Preventing Seizures: The Size of the Thalamus After an Epileptic Seizure<br />Seizures<br />By: Peter Satonick<br />
Background on Seizures<br /><ul><li>Unpredictability of seizures
result in seizure treatment done continuously over time
epileptics must take medicine 2-4 times per day, every  day, over periods of many years
 epileptics become frightened that a seizure will occur at any time
Ex. Supermarket lady – won’t step a foot outside
70% of epileptics wish to commit suicide
26% of these patients actually take their lives</li></li></ul><li>Purpose <br /><ul><li>How does the size of the thalamus ...
Hope that this study will lead to future prevention of seizures
Thalamus
The “mail sorter” of the brain
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Preventing Seizures: The Size of the Thalamus After an Epileptic Seizure

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Preventing Seizures: The Size of the Thalamus After an Epileptic Seizure

  1. 1. Preventing Seizures: The Size of the Thalamus After an Epileptic Seizure<br />Seizures<br />By: Peter Satonick<br />
  2. 2. Background on Seizures<br /><ul><li>Unpredictability of seizures
  3. 3. result in seizure treatment done continuously over time
  4. 4. epileptics must take medicine 2-4 times per day, every day, over periods of many years
  5. 5. epileptics become frightened that a seizure will occur at any time
  6. 6. Ex. Supermarket lady – won’t step a foot outside
  7. 7. 70% of epileptics wish to commit suicide
  8. 8. 26% of these patients actually take their lives</li></li></ul><li>Purpose <br /><ul><li>How does the size of the thalamus and brainstem change in size during a time of an epileptic seizure?
  9. 9. Hope that this study will lead to future prevention of seizures
  10. 10. Thalamus
  11. 11. The “mail sorter” of the brain
  12. 12. When information travels to the brain, it first goes to the thalamus
  13. 13. The thalamus then sorts out the information and sends the information to the a cortex of the brain
  14. 14. Believed to be malfunctioning during a seizure</li></li></ul><li>Independent Variable – people who have had/have symptoms of seizures and those of people who have not experienced any seizure-like symptoms. <br />Dependent Variable – size of thalamus and brain stem of the patients who have had/will have seizures and those of people who have not experienced any seizure-like symptoms. <br />Control – <br />all male participants grouped together <br />all female participants grouped together <br />Variables<br />
  15. 15. Hypothesis <br />Hypothesis – If a person is in danger of having a seizure or has had a seizure, the size of their thalamus will be significantly smaller in size compared to the size of the thalamus and brainstem of a person who has not experienced any seizure like symptoms <br /><ul><li>significantly smaller in size – using a quantitative volume calculating software</li></li></ul><li>Procedure <br />Gather materials<br />Meet with mentor – Robert Wickham, B.S.<br />Obtain fMRIs of patients who have had seizures<br />Obtain fMRIs of patients with seizure symptoms<br />Obtain fMRIs of patients who have had no seizure symptoms <br />Scan fMRIs onto MatLab<br />Use MatLab to record the volume of the thalamus in each scan (next slide)<br />Record, interpret data, and graph data<br />Draw conclusions <br />
  16. 16. Normal Brain <br /><ul><li>Voxels
  17. 17. 3D pixels
  18. 18. 1mm cube
  19. 19. In this image:
  20. 20. L: 7mm
  21. 21. W: 3mm
  22. 22. H: 7mm</li></ul>Because <br />V= L*W*H<br />V= 147 mm3<br />7mm<br />3mm<br />7mm<br />
  23. 23. Epileptic Brain <br /><ul><li>In this image:
  24. 24. L: 4mm
  25. 25. W: 1mm
  26. 26. H: 3mm</li></ul>Because <br />V= L*W*H<br />V= 12mm3<br />3mm<br />3mm<br />1mm<br />1mm<br />4mm<br />4mm<br />
  27. 27. MatLab<br />
  28. 28. Data Interpretation <br />Obtain fMRIs of patients who have had seizures<br />Obtain fMRIs of patients with seizure symptoms<br />Obtain fMRIs of patients who have had no seizure symptoms <br />Scan fMRIs onto MRI Software Program<br />Use measuring tool on MRI Software Program to measure the difference in size between patients w/ seizures, patients w/ seizure symptoms, and patients without an seizure symptoms<br />Record, interpret data, and graph data<br />Draw conclusions<br />
  29. 29. Bibliography <br />WEBSITES<br />"How Mood Changes Affect the Brain." PsychEducation.org. N.p., n.d. Web. 11 May 2010. <http://www.psycheducation.org/mechanism/6atrophy.htm>. <br />"Simple Test Can Detect Signs of Suicidal Thoughts in People Taking Antidepressants." ScienceDaily. University of California - Los Angeles , 11 Apr 2010. Web. 04 May 2010. <http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2010/04/100409093411.htm>. <br />Gage, Fred , Barry Jacobs, and Henriette van Praag. "Depression and the Hippocampus ." AMERICAN SCIENTIST. Sigma Xi, The Scientific Research Society, n.d. Web. 10 May 2010. <http://www.americanscientist.org/issues/pub/2000/4/depression-and-the-birth-and-death-of-brain-cells/4>. <br />"Brain Tumor Symptoms." American Brain Tumor Association. June 2010. Web. 08 Sept. 2010. <http://www.abta.org/symptoms/13>.<br />Adamolekun, MD, Bola. "Seizure Disorders: Brain, Spinal Cord, and Nerve Disorders: Merck Manual Home Edition." Merck & Co., Inc. - We Believe the Most Important Condition Is the Human One. Mar. 2008. Web. 06 June 2010. <http://www.merck.com/mmhe/sec06/ch085/ch085a.html>.<br />"All About Depression: Causes." All About Depression: Home Page. 23 May 2010. Web. 08 Sept. 2010. <http://www.allaboutdepression.com/cau_02.html>.<br />"Seizures Treatment, Causes, Types, Symptoms, Medication And Facts." http://www.treatseizuresnow.com/. N.p., n.d. Web. 7 Sep 2010. <http://www.treatseizuresnow.com/>.<br />PICTURES<br />http://twistedphysics.typepad.com/cocktail_party_physics/images/fmri.jpg<br />http://blogs.abc.net.au/photos/uncategorized/2008/06/27/picture_1.png<br />http://blogs.abc.net.au/photos/uncategorized/2008/06/27/picture_5.png<br />http://singularityhub.com/wp-content/uploads/2009/04/fmri_machine_scanner.jpg<br />http://www.designworkplan.com/wp-content/symbol-sign-male-female.png<br />http://www.thebrainwiki.com/uploads/Forebrain/thalamus.jpg<br />http://www.neuroskills.com/images/brainstem.jpg<br />http://vis-soft.com/uploads/posts/2010-09/1283708078_1mathworksmatlabr2010a.jpeg<br />

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