RFID Implementation for the Electronic
       identification of Cattle


                William McDevitt
              Ba...
Abstract
Identification of cattle has been around for many years, because of the need for traceability for food
standards ...
Acknowledgements

I would like to thank my wife Shauna and my two girls Abbie and Hannah who have given me the
time and pe...
Table of Contents
Abstract...................................................................................................
7.2.3Scan Animals............................................................................................................
Abbreviations

E-MPL          Electronic Meat Plant Lairage

DARD           Department of Agriculture and Rural Developmen...
Table of Figures
Figure 1: DARD Ear Tag......................................................................................
Declaration

“I hereby declare that for a period of two years following the date on which the dissertation is
deposited in...
1 Introduction

The Foyle food group is one of many beef producers in Northern Ireland who have a
responsibility to produc...
To help abattoirs through this transition DARD have carried out a lot of research on behalf of the
meat industry. This res...
2         Animal Traceability

Traceability is defined in the General Food Law Regulation 178/2002 as: ‘The ability to tra...
carried out by DARD’s veterinary service in Northern Ireland. Although DARD are responsible
for ensuring that meat plants ...
2.3     Department of Agriculture and Rural Development (N. Ireland)
The Department of Agriculture and Rural Development (...
The operator selects the animals from the list on the screen that the farmer has written on the
 movement permit. And clic...
109-111        Sire Breed                     Breed of animal’s sire
112-119        Date of last progeny           DOB of ...
This information is mainatined by production system and reports are generated for the factory
personnel, DARD vetinary sta...
3         Radio Frequency Identification
Radio-frequency identification (RFID) is an automatic identification method, rely...
value of the tag, so that the antenna and reader at the shop exit will alarm if any tags pass
           by it with a fals...
•   FDX or FDX – B: know as full duplex at the transponder response to the reader while the
           reader continues to...
3.2.2 ISO 11784

This standard describes how the code stored on the transponder or tag is to be built up in
conformance to...
3.3 RFID Technology in Livestock Identification
Cattle indentification has become more crtical in recent times to control ...
With identification of cattle as described with the standards in section 3.2 of this document there
are two protocols used...
3.2.2.1 Fixed reader system:

A Fixed reader system comprised of the main reader unit and usually two antennae one placed ...
3.4 Issues with using RFID technology for identification of Animals

   •   Radio signals can be blocked by materials such...
4     Software Requirements Specification
The purpose of this section is to clearly define the Animal Electronic identific...
4.2   Proposed Work Flow Diagram
The following Diagram shows the proposed process of receiving live animals with EID.

   ...
4.3        System Description
4.3.1 Presenting animals at Lairage

The reception of live animals consists of two moves on ...
4.3.3 Movement into the abattoir

At this stage animals are in a single line chute usually in a group of up-to 12, the ope...
they must be added manually to the permit using the APHIS E-MPL (electronic meat plant
Lairage) web application. A list of...
4.4.1.4 Assign Kill No and confirm into Abattoir

A Handheld reader with a PDA device running an application developed in-...
4.4.2.2 Scalability
                 This application will be developed for both Omagh Meats and Foyle Meats. It is
      ...
•    The supplier will produce training and Skills transfer document and any training required
        to operate the syst...
5    System Design
The purpose of this section is to detail the design for the Electronic identification of Cattle as they...
5.1 Use Case Diagrams
                                     Fixed Reader EID System


                                     ...
5.2 Use Case Decriptions

Use Case Name        Verify Document Against Herd No
Scenario             Verify that the Docume...
Use Case Name        Start EID Reading Process
Scenario             start the system to begin reading information from the...
Use Case Name        Register Animals Into Lairage
Scenario             Register the animal on APHIS system
Trigger       ...
Use Case Name        Scan Animal
Scenario             Accept ID from Handheld RFID scanner
                     The Lairag...
Use Case Name        Enter Kill No and Sex of animal
Scenario             Record Kill No and sex of animal.
Trigger       ...
Use Case Name        Register Animals movement to Abattoir
                     Register the animal as dead on the APHIS s...
William Mc Devitt
William Mc Devitt
William Mc Devitt
William Mc Devitt
William Mc Devitt
William Mc Devitt
William Mc Devitt
William Mc Devitt
William Mc Devitt
William Mc Devitt
William Mc Devitt
William Mc Devitt
William Mc Devitt
William Mc Devitt
William Mc Devitt
William Mc Devitt
William Mc Devitt
William Mc Devitt
William Mc Devitt
William Mc Devitt
William Mc Devitt
William Mc Devitt
William Mc Devitt
William Mc Devitt
William Mc Devitt
William Mc Devitt
William Mc Devitt
William Mc Devitt
William Mc Devitt
William Mc Devitt
William Mc Devitt
William Mc Devitt
William Mc Devitt
William Mc Devitt
William Mc Devitt
William Mc Devitt
William Mc Devitt
William Mc Devitt
William Mc Devitt
William Mc Devitt
William Mc Devitt
William Mc Devitt
William Mc Devitt
William Mc Devitt
William Mc Devitt
William Mc Devitt
William Mc Devitt
William Mc Devitt
William Mc Devitt
William Mc Devitt
William Mc Devitt
William Mc Devitt
William Mc Devitt
William Mc Devitt
William Mc Devitt
William Mc Devitt
William Mc Devitt
William Mc Devitt
William Mc Devitt
William Mc Devitt
William Mc Devitt
William Mc Devitt
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

William Mc Devitt

1,303 views
1,206 views

Published on

Published in: Business, Technology
0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total views
1,303
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
2
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
8
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

