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"Simple" passive RFID tag

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  • This is the list of categories of wireless applications that we are presently working with to tackle the Requirements and Issues document of the WAG. The applications in red are the ones that generally cannot be made to run over or utilize the WLANs. The rest can all use the WLAN for transport of information.
  • The network organization came up with a set of network principles to guide the use of the applications running over the LANs. The most prominent principle is to: Leverage what we have, which is a WLAN that is almost ubiquitous and has adequate engineered bandwidth to handle all applications. The secondary principle is to not interfere with those frequencies that carry an enormous amount of packet traffic for multi-purpose applications. This is the most efficient manner of moving information and is available to everyone. Applications do not need to create a separate transport capability, but to use the general purpose WLANs as much as possible. There is a preference by the funders of the network to add servers to the applications and not to add APs or antennas. I disagree with this one and heartily encourage ubiquitous coverage. Without ubiquitous coverage we will never realize the productivity gains that come from being mobile.
  • This slide depicts how the Passive and Active RFID relationship will look across the DoD supply chain. It is important to stress the point that the technologies complement one another only if there is full appreciation for the unique role that each serves. Passive tags will be used to label cases and pallets starting at the Point of Origin. As material is readied for OCONUS shipment, cases and pallets labeled with Passive Tags will be associated with Active Tags marking shipping containers. At the end of the pipeline, Passive Tags assume control once again since it is the case and pallet load that the customer is interested in. Lower Set of Red Arrows Don’t forget about the retrograde leg of the supply chain. In sum, DoD’s goal is clear: to enhance an integrated capability across all business processes and between all echelons of the Supply Chain. This integration must include our commercial business partners and suppliers. Achieving this will support DoD’s goal of streamlining the Supply Chain.
  • This slide depicts how the Passive and Active RFID relationship will look across the DoD supply chain. It is important to stress the point that the technologies complement one another only if there is full appreciation for the unique role that each serves. Passive tags will be used to label cases and pallets starting at the Point of Origin. As material is readied for OCONUS shipment, cases and pallets labeled with Passive Tags will be associated with Active Tags marking shipping containers. At the end of the pipeline, Passive Tags assume control once again since it is the case and pallet load that the customer is interested in. Lower Set of Red Arrows Don’t forget about the retrograde leg of the supply chain. In sum, DoD’s goal is clear: to enhance an integrated capability across all business processes and between all echelons of the Supply Chain. This integration must include our commercial business partners and suppliers. Achieving this will support DoD’s goal of streamlining the Supply Chain.

Transcript

  • 1. RFID Tutorial for 802 Enterprise use of RFID Ongoing Activities Challenges Radio Standards Issues
  • 2. RFID
    • What is it?
    • Where is it in technology life cycle?
    • Challenges
    • Issues
    • Radio Issues
    • What can IEEE and 802 do?
  • 3. “ Simple” passive RFID tag
    • Low cost tag with pre-defined id
      • Logically mapped to tracked asset
    • Radio Field Excites Tag
      • 4W Burst
      • EPCGlobal Frequencies
        • 857MHz Europe (3MHz wide)
        • 915MHz US (26MHz wide)
        • 960MHz Japan (3MHz wide)
    • Location
      • Last known Location
    • Benefits:
      • Reusable (can be re-assigned)
      • Zero production costs (purchased ready-to-use from vendor)
    • Boeing examples:
      • Employee badge
        • proximity chip id  bemsid
      • Wichita
        • Passive tag id  order number
      • Philadelphia
        • Passive tag id  part number
      • Auburn pilot
        • Passive tag id  cart  electronic manifest
  • 4. Active Tag RFID
    • Battery
      • Last 3-5 years
      • Motion activated tags
    • 802.11 Versions
    • Real Time Location Services (using WLAN Access Points)
  • 5. Passive Tag RFID Life Cycle
    • Promotion by Wal-Mart and DoD
      • Consumer product emphasis
      • 2 cent tags
    • Valley of Despair
      • Been through the hype
      • Been through the heights
      • Radio issues put it in the valley of despair
  • 6. Active Tag RFID Life Cycle
    • Valley of Despair
      • Little hype
      • Expensive tags ($50)
      • Radio advantages over passive (no burst of power)
      • RSSI issues put it in the valley of despair for factory applications
      • Minimally requires TDOA to be usable
  • 7. “ Simple” RFID Architecture Tag Vendor s/w Reader/ Antenna Message Parser Asset Mapping Business Rules RFID “application” Business Application(s)
    • Tag Id
    • Tag Id
    • Antenna
    • XML message :
    • Tag Id
    • Antenna
