Kalantzis and Cope, 1995) accessing the cultural capital of the classroom through socialised civic pluralism.•Griffith Business School
    10. 10. • Basis of program – The ExcelL program • Excellence in Cultural Experiential Learning & Leadership • Intercultural social effectiveness training for immigrants & international students • Evidence-based – research tools•Griffith Business School
    11. 11. Case examples • Management Concepts (first year course) • Management Strategy and Decision Making (third year undergraduate BBus course) • Intercultural Management (second year BBus course) • International Human Resource Management (MHRM course)•Griffith Business School
    12. 12. Management Concepts • Compulsory first year course in GBS • 1600 – 2000 students each year – 3 campuses • Culturally diverse student cohort (30% students international) • 2 hour lecture, 1 hour tutorial over 12 weeks format) • Tutorials are based on problem based group discussion • Must build alliances and establish ground rules in tutorials (session one) • Use cultural mapping as guideline for participation (session two) • Use cultural mapping to teach group leadership skills (session three)•Griffith Business School
    13. 13. Management Concepts - Learning Objective • Apply management theory to solve management problems presented in a range of international case studies and vignettes•Griffith Business School
    14. 14. ALLIANCE BUILDING•Griffith Business School
    15. 15. Alliance Building Activities • More than just an ice-breaker • Building bridges of alliance between tutor and student and between students • Activities that help to validate a student’s cultural background • Activities that help students to value the diversity in the classroom•Griffith Business School
    16. 16. Name Game - Exercise • In pairs, interview each other for 5 minutes each on: * what is your name? * what does it mean? * how did you get it?•Griffith Business School
    17. 17. Ball of Wool • Ball of wool: In whole group, ask 3/4 simple questions for each participant in turn: e.g. name, degree, culture from, favourite band. Start by answering for self, then throw ball of wool to next participant across group, keep hold of string, and continue until everyone has answered and wool criss-crosses group forming web. • When everyone has answered: Ask about pattern formed by wool: What’s this look like? Looks like web, new connections, discuss how this web represents new community and importance of these connections to studying at university, future career, better understanding and future travels.•Griffith Business School
    18. 18. CULTURAL MAPPING•Griffith Business School
    19. 19. Case Analysis and Discussion • One hour, weekly tutorials will contain a number of problem based international case studies relating to the content of lecture topics (theory of the week in lectures) • Students will analyse the case prior to the tutorial and be prepared to participate or lead the discussion on the case in the tutorial (hand in preparation sheet) • Students will be assessed based on their leadership or participation of the discussion (in small groups of 3/4 students) using a specially designed rubric • Leadership of the discussions are randomly allocated each week•Griffith Business School
    20. 20. Features of Cultural Maps • Behaviours are precise and specific • Described in sequential steps • Behaviours are described as observable units that can be reproduced by the observer. • Cultural explanations are given, and compared with the cultural explanations of the learners. • Making what is implicit (well learned cultural norms) more explicit.•Griffith Business School
    21. 21. Cultural Map - Stages  Attending/Approaching  Bridging  Commenting  Departing/ developing
    22. 22. Participating in a discussion group Scenario - Participating in a tutorial discussion – Cultural Map Preparations: Do the required readings, etc. prior to class. 1. Attending/Approach • Lean forward • Eye contact • Open hand gesture•Griffith Business School •Martin
    23. 23. Participating in a discussion group 2. Bridging • Interrupting and self-focusing, e.g., “Excuse me, I have a comment to make” • Acknowledging, e.g. “I can see your point, but …”, or “That’s true in some situations, but…” • Speak clearly and calmly•Griffith Business School •Martin
    24. 24. Participating in a discussion group 3. Commenting • “I think the problem in the case is …” • State your argument concisely • Refer to authoritative sources (theory) • Can present it as a personal observation/ opinion “My experience is ….”•Griffith Business School •Martin
    25. 25. Participating in a discussion group 4. Departure/Developing • Invite others’ comments and actively listen to them • “What do you think (name person)”?•Griffith Business School •Martin
    26. 26. Discussion Participant Rubric Total Marks Good Adequate Needs 2 marks Improvement Preparation Provides Provides Little or no (1 mark) evidence of evidence of evidence of extensive adequate preparation for preparation and preparation and topic background comprehends research on the topic topic Participation Demonstrates Responds Either (1 mark) effective active appropriately to dominates or listening skills discussion offers few or no and actively leader when ideas contributes invited reasonable ideas to discussion Martin