William Mc Devitt

  1. 1. RFID Implementation for the Electronic identification of Cattle William McDevitt Banner No: B00362059 University of Ulster, School of Computing and Intelligent Systems
  2. 2. Abstract Identification of cattle has been around for many years, because of the need for traceability for food standards and disease control governments have required farmers to record all birth, deaths and movements of cattle, so that if an disease out break does occur, they can track all the possible farms that may have been affected. This information is critical in cases where there is a risk to humans, such as the recent dioxin contamination issue recently reported in the news where animal feed was contaminated. Using the information from the Feed manufacturers of the farms they supplied, and then tracing the animals that had been processed by meat plants from them herds, the Food standards agency was able to carry out a risk analysis on the dangers to the public. The meat industry has been in the spot light over recent years with outbreaks such as BSE and blue tongue, so the requirement to ensure that all information gathered is correct has pushed the meat industry to look at ways of improving it information recording. This in turn lead to a EID working group being setup with members of the Farmers Union, representatives from Department of Agriculture and representatives from the meat plants via the Northern Ireland Meat exports association. This report documents the current problems with animal identification within meat plants and shows the research carried out on RIFD technology. The Design of the software is based upon the recommendations given by the Department of Agriculture I.T. technologies in terms of RFID equipment. As member of the NIMEA IT committee we have proposed how the meat plant systems will interact and this report explains this operation. The implementation of the system is described in detail and is accompanied by the test cases carried out on it. The final chapters are an evaluation of the system and the conclusions drawn through this project.
  3. 3. Acknowledgements I would like to thank my wife Shauna and my two girls Abbie and Hannah who have given me the time and peace to work on this project and the last five years of studying that have led to this. I would also like to thank Dr Kevin Curran my project supervisor who backed my idea and has given me guidance and support throughout this project. It has been very much appreciated. I would also like to take this opportunity to thank all the lecturers who’s teaching through out my five years of study at Magee College have contributed to the project, and even at work and will continue to do so in the future.
  4. 4. Table of Contents Abstract......................................................................................................................................................................................2 Acknowledgements....................................................................................................................................................................3 Abbreviations.............................................................................................................................................................................6 Declaration.................................................................................................................................................................................8 1Introduction..............................................................................................................................................................................9 1.1 Problem.......................................................................................................................................................................9 1.2 Aims and Objectives .................................................................................................................................................10 1.3 Thesis outline............................................................................................................................................................10 2 Animal Traceability............................................................................................................................................................11 2.1 Reasons for Traceability............................................................................................................................................11 2.2 Food Standards Agency...........................................................................................................................................11 2.3 Department of Agriculture and Rural Development (N. Ireland)................................................................................13 2.4 Animal and Public Health Information System (APHIS).............................................................................................13 2.5 Animal Information gathered by Meat plants..............................................................................................................15 3 Radio Frequency Identification.........................................................................................................................................17 3.1 Uses of RFID technology..........................................................................................................................................17 3.2 RFID Standards.............................................................................................................................................................18 3.2.2 ISO 11785..............................................................................................................................................................18 3.2.2 ISO 11784..............................................................................................................................................................20 3.3.2 ISO 14223/1...........................................................................................................................................................20 3.3 RFID Technology in Livestock Identification .................................................................................................................21 3.3.1 RFID Tags .............................................................................................................................................................21 3.3.2 RFID Reading System............................................................................................................................................22 3.4 Issues with using RFID technology for identification of Animals ...................................................................................24 4 Software Requirements Specification...............................................................................................................................25 4.2 Logical Diagrams...........................................................................................................................................................25 4.2.1 Current Work Flow Diagram...................................................................................................................................25 4.2 Proposed Work Flow Diagram....................................................................................................................................26 4.3 System Description....................................................................................................................................................27 4.3.1 Presenting animals at Lairage................................................................................................................................27 4.3.2 Confirmation into the Lairage..............................................................................................................................27 4.3.3 Movement into the abattoir.....................................................................................................................................28 4.4 Requirements............................................................................................................................................................28 4.4.1 Functional Requirements.......................................................................................................................................28 4.4.2 Non-Functional.......................................................................................................................................................30 4.5 Hardware Requirements..........................................................................................................................................31 4.5.1 Fixed RFID Reader at the entrance to the Lairage.................................................................................................31 4.5.2 Portable Hardware.............................................................................................................................................32 5 System Design...................................................................................................................................................................33 5.1 Use Case Diagrams.......................................................................................................................................................34 5.2 Use Case Decriptions....................................................................................................................................................35 5.3 Class Diagram...............................................................................................................................................................41 5.4 Data Design............................................................................................................................................................42 5.4.2 Entity Relationship Diagram...............................................................................................................................42 6 Hardware Selection............................................................................................................................................................43 7.1 Fixed Reader System..................................................................................................................................................45 7.1.1Fixed Reader Acrhitecture Diagram........................................................................................................................45 7.1.2Menu Screen...........................................................................................................................................................46 7.1.3Register Movement Document................................................................................................................................47 7.1.4Scan Animals..........................................................................................................................................................48 7.1.5Non-Confirmed Animals..........................................................................................................................................51 7.1.6Test Mode...............................................................................................................................................................52 7.2 Mobile Reader System .................................................................................................................................................54 7.2.1Mobile Reader System Acrhitecture Diagram..........................................................................................................54 7.2.2Menu screen...........................................................................................................................................................55