    • Date/Time
    Vendor Enterprise (Pre-defined RFID tag) “ RFID Application” can be used to determine what needs to be delivered where and how (variation 2) (variation 1)
  • 8. Badge Access Management System (AMS) The proximity (badge) reader communicates with a control panel that resides locally. The panel keeps a local copy of badges that have previously accessed the building along with some other data. If the badge being scanned is not in the panel, a request is sent to the AMS host to validate the badge. The AMS host executes the proximity chip id  employee BEMSID “look-up” as appropriate. Proximity Reader Local Control Panel (upon verification, opens door) delivers proximity chip id Verification request AMS Application Badging Application BIT Bems ID Translator
  • 9. RFID Architecture Logical View Unprocessed Tag Data Parsed Tag Data Matrics Antenna Reader Database Loader RFID Oracle Database Tag ID Tag Data Shop Orders RFID Tag (Matrics format) Tag ID Assigned by Matrics RFID Hardware Applications Web based Management Visibility screen DC/MRC I/F to ERP HEI VAX User Screens XML Parser Temporary Flat Files Tag data in XML Files Parsed Tag Data Matrics Visibility Manager (MVM) Middleware
  • 10. RFID Across an Enterprise Legend
  • 11. Challenges
    • Establishing “standards” within an evolving industry for a multi-dimensional systems (passive, active, semi-passive, etc)
      • Retail versus Manufacturing “requirements” (EPC??)
      • Minimize proprietary if/when possible
    • Successful implementations of suitable RFID product to business application
      • Defining data/tag and collection requirements
      • Security issues
      • Satisfying frequency management, etc. (avoiding conflicts, redundancy)
    • Providing enterprise-wide resources for:
      • Current & past RFID “lessons learned”
      • Technical expertise
      • Common approach for evaluation, implementation, etc.
  • 12. Electronic Product Code (EPC)
  • 13. “ Finding the ROI in RFID”
    • From an AMR Research, Inc publication ( Report #16660, October 2003):
    • RFID must be business case/business process driven :
      • “ The Bottom Line: In order for companies to find value in RFID, it needs to be viewed as more than a bar code replacement; successful companies have overhauled their business processes to take advantage of the process automation capabilities it offers”
      • “ RFID will not cure a bad business process. Achieving the transformational potential of this technology requires creative thinking, often from cross-functional areas of your enterprise.”
    • Infrastructure is a major consideration in RFID implementations
      • “ The back end is the key; there is too much focus on tags and readers and not enough on the impact on the software infrastructure and systems integration required to support RFID. Our research shows that this is the area that present the most risk of unexpected cost and project overrun.”
  • 14. Critical Components Large Assemblies Contract Tools In-Transit Materiel How can we use RFID? Calibrated Measuring Tools Legal Documents Technical Documents Hazardous Material Receipts Shipments Inventory Phones How We Got Started Computing Assets What Problem(s) are we Trying to Solve?
  • 15. RFID Project Approval Process Frequency Management Council (Local) Approval Safety Health Environmental Affairs (Local) Network Support (Local) Business Case (TCO) Lean Assessment Non Standard Justification Process Identification Use Case Definition IT Interfaces Approved Hardware/Software RFID Technology Standards Common Use Cases
  • 16. Value Proposition and Customers Logistics Chain of custody, Movement history Maintenance Task manning/tooling/ requred certs) Reliability Recurring Maintenance Actions, Failure Patterns Unstructured Data OEM feedback, Helpful observations Legacy OEM, Birth record, Certs/Specs Authenticity Validation of authenticity & Authorizations for Repair and custody Engineering Curious, life limited or Unique repair Control documents Sustainment Collaboration on Business Value
    • Life Cycle Data Management
    • Emergency Equipment
    • Tooling tracking
    • Inventory tracking
    • Government property
    • Shipping Labels
    • Part tracking and reliability
    OSD Spend is over $250M/year on RFID technology BCA estimates $1M value increase of RFID enabled A/C Logistics Chain of custody, Movement history Demand Planning Inventory Behavior, Consumption History Inventory Where, How Much Supply Chain Visibility from Partner to Partner Flow Velocity & Idle Time Transportation In-Transit Visibility Asset Management Property, Equipment Visibility Operations
  • 17. RFID is a user of the unlicensed RF spectrum resource. Due to current and legacy technology and licensing constraints, this is a limited resource. The Boeing RF The Boeing RF resource must be used in accordance with established company RF management processes and priorities. The priorities for the use of the unlicensed spectrum resource were established at a company-wide wireless summit in St. Louis in May, 2001. Processes Priorities RFID at the RF Layer 802.11.  Usage Standards Other Boeing ISM & UNII
  • 18. 1. Product 2. Process that support product 3. General purpose WLAN 4. Single purpose
    • Try to satisfy priority 2 and 4 requirements with services added to the general purpose wireless service.