    27. 27. Total Marks _______ Very Good Good Needs Improvement(1st time) 6 marksPreparation Provides evidence of Provides evidence of Little or no evidence of extensive preparation adequate preparation topic preparation and background and comprehends the research on topic topicFacilitation Able to absorb ideas Guides the group but Fails to guide the from participants, sometimes dominates group and/or guides participants and/or does not dominates group without dominating absorb ideas from participantsProblem Able to identify a Able to identify a Not able to identify a relevant problem and relevant problem with relevant problem put it within a concise adequate framing and articulate problem statementSolution Elicits a Elicits a partially Cannot develop a comprehensive complete solution with solution in the time solution with relevant theory in the time period theory acknowledging period contributions from participants within time periodCreativity Demonstrates use of Synthesizes Does not use effective effective questioning information from some questioning techniques, able to participants and uses techniques and/or synthesize responses some questioning unable to synthesize from participants techniques information from participants
    28. 28. Sample Discussion Follow-upQuestions based on Hansen (1983) Clarify What do you mean? Could you rephrase what you said? Could you explain that further? Support Where did you find that in the case/article? Is there any theory that would support your point? Involve Ask one participant to take up another others participant’s response by replying: A, would you care to add to what B just said? A, do you agree with B’s interpretation of the case/article? Maintain We still haven’t answered our basic question, focus which is.....? How does your comment relate to the case/article?
    29. 29. Exercise • In groups of three, try to develop a cultural map on how to effectively lead a small group discussion•Griffith Business School
    30. 30. Competency: Leading a group Scenario: Student is asked to lead class discussion group. Preparations: Do the required readings, prepare analysis sheet prior to class. Stage Verbal Behaviour Non –Verbal Behaviour Values A. Attending/ Eye contact with all group members Respect for all Approach Leaning in to the centre of group group members B. Bridging “Ok, let me try and summarise Eye contact Importance of every and then synthesise our Facing all members group members answers” contribution. C. Commenting Briefly summarise main points: Looking at the person who Show have listened -“Our main points are ..” contributed each idea while talking. to everyone’s ideas. Synthesise the answer by Use firm clear voice. Acknowledge every saying:- “So in summary, our group members answer is ….. (combining the contribution. major points while directly answering the question) D. Departure/ “Thanks everyone for sharing Lean back Developing your ideas and contributions” Lower voice tone.•Griffith Business School
    31. 31. IMPLEMENTATION ISSUES•Griffith Business School
    32. 32. Learning Circles • Based on communities of practice • Tutors meet three times each semester – tutor training, moderation meeting one, moderation meeting two • Teaching issues – participants present initiatives, raise questions/ issues for discussion • Participant led, mutually supportive environment • Use wiki/ discussion groups/ email to share initiatives and issues•Griffith Business School
    33. 33. Issues of Implementation • Requires regular training of tutors • Requires a reflective teaching team approach (learning circle) • Implementation is framed in terms of discussion leadership and participation, rather than as a program for international students•Griffith Business School
    34. 34. EVALUATION•Griffith Business School
    35. 35. Evaluation • Some improvement in course evaluations – remain relatively high•Griffith Business School
    36. 36. Outcomes in Management Concepts Mean scores all students 3 Mean score 2.5 2 1.5 1 0.5 0 MC Controls Cultural Learning* Cultural Inclusiveness*** Measure •* p<0.05 (one-tailed) *** p<0.001 (one-tailed)•Griffith Business School
    37. 37. International vs domestic students International students Domestic students 3 2.45 2.4 Mean scores 2.5 2.35 2.3 2.25 mean score 2 2.2 2.15 2.1 1.5 2.05 MC 2 MC 1 Controls Controls 0.5 0 Cultural Cultural Learning** Inclusiveness*** Measure Measure •* p<0.05; ** p<0.01; *** p< 0.001 (all one –tailed)•Griffith Business School
    38. 38. Evaluation Results • Students responded well to the initiatives with 55% of students specifically reporting a positive tutorial experience in the course evaluation. • A number of students specifically mentioned an awareness of enhanced peer interactions when involved in small group class discussions.•Griffith Business School
    39. 39. QUESTIONS AND COMMENTS?•Griffith Business School