  5. 5. 7.2.3Scan Animals..........................................................................................................................................................56 7.2.4Find Animal.............................................................................................................................................................57 7.2.5View Animal Details.................................................................................................................................................59 7.2.6Test Reader............................................................................................................................................................59 7.3 Database ......................................................................................................................................................................61 7.3.1 Implementation of tblEIDAnimal Table...................................................................................................................61 7.3.2 Implementation of tblStatuses Table......................................................................................................................61 8 Testing .................................................................................................................................................................................62 8.1 White Box testing...........................................................................................................................................................62 8.2 Black Box testing...........................................................................................................................................................62 8.3 Evaluation......................................................................................................................................................................63 8.3.1 Functional Requirements Evaluation......................................................................................................................63 8.3.2 Non-Functional Requirements Evaluation..............................................................................................................64 8.3.3 Performance Evaluation.........................................................................................................................................64 8.3.3 Conclusion.............................................................................................................................................................65 9 Conclusion............................................................................................................................................................................66 Appendix A: Project Plan for Implementation...........................................................................................................................69 Appendix B: MC2 Movement Document .................................................................................................................................71 Appendix C: Lairage Layout for Fixed RFID Reader................................................................................................................72 Appendix D: Antenna mounting instructions............................................................................................................................73 .................................................................................................................................................................................................73 Appendix E: DARD Webservice descriptions...........................................................................................................................74 MeatAddToMovementNotInput webservice Description......................................................................................................74 WS_MeatAnimalInfo webservice description.......................................................................................................................77 WS_MeatConfirmMove Webservice description..................................................................................................................81 WS_MeatRegisterVDoc.......................................................................................................................................................84 WS_MeatAssignKillNo.........................................................................................................................................................87 Appendix F Fixed Reader VB.net Source Code.......................................................................................................................90 Appendix G Fixed Reader VB.net Compact Framework Source Code....................................................................................90 Appendix H White Box (Unit Testing).......................................................................................................................................91 Appendix I Black Box Testing..................................................................................................................................................98 Appendix J Requirements Analysis Meeting Presentation.....................................................................................................102
  6. 6. Abbreviations E-MPL Electronic Meat Plant Lairage DARD Department of Agriculture and Rural Development MC2 Movement Certificate RFID Radio-frequency identification EID Electronic Identification PDA Personal Digital Assistant (Handheld Computer) APHIS Animal and Public Health Information System HDX Half Duplex Tag FDX Full Duplex Tag IP http://www.protectingpeople.co.uk/fire_tech/ip_explained.htm ETSI European Telecommunications Standards Institute EMC Electromagnetic compatibility PC Personal Computer UPS Uninterruptible Power Supply
  7. 7. Table of Figures Figure 1: DARD Ear Tag.........................................................................................................................................................12 Figure 2: APHIS System.........................................................................................................................................................13 Figure 3: Record specification for the ABNET download.........................................................................................................15 Figure 4: Diagram of the transmission between Reader and HDX tag....................................................................................18 Figure 5: Diagram of transmission between Reader and FDX tag...........................................................................................19 Figure 6 : Protocols used to communicate between transponder and Reader.........................................................................19 Figure 7 : Button and Leaf RFID tag and internal circuit..........................................................................................................22 Figure 8: Bolus RFID tag ........................................................................................................................................................22 Figure 9 Fixed RFID Eartag Reader........................................................................................................................................23 Figure 10 Portable RFID Eartag Reader..................................................................................................................................23 Figure 11: Fixed Reader Use Case..........................................................................................................................................34 Figure 12: Mobile Reader Use Case .......................................................................................................................................34 Figure 13: EID system Comparison.........................................................................................................................................44 Figure 14: Fixed Reader Architecture Diagram........................................................................................................................45 Figure 15: Menu Screen..........................................................................................................................................................46 Figure 16: Register Permit Entry Screen..................................................................................................................................47 Figure 17: Read Animals Screen.............................................................................................................................................50 Figure 18: Non-Confirmed Animals..........................................................................................................................................51 Figure 19: Test Mode Password Screen..................................................................................................................................52 Figure 20: Test Mode screen...................................................................................................................................................53 Figure 21: Mobile System Menu Screen..................................................................................................................................55 Figure 22: Mobile System Scan Animal Screen.......................................................................................................................57 Figure 23: Find Animal Screen.................................................................................................................................................58 Figure 24: Mobile System Animal Details Screen....................................................................................................................59 Figure 25: Mobile System Test Reader Screen.......................................................................................................................60 Figure 26: Requirements Trace Table.....................................................................................................................................63 Figure 27: Performance evaluation Graph...............................................................................................................................64
  8. 8. Declaration “I hereby declare that for a period of two years following the date on which the dissertation is deposited in the Library of the University of Ulster, the dissertation shall remain confidential with access or copying prohibited. Following the expiry of this period I permit the Librarian of the University of Ulster to allow the dissertation to be copied in whole or in part without reference to me on the understanding that such authority applies to the provision of single copies made for study purposes or for inclusion within the stock of another library. This restriction does not apply to the copying or publication of the title and abstract of the dissertation. IT IS A CONDITION OF USE OF THIS DISSERTATION THAT ANYONE WHO CONSULTS IT MUST RECOGNISE THAT THE COPYRIGHT RESTS WITH THE AUTHOR AND THAT NO QUOTATION FROM THE DISSERATION CAN NO INFORMATION DERIVED FROM IT MAY BE PUBLISHED UNLESS THE SOURCE IS PROPERLY ACKNOWLEDGED.” William McDevitt