    • CNO should team with Engineering to maximize compatibility and synergy between “e-enabled” products and facilities.
    Boeing’s Wireless Priorities
  • 19. Standards Required
    • Tag data standards (EPCGlobal)
      • Schema Form factor
    • Air-interface protocols
      • Encryption (IEEE 802.11)
      • Re-broadcast
      • Location (IEEE 802.11k, 802.11y)
    • Waveform
      • Frequency (expanding with 802.11y)
      • Reflection (i.e.: backscatter)
    • Reader Protocol
      • Content of Reader/Host
        • Exchanges (abstract syntax)
      • Message formatting
        • Message framing
        • Message syntax
        • Error information
      • O/S-provided network facility
    • Network/application integration
  • 20. Passive Tag RFID: Passive tag RFID systems will in most cases be priority 4, single purpose users of the RF spectrum. Proposed applications must be reviewed with Boeing Frequency Management for compatibility with existing uses of the Boeing RF spectrum resource. Active Tag RFID (RTLS): Requirements for active tag RFID systems in most cases will be satisfied by a Boeing Network Location Service (BNLS) and its WLAN coverage. Requirements for a standalone non-standard RTLS are by definition priority 4, single purpose users of the RF spectrum. Proposed applications must be reviewed with Boeing Frequency Management for compatibility with existing uses of the Boeing RF spectrum resource. RFID Boeing RF Priorities
  • 21. RFID Standards Big Picture
    • Tag data standards – Boeing Standards (Kathryn Chalfan/Susan Jordan/Ken Porad/Steve Georgevitch/Dave McCoy/Craig Dupler)
      • Form factor
      • Schema (maybe more than one)
    • Air-interface protocols – EPCGlobal/ETSI/IEEE?
      • Encryption
      • Re-broadcast
      • Etc.
    • Waveform – EPCGlobal/ETSI/IEEE?
      • Frequency
      • Reflection (i.e.: backscatter)
    • Reader Protocol – EPCGlobal/ETSI/IEEE?
      • Content of Reader/Host
        • Exchanges (abstract syntax)
      • Message formatting
        • Message framing
        • Message syntax
        • Error information
      • O/S-provided network facility
    • Network/application integration – Boeing Network/Applications
      • Location
      • Schema
  • 22. RF Perspectives
    • Bar Coding – anywhere using IEEE 802.11 for communication to network (relatively close range laser bar code range at 10s of feet)
    • RFID Passive Tag – gates and docks (receiving and transportation)
      • Away from other RF at same frequency (902-928MHz)
      • Confined RF location
      • Work on “Good Neighbor” protocols at PHY/MAC
    • RFID Active Tag – anywhere using the existing infrastructure (IEEE 802.11)
  • 23. Security Requirements for RFID Tag Data Data collected from RFID tags, including either the tag’s or tagged item’s identifier may be subject to rules for both “sensitive data” and “data integrity.”
    • Data that is sensitive to disclosure (e.g. proprietary) should not be stored on tags.
    • Any sensitive data to be stored on tags must be encrypted using an approved standard before being transmitted and written to the tag.
    Sensitive Data
    • Tag writing and storage must use measures to detect tampering and provide non-repudiation of the originator commensurate with the value of the data (e.g. HMAC or digital signature).
    Integrity
  • 24. 125KHz and 2.4GHz Analysis
  • 25. Zigbee Coexistence Map
  • 26.
    • RFID Active Tags
    • RFID Passive Tags
    • Asset Tracking (Location)
    • Supply Chain
    • Cable Replacement
    • VoWLAN and Data
    • Sensors
    • Line-of-Sight (LOS) Directional Delivery of Communications
    • Emergency Lighting
    WLANs can handle the application classes in “black”: Red applications not able to use WLANs Green can use either WLAN (SMA) or Zigbee 2005 Wireless Application (WAG)
  • 27.
