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  1. 1. Introduction to RFID Vlad Krotov DISC 4397 – Section 12977 University of Houston Bauer College of Business Spring 2005
  2. 2. Some links… <ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>RFID Handbook </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
  3. 3. Auto-ID Technologies Biometric Systems Smart Cards RFID Optical Character Recognition (OCR) Barcode Systems Auto-ID
  4. 4. Definition <ul><li>RFID (Radio Frequency Identification) is a technology that enables the electronic and wireless labeling and identification of objects, humans and animals </li></ul>
  5. 5. RFID Principal System Components <ul><li>Tag (Transponder) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Chip </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Antenna </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Reader (Interrogator) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>RF Module (Transmitter and Receiver) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Control Unit </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Antenna </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Several Interfaces (RS 232, RS 485, etc.) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Host Computer </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Middleware </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. RFID System Architecture
  7. 7. EPC RFID Architecture
  8. 8. EPC RFID System Architecture
  9. 9. Carrier Frequencies <ul><li>What is frequency? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Refers to the property of radio waves used to transmit data </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Roughly speaking, it is the intensity of waves used to transmit information </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Carrier Frequency <ul><li>RFID systems may use a particular frequency band depending on: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Application </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Legislature </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cost considerations </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Frequency Bands Railroad car monitoring Toll collection systems Long read range High reading speed Line of sight required (Microwave) Expensive High UHF: 850-950MHz Microwave: 2.4 – 5.8 GHz Access Control Smart Cards Short to medium read range Potentially inexpensive Medium reading range Medium 10-15 MHz Access control Animal/Human identification Inventory Control Short to medium read range, inexpensive, low reading speed Low 100-500 kHz Typical Applications Characteristics Frequency Band
  12. 12. Coupling <ul><li>100kHz – 30 MHz – inductive coupling </li></ul><ul><li>HF and Microwave systems use electromagnetic coupling </li></ul>
  13. 13. Coupling
  14. 14. Frequency and bandwidth <ul><li>Frequency is of primary importance when determining data transfer rates (bandwidth) </li></ul><ul><li>The higher the frequency, the higher the data transfer rate </li></ul>
  15. 15. Range <ul><li>Range – the working distance between a tag and a reader </li></ul>Range
  16. 16. Range and Power Levels <ul><li>The range that can be achieved in an RFID system is determined by </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The power available at the reader </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The power available within the tag </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The environmental conditions and structures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>More important at higher frequencies than at lower frequencies </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>100-500mW </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Material Propagation <ul><li>The absorption rate for water and other non-conductive substances is lower by a factor of 100 000 at 100 kHz than it is at 1 GHz </li></ul><ul><li>LF systems are primarily used due to their high propagation of substances </li></ul>
  18. 18. Electromagnetic Interference <ul><li>What is electromagnetic interference? </li></ul><ul><li>LF (inductive coupling) RFID systems suffer from electromagnetic interference more than UHF and Microwave </li></ul><ul><li>Microwave systems are more likely to be used in manufacturing (auto-industry) </li></ul>
  19. 19. Tags Characteristic <ul><li>Means by which transponder is powered </li></ul><ul><li>Data carrying options </li></ul><ul><li>Data read rates </li></ul><ul><li>Programming options </li></ul><ul><li>Physical forms </li></ul><ul><li>Costs </li></ul>
  20. 20. Active and Passive Tags <ul><li>Active tags </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Powered by an internal battery </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Finite lifetime (because of battery) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Greater range </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Better noise immunity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Higher data transmission rates </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. Active and Passive Tags <ul><li>Passive tags </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Operate without battery </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Derive power from the field generate by the reader </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Less expensive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Unlimited life </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Subject to noise </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Require more powerful readers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Orientation sensitivity </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. Data Carrying Options <ul><li>A tag can contain </li></ul><ul><ul><li>An identifier </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1bit – 128 bits </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Portable data files </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Example: 64 K </li></ul></ul></ul>
  23. 23. Data Read Rate <ul><li>Data read rate is linked to frequency </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The higher the frequency, the higher the read rate </li></ul></ul>
  24. 24. Data Programming Options <ul><li>Read-only </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cheap </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Write once read many (WORM) </li></ul><ul><li>Read/write </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Expansive </li></ul></ul>
  25. 25. Why Use Read/Write Tags? <ul><li>Greater flexibility </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Customers may change requirements </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Standards may change </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Database dependence </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ownership issues </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lag times </li></ul></ul><ul><li>High risk applications </li></ul>
  26. 26. Tag Physical Forms <ul><li>Disk and Coins – can be attached to an item by a fastening screw </li></ul>
  27. 27. Tag Physical Forms <ul><li>Mount-on-Metal – special construction minimizes impact of metal in terms of interference </li></ul>
  28. 28. Tag Physical Forms <ul><li>Keys or Key Fobs, Watches – access control </li></ul>
  29. 29. Smart Labels <ul><li>A bar code can be printed on an RFID label </li></ul>
  30. 30. Tag Physical Forms <ul><li>Glass Transponders can be implanted under skin </li></ul>
  31. 31. What’s so special about RFID? <ul><li>Unifying Auto-ID technology </li></ul><ul><li>Line of sight is not required </li></ul><ul><li>Longer read ranges </li></ul><ul><li>Faster: hundreds of items can be scanned in one read </li></ul>
  32. 32. RFID vs. Barcodes
  33. 33. Principles of Profitable RFID Use <ul><li>Bar codes are unfeasible </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Example: rail cars </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Damage </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Speed </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Counting Processes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Greater speed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Saves manual labor </li></ul></ul>
  34. 34. Principles of Profitable RFID Use <ul><li>Personal responsibility doesn't match the enterprise value of data collection </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Example: a big retailer working with a small supplier </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The data collection process is relatively chaotic </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Example: Battlefield </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Making libraries chaotic </li></ul></ul>
  35. 35. Principles of Profitable RFID Use <ul><li>The exact configuration of goods must be maintained </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Example: Auto industry </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Data must be collected from consumers outside of the retail </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Warning: Privacy Concerns </li></ul></ul>
  36. 36. RFID Evolution (Gartner, 2003)
  37. 37. RFID Growth <ul><li>Several market research firms predict that ~2007 RFID market will reach ~$3 billion </li></ul>
  38. 38. <ul><li>Questions? </li></ul>