  9. 9. 1 Introduction The Foyle food group is one of many beef producers in Northern Ireland who have a responsibility to produce beef to a high quality standard that is fit for human consumption and in accordance to the regulations set out by Food law enforced by the Food Standards Agency 1. In order to prove that its beef is fit for human consumption, the Foyle food group must record information on all each animal that it slaughters and be able to trace any finished product back to its animal origin. Each animal that enters an abbatoir must be be accompanied by a movement permit. A Movement permit is taken from a booklet issued to the farmer by the Department of Agriculture and Rural Development of Northern Ireland (DARD). Each page in the booklet has a unique serial number. A farmer who brings animals to slaugther must write on a permit the eartag identification number of each animal. Legislation dictates that an Abbatoirs must operate in two production modes, Under thirty months mode and Over thirty months mode because an animal over 30 months is suspicate to BSE or mad cow diesase, therefore a brain sample must be taken for each animal that is older than 30 months old. 1.1 Problem At the current time Abattoir staff accompanied by DARD officials verifies each animal that is brought to slaughter. This process makes DARD partly responsible for any errors in the process so DARD has decided to remove their staff from this process. Wrong animals can enter the food chain caused by the following issues in its identification: • A farmer writes a wrong eartag identification number on a movement permit or presents a wrong animal to the abattoir. A single final digit can be the difference between an over 30 months animal in a farmers herd be mistaken for an under 30 Months animal. • A digit or digits are miss-keyed when transferring from the written permit to the APHIS2 system. The APHIS system alerts staff on animals that need attention before slaughter, such as tests, age discrepancies etc. The consequences of the above errors are: • If an over thirty months animal is killed in Under thirty months mode without a brain sample test, it cannot be determined if any beef that has come into contact with this animal is now safe for human consumption. So all the beef must be destroyed with a huge financial loss to the company. • An animal that may have been completely unfit for human consumption could cause illness to customers. In order to avoid the above issues DARD have suggested that Electronic Identification (EID) of Animals be implemented by the abattoirs to help eliminate these errors. In order for this process to work abattoirs must ensure that they force farmers to have their cattle electronically tagged before presenting them for slaughter. 1 2 Animal and Public Health Information System, A DARD system used to track animals used by Both Farmers and Industry. Explained in More detail in Chapter 2 9
  10. 10. To help abattoirs through this transition DARD have carried out a lot of research on behalf of the meat industry. This research has been used to give recommendations to meat plants on how to implement Electronic Identification systems for cattle. DARD has also provided a number of web services so that meat plants can integrate their EID systems to the APHIS system. 1.2 Aims and Objectives The purpose of this project is to design, develop and implement a suitable cattle Identification system using radio frequency Identification (RFID) readers to reduce human error in the process of verifying cattle received at the abattoir. The system will be implemented into two plants within the Foyle Food group. Omagh Meats and Foyle meats are the two plants that this system will be designed for. 1.3 Thesis outline Chapter 2 describes the purposes of animals traceability and the use of information within beef production, how it gathered, used and descriptions of the other organisations that either provide some of the information or use it themselves. Chapter 3 describes Radio Frequency Identification, the international standards and the standards used in the identification of animals. Issues associated with using RFID technology to identify animals are also explained. Chapter 4 describes the system requirements as expressed by the meat plant management and lairage staff. It is the methodical approach to gather requirements and presenting them to the stakeholder to validate that all their requirements for the new system will be met. Chapter 5 begins the logical design of the software by identifying the main components required and mapping them out using the unified modelling language in the form of Use case diagrams and descriptions and the design of a class diagram that will later be translated into class using visual Basic .net. This chapter also describe the logical data design of the software system using an Entity relationship diagram. Chapter 6 describes the choice of hardware compared with the required hardware specification. It shows the comparison between different EID equipment and the which one best suits this project. Chapter 7 describes the implementation of the fixed reader and Mobile reader system, it give a detail explanation of how the system operates from a user point of view and the technical detail behind each function. Chapter 8 shows the extensive testing carried out on the system, both Black and white box testing and the results and actions obtained from those tests. This section also give an evaluation of the software and whether it means the requirements laid out ion the requirement section of this document. Chapter 9 concludes the finding during the research and the design of this application along with ideas of future work that may improve the system. 10
  11. 11. 2 Animal Traceability Traceability is defined in the General Food Law Regulation 178/2002 as: ‘The ability to trace and follow a food, feed, food producing animal or substance…through all stages of production, processing and distribution The legal requirements for a meat plant under the general food law regulation 178/2002 insist that any food business must: • Identify the suppliers of food, feed, food-producing animals and ingredients to their businesses. • Identify the businesses to which products have been supplied. • Maintain appropriate records and ensure that such information is made available to competent authorities on demand. (Bridgend County Borough Council, 2007). 2.1 Reasons for Traceability One of the main reasons why traceability is so important in beef production is due to out breaks of diseases that affect cattle such as BSE or blue tongue. As an example of the importance keeping these animals out of the food chain I will discuss the risk involved in a diseased animal entering the food chain and the actions required by meat plants enforced by government bodies to prevent it. In 1996 BSE was first confirmed in cattle, Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE) is a disease that affects adult cattle. BSE attacks the brain and central nervous system of the animal and eventually causes death (FSA, 2008). BSE develops in cattle, but it belongs to a family of prion diseases, several of which can affect humans. The most commonly known disease in this group among humans is Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease (CJD) (FSA, 2008). In order to prevent the spread of CJD from cattle to humans, a ban was put on abbatoirs so that they could not slaughter animals older than 30 months for human up until 5 November 2005. This rule know as the Over Thirty Month rule was brought into affect after research showed that only cattle over 30 months old where suppectible to the disease. A BSE testing scheme was developed so that over 30 months cattle could be used in the food chain providing each animal tested negative for BSE. Each abbatoir must adhere to specific guidelines: • Slaughter Over 30 months animals separate from under 30 Months animals. Operate the Abbatoir in two Modes UTM or OTM. • Take a brain sample from each Over 30 month animal and have it tested for BSE by the approved FSA body assigned to test the samples. 2.2 Food Standards Agency The food standards agency is a government watchdog set up in 2000 to monitor food producers. The agency works with local authorities and DARD. They audit food law enforcement activities 11
  12. 12. carried out by DARD’s veterinary service in Northern Ireland. Although DARD are responsible for ensuring that meat plants adhere to food Law regulations, they report to the FSA. The FSA can audit any food business at any time and pick a finished product and ask for the traceability information for that product such as the animals that where used in it’s production, the animals life history, when it was slaughtered and de-boned. They can also request to see a list of customers that meat from a specific animal was sent to. Information on each animal begins when it is born; a farmer is required to register the birth of an animal within 27 days of birth. This information is entered into the APHIS system by either the Farmer direct on the RURAL NI website or by submitting an MC1 form by post to the DARD. The farmer will use the next indivdual animal number. He will then register the animal with the following information: • Herd Number • Farmer Name • Herd Address • Identification Number • Colour • Breed • Sex • Date of Birth • Dam (mother) Identification Number • Sire(father) Breed • Sire Identification Number, If known Two eartags will then be dispatched to the farmer at a cost with the animals indentificatin number on it.The breakdown of the tag is shown in Figure 1 below: Figure 1: DARD Ear Tag3 When a farmer moves an animal to another farm for sale, to the market,an abattoir or an animal dies they must report the movement or death within seven days to DARD. 3 http://www.dardni.gov.uk/index/animal-health/animal-identification-registration-movements/animal- movements-cattle/animal-movements-cattle-tracing.htm 12
  13. 13. 2.3 Department of Agriculture and Rural Development (N. Ireland) The Department of Agriculture and Rural Development (DARD) aims to promote sustainable economic growth and the development of the countryside in Northern Ireland. The Department assists the competitive development of the agri-food, fishing and forestry sectors of the Northern Ireland economy, having regard for the need of the consumers, the welfare of animals and the conservation and enhancement of the environment (DARD, 2008). Although the scope of DARD is a massive one, in a meat plant DARD are responsible for the health and welfare of animals, Meat inspection and the independant grading of animals which determines the price a farmer is paid for their animals, which is based on the confirmation of an animal and it’s fat content. DARD are also responsible for animal diesase control, so farms are monitored on a regular basis and information is gathered on farms and even movement restrictions are imposed on herds to stop the spread of disease. An animal brought to slaughter must be verified to be Fit to slaughter by DARD vetinarians who are on site at each meat plant. All these decisions are made based on the information that is available to both DARD vets and meat plant from the APHIS system. 2.4 Animal and Public Health Information System (APHIS) The APHIS system is key to the operation of any meat plant, if this system is offline for any reason then the meat plants in Northern Ireland cannot slaughter animals with out written consent from DARD. This action will only take affect after two hours down time of APHIS. This system is so critical because of the information is holds and all decisions based on whether an animal is fit for slaughter is based on this information. This system restricts the slaughter of animals based on the information held on that animal. APHIS is the first point in indentifying animals that enter a meat plant. The Farmer presents the written movement permit to the staff at the abattoir, they then key in the Farmers herd number and are presented with a full list of animal identification numbers in numerical order as shown in Figure 2. Figure 2: APHIS System 13
  14. 14. The operator selects the animals from the list on the screen that the farmer has written on the movement permit. And clicks the > button which will then populate the table to the right with the animal details. After all animals are selected the operator selects the OK Button and the animals are moved from the farmers herd to the Meat plant herd. Any animals that are not to be slaughtered or need the Vets attentions are highlighted in red on the screen along with the statuses of the animal that need attention, such as a Date of birth query, or a test that need to be carried out on the animal. The process then generates a printed list known as a Liarage list. This list is used when the animals are put into single file before they are stunned. Two operators then carry out a visual check on the animals, verifying the eartag ideintifer with that on the list. This check is critical, after this check the animal is slaughtered with 10 mins of this check and if the animal is wrongly identified and the animal is slaughtered then this is in violation of the legislation and could lead to prosecution or meat unfit for human consumption being processed and sent to a customer. In order to move an animal from the Meat plant herd to the abattoir and mark it as Dead, the operator applies a four digit kill number which is used by the meat plants on a cycle from 1 to 9999 and is made unique based on the combination of Kill number and date. The factory kill number is applied to each animal to verify that the checks have been carried out and this notifies the APHIS system that this animal has now been slaughtered. Another part of aphis used by meat plants is the ABNET download system. As soon as the kill number is applied to the animal a record is sent to to the meat plant web based download application. The record for each animal contains the following fields. Character Field Value Description Positions 1 Record Status Status of transferred animal, Unconfirmed, Confirmed, Removed, Moved Out, Amended (kill number), TSE Category modified 2 – 21 Animal Tag Number Animal number 22-31 Permit Number Number of movement document 32-36 Kill Number Kill number assigned to animal 37-44 Date of Birth Animals Date of Birth 45-47 Breed Animals breed 48-50 Colour Animals Colour 51 Sex Animals Sex Male or Female 52 FQAS Indicator Y indicates that animal is eligible for FQAS scheme. 53-60 Kill Date Date animal was killed 61 DBES Indicator Y indicate that animal is eligible for DBES scheme 62-81 Country of Origin Indicates country of origin. 82-84 Number of Farm move Number of farms that animal has moved through during it lifespan. 85-92 Move in date to previous herd Date of last move prior to move into abattoir. 93-96 Lifetime FQA Y indicates that animal has had FQ during it lifespan. 97-98 Late Movement Notification 99-100 No Movement Notification 101-102 Bad Movement Trace 103 TSE Sample Flag Y indicates animal selected for TSE sampling N indicates animal not selected 104-105 TSE Category Surveillance Category/Reason for test e.g. HH 106-108 Dam Breed Breed of animal’s dam 14
  15. 15. 109-111 Sire Breed Breed of animal’s sire 112-119 Date of last progeny DOB of animal’s most recent progeny 120 Over 24 month Flag Y indicates animal is over 24 months N indicates animal is under 24 months 121 Over 30 month Flag Y indicates animal is over 30 months N indicates animal is under 30 months 122 Over 48 month Flag Y indicates animal is over 48 months N indicates animal is under 48 months Figure 3: Record specification for the ABNET download 2.5 Animal Information gathered by Meat plants The information provided by APHIS is then matched to information gathered by the meat plant production system by kill number and date. The animals eartag is verified again on the kill Line at an Eartag checking terminal where an operator removes the eartag from the animal and types its ideintifcation number along with its kill no into a terminal, this terminal verfies that the killno and identification no match those downloaded from Aphis. The next step is for a BSE sample label to be printed at another terminal where a brain sample is taken and placed in a jar and a label with that animals details is placed on this jar. All the information on this label is taken from the infomration provided By aphis and includes: • Kill No • Animal Identification Number • Testing category (reason brain sample was taken) • Date of Birth • Kill Date • And a Barcode conating all of the above information so it can be scanned with a bracode reader at the labortary The next stage on the line is where the first piece of information is gathered, the carcass at this stage is spilt into two sides and are weighed on an overhead track scale and the weight of each side is recorded against the kill no. A grade is also applied at this stage, which is determined by a meat inspector from DARD’s veterinary service. There are two scales, a confirmation scale that determines the shape of the carcass and how much beef is on it and the second determines the fat content. The next piece of information is the sex of the animal. A label is then attached to each side of beef that can be inspected by any of the food authorities, the label conatins the following information: • Slaughtered In : EC abbattoir identifier number • Kill no: four digit factory identifier • Kill Date: Date of slaughter • Born In: Country animal was born in. • Reared in: the countries the animal was reared in • Sex: Bull, Steer, Hiefer Cow, see appendex of descriptions • Weight: side weight reading from scale • Grade: grade applied by the meat inspector. 15
  16. 16. This information is mainatined by production system and reports are generated for the factory personnel, DARD vetinary staff and other external bodies. This information gathered at the scale is also used to determine the price a farmer should be paid for each of their cattle, key factors that determine the price which is calculated as pence per kilo are Farm quality assured status, grade of carcass, country of origin. 16
  17. 17. 3 Radio Frequency Identification Radio-frequency identification (RFID) is an automatic identification method, relying on storing and remotely retrieving data using devices called RFID tags or transponders. The technology requires some extent of cooperation of an RFID reader and an RFID tag. (Wikipedia, 2008) 3.1 Uses of RFID technology RFID technology has been around for some time, but its real business application benefits are just now coming to life. RFID technology is based on Radar technology can can be traced back to world war II and was being used by the germans and japanese along with the americans and british. Scientists then carried out research that showed how Radio Frequency energy could be used to identify objects. The research carried on and was then developed over the decades for other uses that we know today (RFID Journal 2008) . RFID technology works on the basis similar to that of the barcode reading method, a tag holds a number or code that is a unqiue reference to that object depending on the standard used. The RFID tag or transponder contains a circuit that when interegated by the RFID reader transmits this number to the reader where it is interpreted by the system and called upon by the software system. It is a contactless technology just likes barcodes only the barcode must be visible to the reader, wheras RFID technology uses readio waves so a trasponder can be embedded into the object. RFID technology has such uses as: • Passports: with passports the RFID transponder contains the identity information of the passport holder not just a unique reference code. The passport can be scanned upon entry into a country at customs and the transponder can be updated to include information such as the entry and exits dates from countries. • Toll Roads: RFID readers can read informataion from the transponder at high speed, so it’s use in the collection of tolls is very useful. The toll bridge lanes are fitted with readers and each car has an tranponder fitted on the windscreen, when a car passes under the reader the unqiue id for that car is recorded, so a bill can later be send to the car owner, or if prepaid the cost of that toll will be reduced from the balance. • Proxy Cards: Cards such as employee ID and clocking cards use RFID technology where an employee will hold the card infront of a RFID reader and the unique number of that card will be transmitted to the reader and the software will then interpret this unique ID to an employee record on a database. • Stock Control and Supply Chain Management: using RFID tags on stock a company can track all the inventory that enters or leaves a warehouse by having an RFID reader at all entry and exit points, if a pallet of stock passes the RFID reader it can detect the qty of stock by the number of individual tags that it has just read. • Track and Trace: RFID technology can now be used to track objects within a certain area, if the object is moved the movement of the RFID tag is tracked by the carefully placed readers where a co-ordinates map is created. Similar to the way global positioning system works. • Electronic Artical survilence: This technology is known to most, as you walk out of a shop there are usually two antennas either side of you and on any products you buy a tag is attached that has a value of either true or false. False if the tags have not been paid for, meaning the sales assistant in the shop has not scanned it after the purchase or it has been stolen and true if the tag has been scanned. The desktop scanner basically changes the 17
  18. 18. value of the tag, so that the antenna and reader at the shop exit will alarm if any tags pass by it with a false value (RFID Journal 2008). 3.2 RFID Standards Everything we touch in our life is in some way governed by standards, whether they are actual standards, de-facto standards, or even just commonly agreed ideas (www.hightechaid.com, 2008). Due to the nature of the uses of RFID technology, many standards have emmerged that make the technology useful for those applications. Most of the developments in RFID technology are governed by the standards developed by the International Organization for Standardization. A standard is initiated when a stakeholder requests the need for a standard with ISO. RFID technology in the identification of animals are controlled by 3 standards and for this project they are the standards the hardware must meet, as they are the standards being used by the cattle eartag manuafcturers and are the standard recommended by technologist at DARD who are advising the meat plants on this technology and its implementation. 3.2.2 ISO 11785 This standard describes the protocols to be used between the transponder and readers. This protocol uses a low frequency and there are two protocols used for the communication between the transponder and the reader • HDX: Know as half duplex because when the reader is sending out a signal, the tag builds up it energy and when the reader then stops and the tag sends its response. Figure 4: Diagram of the transmission between Reader and HDX tag4 4 http://www.ti.com/rfid/shtml/news-releases-06-30-08.shtml 18
  19. 19. • FDX or FDX – B: know as full duplex at the transponder response to the reader while the reader continues to transmit. Figure 5: Diagram of transmission between Reader and FDX tag5 The table below shows the protocols used to communicate between the reader and transponder: Full Duplex (FDX or FDX- Half Duplex Protocol B) (HDX) Modulation ASK FSK Frequency 129-133.2 kHz 124.2 kHz=1 135.2-139.4 kHz 134.2 kHz=0 Differential Biphase Channel code (DBP) none Symbol time 0.23845 ms 0.1288 ms 1 0.1192 ms 0 Telegram (bit) 128 112 Figure 6 : Protocols used to communicate between transponder and Reader6 5 http://www.ti.com/rfid/shtml/news-releases-06-30-08.shtml 6 http://www.ti.com/rfid/shtml/news-releases-06-30-08.shtml 19
  20. 20. 3.2.2 ISO 11784 This standard describes how the code stored on the transponder or tag is to be built up in conformance to the ISO 11785 standard. The codes are described below: • First 3 digits are the tag manufacturers code Depending on the type of tag or the protocol used the remaining code is for each type is described below: Telegram layout: HDX • 8 Startbits 01111110, • 1 Animal-No animal indicator, • 14 'Reserved for future use'bits, • 1 Extra data indicator bit, • 10 Country code according to ISO 3166, • 38 ID bits, • 16 CCITT CRC over the previous 64 bits, • 24 Application bits, FDX • 11 Startbits 00000000001, • 38 ID bits, • 10 Country code according to ISO 3166, • 1 Extra application bits, • 15 Reserved bits, • 1 Animal bit, • 18 CCITT CRC over the previous bits, with the 9th and the 18th bit of the CRC set to 1, • 24 Application bits (Wikipedia, 2008) 3.3.2 ISO 14223/1 This Standard specifies the structure of the radio frequency code for advanced transponders for animals. The technical concept of advanced transponders for animal identification described is based upon the principle of radio frequency identification and is an extension of the standards ISO 11784 and ISO 11785. This part of the standard describes the air interface between transceiver and advanced transponder. 20
  21. 21. 3.3 RFID Technology in Livestock Identification Cattle indentification has become more crtical in recent times to control the spread of disease between animals. Australia was the first counrty to embrace electronic cattle identification, due to the demands on traceability from the counties who imported their beef. The facts below show the importance of tracking the beef: • Each year, Australian's eat an estimated 36.2 kg of beef per person. • Australia currently exports over 65 per cent of its total beef production. • Australia is free of diseases such as BSE and FMD and has strict quarantine proposals designed to ensure that our disease-free status is maintained. • The value of Australia's total beef exports in 2004-05 was approximately A$4.9 billion. • The value of Australia's total live cattle exports in 2004-05 was approximately A$464 million. (Austrialian Government, 2008) When the export business is this big they must ensure confidence in their products, and electronic indentification helps do this. This also appllies to the meat industry in Northern Ireland, as retail companies and consumers alike have the knowledge that the beef they are getting is fully traceable and companies are prepared to implement such systems to ensure that the quality is monitored and maintained both at the meat plant but also from their suppliers. RFID technology in livestock identification is also being embraced by some farmers who find that it helps they get the top price for their animals, one such sheep farmer I know from County Down has a full RFID system that integrates with a weighing scale, he can monitor the amount of feed each lamb gets and he can track the weight as often as he wants. The lamb industry usually only pays for lambs upto certain weight so this farmer knows exactly when these animals are ready and with the drafting system he has, a lamb steps on to a scale, gets weighed and identified, and if the weight is correct the lamb is directed into one pen which is all the sheep to to slaughter, and if now he is redirected into another pen and put back out to graze. 3.3.1 RFID Tags RFID tags come in two varieties: • Active tags contain their own power source which gives then a long read range. It also give the ability to store more data as then can have a high memory store. There battery life is usually about 10 years are they operate very well in harsh environments. This makes them more expensive. (rfident.org, 2008) • Passive: these tags have no internal power and get there energy from the radio waves transmitted by the reader. Because the tags have no power supply it makes them small and thin. Depending on the power of the reader these tags can be activated anywhere from 10 millimetres to 6 metres. To keep costs down for farmers the main type of tag used is the passive tag. (rfident.org, 2008) 21
  22. 22. With identification of cattle as described with the standards in section 3.2 of this document there are two protocols used, being HDX and FDX. So within Northern Ireland a farmer has choice of any of these two. This decision will again must likely be made on the cost of the tag, unless the farmer decides to use the tags as part on a farm or cattle management system for themselves. Due to this fact the meat plants have to have the facilities to accept both types of tags. The RFID enabled eartag come in a number of styles as described below • Button and Leaf where the RFID circuit is contained within the button tag and the leaf tag is a visual tag for the farmer to use with out the need for an RFID reader Figure 7 : Button and Leaf RFID tag and internal circuit7 The microchip in figure 7 is where the unique ID number of the tag is stored and it will contain a 15 digit alphanumeric code that will be read in hexadecimal format to reference the information store on the aphis system • Bolus is an RFID Tag embedded into a ceramic casing and place internally into the intestine of the animal Figure 8: Bolus RFID tag8 For our application the farmers have been recommended to buy only the Leaf and button type tags. 3.3.2 RFID Reading System The RFID reading system is required to read the tags that will be supplied to the farmers must meet the hardware specification as described in section 4.5 of this document as per the recommendation from DARD. Cattle RFID reader systems can be categorised into two types: 7 (www.eidap.com/cattle_tag.asp) 8 (www.eidap.com/cattle_tag.asp) 22
  23. 23. 3.2.2.1 Fixed reader system: A Fixed reader system comprised of the main reader unit and usually two antennae one placed on each side of the cattle race as per figure 8. The reader is the small unit attached to the top of the large panel which is the antenna. The antenna is used to transmit the signal to the tag and to receive the data returned by the tag. Most of the readers on the market can either store the identifications number internally to be download to a computer at a later stage or can be send via a serial cable to the rs232 comport on a pc as they are read. Figure 9 Fixed RFID Eartag Reader9 3.2.2.2 Portable Readers Portable readers were developed mainly for farmers to go out in the field and scan there cattle as they graze. If this reader is complimented with a cattle management software application and a mobile PDA device is can be a very useful tool for the farmer in terms of tracking his animals and for developing them for finishing. The portable reader is waved over the eartag of the animal and gives a reach of 12cm form the end of the reader for health and safety reasons. Most Portable readers store the identification number internally but they can be sent wirelessly via Bluetooth or via a serial cable attached to a PC or a PDA device. Figure 10 Portable RFID Eartag Reader10 9 http://www.powerhousemuseum.com/hsc/refugee/img/traceback_3.jpg 10 http://www.cohera-tech.com.au/product_agriculture_124.jpeg 23
  24. 24. 3.4 Issues with using RFID technology for identification of Animals • Radio signals can be blocked by materials such as metal etc. • Metal structures touching or near the antenna can distort the signal as they become part of the antenna • Due to the fact that the readers have to read in both Duplex and half duplex modes this lowers the read capability due to the fact that it has less time to collect the data from the tag • Only one tag can be read at time, a collision occurs when two tags are in the magnetic field at the same time, which will most likely result in a misread. • The low frequency used for the animal identification makes it susceptible to noise and interference from electrical components such as wiring and running water. This makes it difficult to setup in such a harsh environment that has to be hosed down regularly like the lairage of a meat plant. • The choice of equipment is critical and live testing must be carried out to determine the noise level around the place of the reader so the reader can be adjusted to operate in the maximum capacity. 24
  25. 25. 4 Software Requirements Specification The purpose of this section is to clearly define the Animal Electronic identification system that will be used by the Foyle Food Group within its Foyle and Omagh plants. It will describe the system for the purposes of the Lairage operators to receive animals with EID tags. The Requirement analysis was conducted in a meeting with the Factory directors, factory managers, cattle procurement managers and lairage operators where we discussed the webservices being provided by DARD on the APHIS system and whether they meet our needs, I proposed an initial system of two fixed RFID readers but after discussion the requirements discussed in the following sections is what was deemed to be the best solution for the tow factory both Omagh Meats and Foyle Meats. Appendix J shows the presentation given at this meeting. 4.2 Logical Diagrams 4.2.1 Current Work Flow Diagram The following Diagram shows the current process of receiving live animals. Lairage Intake of Animals :: Before EID New Operator Farmer DARD Lairage Operators (DARD Replacement) DARD Enter MC 2 document on to E-MPL Farmer presents system MC2 document Animals Moved To Lairage Lairage List Animals printed off UnLoaded Animals Placed in Pens until ready for Slaughter Checks carried out as per Cattle Moved to Liarage List and E-MPL Clipping Pen system updated Cattle Moved to Kill Line Chute Kill No Applied Cattle Posted To Final Checks carried out Scanplant system and Sex Updated Kill No’s entered onto E- MPL Animals Moved to Kill Line and Declared as DEAD on APHIS 25
  26. 26. 4.2 Proposed Work Flow Diagram The following Diagram shows the proposed process of receiving live animals with EID. Lairage Intake of Animals:: With Two Readers: Entry of Liarage & Mobile Reader @ Kill Chute DARD Farmer RFID Reader Lairage Operators Farmer presents MC 2 document Or Has Created n E-Permit Night Before Animals Scanned and Automatically Animals Animals Moved to Liarage Confirmed on UnLoaded on the E -MPL E-MPL Systems Lairage List sent to Printer Animals Placed in Pens until ready for Slaughter Checks carried out as Cattle Moved per Liarage List and to Clipping E-MPL system Pen updated Cattle Moved to Kill Line Chute MOBILE PDA READER:: Animal Scanned By PDA reader Finals Checks Final Checks carried required are displayed on out screen including Animal Information required for MOBILE PDA final checks READER:: Kill No Applied to animal and entered along with sex of animal on PDA Middleware sends Kill No to Aphis marking the Animal as Dead and Moved to the Kill Line, Middleware also moves animals to the Kill Line on Scanplant Production system. 26
  27. 27. 4.3 System Description 4.3.1 Presenting animals at Lairage The reception of live animals consists of two moves on the Aphis system, the first move is the movement of animals from the herd to the Lairage, the second being the movement from the Lairage to the abattoir where the animal is marked as DEAD on the APHIS system. The sections following describe this process in more detail. When the animals are unloaded from the trailer they pass a fixed RFID reader, an application running will receive each of the identification numbers from the RFID reader, each of these numbers will be passed to the APHIS system using a web service supplied by DARD. The web service will accept one number at a time and return the following information • Animal Eartag • Colour • Breed • Sex • DOB • Current statuses • Current Herd No. (This should match the no of the farmer that has brought them to the factory) If the animal’s details cannot be found on APHIS an error will be returned. The web service at this stage will create an Electronic version of the MC2 document (see Appendix B for the paper version of this document) as the numbers are passed to the web service, or if they were placed on an electronic document by the farmer previous to delivery then they will be checked off against this document. If animals do not have electronic tags the ear tags will have to be manually entered onto the E-MPL system or can be scanned if their passports have a barcode. If an animal arrives that is not on a previously created electronic movement document then this animal will be added to a new permit as more than likely this animal will be accepted. 4.3.2 Confirmation into the Lairage E_MPL is the only method for confirming all animals into the Lairage, irrespective of whether or not the animals are EID tagged. The user will log into the E-MPL web application select the “Move into Lairage” Option and enters the movement document the list of animals will be displayed, a column on the screen will show each of the cattle that have been read by the fixed RFID, it will also show animals that have been placed on an previously created electronic document by the farmer that have not been read by the RFID reader, in the case that he has selected an animal but has not brought it to the factory. These animals can be removed from the permit on the E-MPL system. The Lairage operator must then confirm all the animals and print off the Lairage list for the vets for any animal’s statuses that need to be checked. 27
  28. 28. 4.3.3 Movement into the abattoir At this stage animals are in a single line chute usually in a group of up-to 12, the operator will have a PDA with an RFID reader (be it an SD Card or a Bluetooth wand reader) and because they are within reach of the animal’s eartag it should be easily scanned. The PDA will be running an application that will receive the EID number return the animals details for final visual checks then the operator will enter the Kill No that has been applied to the animal, the application will then send this Kill no to a second web-service that will check that the animal was previously moved into the Lairage, and that any Statuses that needed attention have been checked off and cleared. If this is successful then the animal will be marked as DEAD on the APHIS system and Final animal details will be returned to the PDA application to alert the operator that this was accepted. The application will also move the animals to the Kill Line on the Scanplant Production system with user interaction. 4.4 Requirements 4.4.1 Functional Requirements 4.4.1.1 Register a V Movement document (Permit) When a farmer arrives at the Lairage with animals he will be required to provide his Herd No and a Permit Number and this will be entered into the application on the PC at the front of the Lairage. (Optional: This can be done by typing in the herd no and permit number or we can issue cards with a magnetic stripe that stores that farmers herd number so the farmer could swipe this card and then enter his permit number. This would be useful for farmers delivering cattle when the Lairage operators are not available.) The application will register this document with APHIS and will acknowledge if this was successful or not with a message on the screen. The system will return an error if the document does not match ones issues to that herd no, if it has been previously used on a different day, or has been marked as LOST by APHIS. 4.4.1.2 Adding Animals to Movement Documents After the V or E document has been registered, a prompt will be given to allow the animals begin to pass the readers, as each animal passes the reader its RFID tag will be read and the identifier will be passed to APHIS one at time. Animals will be added to the V or E permit, but cannot be added to a Movement License S document or a move out of Market document M. As each animal passes the reader a list of the animals will be generated on screen with the information returned by Aphis such as: • Permit No • Success Flag • EID TAG identifier • Animal Eartag Number The screen will display a count of the animals that have been read and the operator must verify that the no of cattle match this, as the animals cannot be brought back to be re-read at this stage 28
  29. 29. they must be added manually to the permit using the APHIS E-MPL (electronic meat plant Lairage) web application. A list of animals that where not added to the Movement document but where read by the RFID reader will be displayed on screen. These must be verified and fixed using the E-MPL application. These would include animals that are currently not registered into the HERD number that was used, for example recently purchased but not registered. 4.4.1.3 Automatically move animals into Lairage Herd After the animals are read by the RFID reader and added to the Movement document as detailed in section 4.4.1.2. The operator must verify that he wants to confirm the movement of the successful animals into the Lairage herd. When the Operator confirms that Information is OK he will hit the Confirm into Lairage Button and the application will move the animals into the Lairage herd on APHIS. The application will then confirm that the animals have been moved into the Lairage herd. The list below shows they rules for Movement to Lairage An animal falls into one of four categories when moving to lairage/abattoir: 1. It is banned to move to the lairage and therefore cannot move to the abattoir e.g. o Herd has CII, ENF, ACHVE or an L&R banned status o Animal has an L&R banned status 2. It is allowed to move to the lairage but is banned from moving on to the abattoir e.g. o Animal born before August 1996 o Animal has a status which makes it ineligible for slaughter e.g. BSEJ, BSER etc. 3. It is allowed to move to the lairage and on to the abattoir but requires VO authorisation e.g. o A licence is required to move the animal to the lairage 4. It is allowed to move to the lairage and on to the abattoir and VO authorisation has either been received or is not actually required. Information messages may still be returned to the user but the move will have taken place e.g. o Animal not confirmed by buyer and therefore has had NMN applied The Normal Lairage list will then be available from E-MPL application. However the Lairage application will provide the following reports • Showing animals that are ready for Abattoir • Showing animals that are Band from Moving to abattoir • Showing animals that require VO authorization • Showing animals that are banned from moving to Lairage • Animals that have been read but have not moved into Lairage such as wrong herd etc. The system will be capable of emailing the VO for animals that require their authorization as soon at they are confirmed into the Lairage. A pager system could also be put into place if required, or a text to mobile phone 29
  30. 30. 4.4.1.4 Assign Kill No and confirm into Abattoir A Handheld reader with a PDA device running an application developed in-house will be used to apply the Kill no to each animal and confirm it into he abattoir herd on aphis. This process will also integrate with the Scanplant Kill line Lairage ROLA application; so that it will place the animals onto the Kill line as it gets confirmed. This is currently a manual process that is required by the Lairage operators. 1. The operator will scan the electronic ear tag of the animal with the handheld reader. 2. The animal details such as ear tag number, any statuses will be displayed on the screen of the PDA. 3. If the animal is OK to proceed to abattoir, a visual check of the on screen animal ear tag and the physical animal ear tag must be carried 4. To confirm this, the operator will key in the Kill no of this animal and hit the move to Abattoir button which will then move the animal to the abattoir herd on the Aphis system. 5. A Message will be displayed on the screen to acknowledge whether the move was successful and if not why not. 4.4.1.5 Non EID tagged animals If an animal arrives at the lairage that does not have an EID tag, internal procedures will need to be put in place to process the animal, such as temporarily tagging the animal through the lairage. It is not within the scope of this project to deal with animals not EID tagged or linking the APHIS animal number to a new EID number. 4.4.1.6 Imports for Direct Slaughter Animals that are imported into Northern Ireland will be registered on APHIS at the port of arrival. These animals will then be placed on a licence to move them from the port to the place of slaughter. Therefore there is no further enhancement necessary within the scope of this project to confirm these animals into the lairage herd, as procedures already described in this document will be used to confirm the animals into the lairage. E-MPL is being modified by DARD to allow the lairage operators to scan passports directly into E_MPL. This will reduce typing errors. Normal checks will still be required for these animals. 4.4.2 Non-Functional 4.4.2.1 Usability Both Lairage entrance application and the PDA application should be simple to use with clear messaging of information. 30
  31. 31. 4.4.2.2 Scalability This application will be developed for both Omagh Meats and Foyle Meats. It is intended for use by Lairage staff and maybe farmers for the first reader when the operators are not available. This system will be designed so that it can be expanded in the future. 4.5 Hardware Requirements The sections below describe the hardware specification required for this system, which includes the standards required for the harsh environment and conditions under which the system must operate. NOTE: Prior to installation of any equipment into our site, a site survey is to be conducted to ascertain the extent of the work required. 4.5.1 Fixed RFID Reader at the entrance to the Lairage The technical descriptions below are a Minimum standard for the fixed RFID reader at the entrance to the Lairage. • Antenna and Readers must be ISO 11785 compliant and must be able to read both FDX(B) and HDX RFID devices • Readers and Antenna must have an IP Rating of IP65 • Antenna and readers must be constructed of material that will survive harsh environments • The reader must be able to recover the whole code from the transponder and pass the required data to the controlling PC in hexadecimal format. • The supplier is to provide reliable and robust communications from the antenna to the reader and from the reader to the controlling PC. • The antenna and reader configuration must be able to read 100% of all electronic tags passing the antenna with in a width of up-to 1.2 meters. • The reader must have EC type approval (i.e. CE Marked) • Have been tested and passed EMC compliance in accordance with ETSI 300 330-2 • The manufacturer must manufacture to a quality assurance procedure – ISO 9001 – 2000 or equivalent. • The reader must be equipped with audio and visual warning tone/lights to shows its operation and to signify a tag read. • The reader must be able to be synchronized with readers from the same manufacturer. • The reader and antenna must be installed using anti shock materials and connectors resistant to dust and humidity • Military cabling, connectors and armoured conduit is to be used to ensure robustness installation. • The hardware must come with a software development Kit (SDK) so that FFG can develop the middleware between the Reader and the APHIS web service. • FFG will provide PC’s, UPSs, electric power, networking to the PC and the Software interface to the APHIS system. 31
  32. 32. • The supplier will produce training and Skills transfer document and any training required to operate the system. • FFG will carry out the final acceptance testing before sign off and acceptance. 4.5.2 Portable Hardware This reader may be a PDA with a built in RFID reader that reads ISO 11785 standard tags, or maybe a handheld readerWand with Bluetooth that can be connected to a PDA. FFG can purchase the PDA separately if a wand reader is the chosen portable reader. The technical descriptions below are a Minimum standard for the portable RFID reader at the single file chute to the abattoir: • Hand held readers must be ISO 11785 compliant and must be able to read both FDX (B) and HDX RFID devices. • Must have and IP rating of IP55 or greater • Survive a drop of 1 meter onto concrete • Have been tested and passed EMC compliance in accordance with ETSI 300 330-2 • Have read range of 26cm for both FDX (B) and HDX RFID devices, or be able to reach tags at arms length safely over cattle (extended wand) in the case of a Built in RFID reader. • Have EC Type approval (i.e. CE marked) • Manufactured to quality assurance procedure ISO 9001-2000. The minimum specification for the PDA devices is: • Minimum Windows Mobile® 5.0 • Survive a drop of 1 meter onto concrete • Must have and IP rating of IP55 or greater • 520MHz process speed • Minimum of 128mb RAM • Integrated Bluetooth or 9-pin RS-232 serial connector • Integrated WLAN 802.11b/g • 320 x 240 pixel (1.4 VGA) • TFT Touch screen, Front light • Table Cradle with charger • Pistol Grip • Full numeric keyboard, navigation and function keys • Integrated laser bar code scanner 32
  33. 33. 5 System Design The purpose of this section is to detail the design for the Electronic identification of Cattle as they enter the factory. The document should illustrate user-interfaces and describe the process flow within the application, also, describing back-end processes where appropriate. Interactions with the database are also described, including the design of any new or modified database objects. The lairage EID fixed reader application will allow farmers to register their movement document before animals pass the reader to record the movements. A farmer will enter their Herd number using the numeric keypad on the touch screen terminal next to the EID readers. The system will verify the herd number using the webservices available against the movement document to ensure it belongs to that herd and has not been used previously. If the verification of the movement document is successful the farmer will be notified by an on screen prompt and he will then hit a button to begin the scanning of the animals using the readers as they walk off the lorry. The system will display the animal’s details as they are read and register them as entered into the lairage on the aphis system. On the screen the system will colour code each animal based on the status details returned from Aphis via the webservices. I.e. Green if animal is ready for slaughter, Red if the animals require further checks before slaughter. The system will also show the total number of animals read by the EID reader to highlight any animals that may have been missed due to a missed read or a faulty RFID tag. In the event of any animals being missed by the RFID reader, the lairage operators will then have to register these animals manually using DARD’s E-MPL application. The next stage in process it to register the animal’s movement into the abattoir and mark them as dead on the aphis system. This will be done using the PDA and the handheld RFID readers. The animals are lined up in single file in the chute and each one will be scanned and the lairage operator will enter a four digit kill number unique for that day for that animal and the Sex of the animal will also be recorded. 33
  34. 34. 5.1 Use Case Diagrams Fixed Reader EID System Verify Document Against Herd No Start EID Reading «uses» Farmer Process Register Animals Into Lairage APHIS Stop EID Reading Process Figure 11: Fixed Reader Use Case Mobile Reader EID System Scan Animal «uses» Verify Animal is In Lairage APHIS Lairage Operator Enter Kill No and «uses» Sex Register Animals Movement to abattoir Figure 12: Mobile Reader Use Case 34
  35. 35. 5.2 Use Case Decriptions Use Case Name Verify Document Against Herd No Scenario Verify that the Document no is assigned to that herd Trigger Farmer enters herd No and MC2 movement document at the terminal Brief Descriptions A farmer will arrive with a load of animals, he will go to the touch screen terminal enter in his Herd No and His MC2 movement document No Actors Farmer, System Related Use Cases None Pre-Conditions Farmer Must have a MC2 document that is assigned to his Herd By DARD Post Conditions None Flow Of Events Actor System 1. Farmer goes to terminal and enters Herd Number and Document No using the touch screen Key pad 2. System Validates the Herd No Against the Document No and Registers the Movement document on APHIS using the WS_MeatRegisterVDoc web service 3. System Acknowledges to Farmer if the Validation is successful or Not. Exception Conditions 1. If the Document Number is not assigned to that Herd Number on APHIS a message is displayed on screen. The farmer will not be able to scan any animals until a valid document number has been presented. 2. A document can only be used on One day; if the document has been previously used then a message will be displayed on screen. The farmer will not be able to scan any animals until a valid document number has been presented. 35
  36. 36. Use Case Name Start EID Reading Process Scenario start the system to begin reading information from the RFID reader Trigger Farmer Hits the Scan Animals button on the terminal Brief Descriptions The farmer is ready to start scanning animals using the RFID reader Actors Farmer, System Related Use Cases Register Animals Into Lairage Pre-Conditions Farmer Must have a MC2 document verified All Animals that pass the RFID reader but be registered with APHIS and stored Post Conditions in a local Database Flow Of Events Actor System 1. Farmer Hits button to start Scanning animals 2. Software opens Com Port to RFID reader 3. Accept one tag at a time and start a thread to call the web service 4. Repeat event 3 Exception Conditions 1. A bad read from a tag, where the unique number is not in the correct format, Notify the user on screen after the all the other animals have been scanned. 2. If there is No response from reader after Port is notify the user as soon as possible before the animals start to pass the reader. 36
  37. 37. Use Case Name Register Animals Into Lairage Scenario Register the animal on APHIS system Trigger A new thread is started by the system with a ID from an RFID tag Brief Descriptions The system will initiate this new thread when a Tag is read by the reader, and the unique number will be passed to APHIS via the web service WS_MeatAddToMovementNot. And WS_MeatConfirmMove Actors System Related Use Cases Start EID Reading Process A number in the correct format must be passed to the thread to begin the Pre-Conditions process DARD webservices but be online and working Post Conditions None Flow Of Events Actor System 1.New Thread started after a cattle ID number is passed 2.Webservice called and Cattle ID number passed 3.Response accepted from web service with notification as to whether registration was successful 4. Colour Animal row on the screen dependant on the status of the animal and the status of the registration. I.e. if the Animal requires checks from the VET colour it red. 5. Save animals details returned from web service to local database. Exception Conditions 1. If the DARD webservice is down, record the ID numbers and store them within the local database so the user can register them later when the webservices are back on line. 37
  38. 38. Use Case Name Scan Animal Scenario Accept ID from Handheld RFID scanner The Lairage Operator Hits the scan animal button on the PDA screen and scans Trigger an animal eartag with the handheld reader Brief Descriptions The system will initiate this new thread when a Tag is read by the reader, and the unique number will be checked in the local database to make sure it was previously registered into the Lairage Actors Lairage Operator, PDA System Related Use Cases Verify Animal is in Lairage The Bluetooth connection between the Handheld reader and the PDA must be Pre-Conditions established. DARD webservices but be online and working Post Conditions None Flow Of Events Actor System 1. User hits the scan animal button on the PDA then Scans the Animal with the handheld reader. 2. open com port and accepts ID number 3. Check the ID in the Local database to see if the animal has been previously registered into the lairage 4. Return animals details to the screen if found in the local database Exception Conditions 1. If the Animals is not in the local database, notify the user on the PDA screen to get check it out on the E-mpl system. 38
  39. 39. Use Case Name Enter Kill No and Sex of animal Scenario Record Kill No and sex of animal. Trigger The user enters the unique Kill no for the animal and the sex of the animal Brief Descriptions The system records the Kill No and sex of the animal to be passed to APHIS Actors Lairage Operator, PDA System Related Use Cases Register Animals movement to Abattoir The animal must be previously registered in the Lairage as per the Verify Pre-Conditions Animal is in Lairage Post Conditions None Flow Of Events Actor System 1. User enters the unique Kill no for this animal and selects the sex of the animal on the drop down list 2. The animals Kill no and Sex are recorded to the local Database Exception Conditions 1. If the animal was never registered into the lairage then this process cannot be done. 39
  40. 40. Use Case Name Register Animals movement to Abattoir Register the animal as dead on the APHIS system by passing its Kill no to Scenario the WS_MeatAssignKillNo web service Trigger The user enters the unique Kill no for the animal and the sex of the animal Brief Descriptions The system records the Kill No and sex of the animal to be passed to APHIS web service WS_MeatAssignKillNo Actors PDA System Related Use Cases Enter Kill No and Sex of animal Pre-Conditions The lairage operator must have assigned a Kill No to the animal Post Conditions None Flow Of Events Actor System 1. the system calls the WS_MeatAssignKillNo Web service passing it the Kill Number of the animal along with the RFID tag passed previously by the handheld RFID reader 4.Response accepted from web service with notification as to whether registration was successful Exception Conditions 1. If the animal’s movement to the abattoir was not successful the system will notify the user on screen with the reason why. The animal may need to be put to the side until the issue is resolved. 40

×