    • Leverage what is Intranet equipment (almost ubiquitous 802.11 WLANs)
    • Do not interfere with 802.11 WLAN installed network 2.4GHz (ISM) and 5GHz (UNII+EU+WRC+Japan) deployments
    • Standardize unlicensed frequencies within the enterprise to optimize unlicensed wireless usage
    Network Principles
  • 28. WAG Principles
    • Principle 1: Underlying Wireless Communications Used by Wireless Applications Must be Secure
    • Principle 2: Information on the Tags and Sensors Must be Capable of Being Secure
    • Principle 3: Use Standards-Based specifications [IEEE 802.11, IEEE 802.15.4 (Zigbee), etc] for Data Backhaul in Sensor Applications
    • Principle 4: Use IEEE 802.11 Active Tags for RFID
    • Principle 5: Develop a 850-960MHz Passive Tag Standard for Portal or Reader Point Passive Tag RFID
    RED – Work in Progress ; BLACK – Work Accomplished
  • 29. WAG Principles (Contd)
    • Principle 6: Frequency Management/ Wireless Network Operations will do a baseline scan before a wireless application deployment.
    • Principle 7: Allow for Confinement of the Passive Tag Reader Energies to Confined Handheld Readers, Portals, Faraday Cages, and Gateways
    • Principle 8: Transition of 915MHz Serial Cable Replacements to Zigbee or 802.11.
    • Principle 9: Use of IEEE 802.11a/b Ethernet Extensions for Autonomous Wireless Devices [AWDs or Automated Guided Vehicle (AGV)] Using Secure Mobile Communications Methods
    RED – Work in Progress ; BLACK – Work Accomplished
  • 30. WAG Principles (Contd)
    • Principle 10: An Enterprise Wireless Management Council be Established to Determine Spectrum Policy
    • Principle 11: An Enterprise Wireless Technical Council be Established to Advise the Spectrum Management Council
    • Principle 12: Maintain Railroad Charts for Wireless Technologies Futures
    RED – Work in Progress ; BLACK – Work Accomplished
  • 31.
    • WAG 2007 UNLICENSED WIRELESS STANDARDS EFFORT
    (RFID + Other Wireless Applications)
  • 32. Boeing Directions
    • Active Tags
    • Real Time Location Service (RTLS)
      • Active Tags
      • Network Connected Devices
    • Passive tag for airplane Line Replaceable Units (LRUs)
    • Passive tag for receiving supply chain parts
    • Boeing Worldwide Wireless Requirements
      • 2.4GHz
      • 5GHz
      • EPCGlobal (Japan, Europe, US)
  • 33. Manufacturers/ Suppliers Transportation/Supply/ Theater Depots/TDCs POEs/PODs Distribution Centers/Depots Customers PASSIVE ACTIVE PASSIVE PASSIVE ACTIVE PASSIVE Traditional Active and Passive Tag Roles
  • 34. Manufacturers/ Suppliers Transportation/Supply/ Theater Depots/TDCs POEs/PODs Distribution Centers/Depots Customers PASSIVE ACTIVE PASSIVE Actual Active and Passive Tag Roles
  • 35.
    • Principles and Architecture Published in 2005
      • Preserve 2.4GHz for WLANs
      • Preserve 5.15GHz for WLANs
    • Late 2006 to Present – Standards for Other Unlicensed Frequencies
      • 125KHz
      • 13.56MHz
      • 433MHz
      • *860MHz (Europe)
      • *902MHz (US and others)
      • *960MHz (Japan)
      • 1.9GHz
      • 3.1-10.6GHz (UWB)
      • 3.65GHz
      • 2.4GHz (other than WLAN)
      • 5.15GHz (other than WLAN)
    Boeing’s Wireless Applications Group (WAG) Candidates for Global Passive Tag RFID Standards Development Organization (SDO)
  • 36. 902-928MHz Testing in the Boeing Facilities FACTORY TESTING OF 902-928MHz CLEAN ROOM TESTING OF 902-928MHz
  • 37. 902-928MHz Testing Conclusions
    • Devices interfere with each other (8 different devices tested)
    • Need for 902-928MHz radio and media access standards
    • Need for global radio and media access standards for passive tag RFID
    • Need for Boeing global access of all unlicensed frequencies
      • Aircraft move worldwide
      • Boeing military products move worldwide
    • Need standards for all unlicensed radios and media access
  • 38. IEEE Possibilities
    • Do nothing for a many billion $ industry
    • IEEE 802.15.4 for Passive Tag RFID
      • Mike McInnis from Boeing leading RFID Study Group in 802.15
    • IEEE 802 for 902-928MHz
      • Contention-Based Protocol
    • IEEE 802 for all unlicensed frequencies
      • Contention-Based Protocol
    • IEEE 19XX for all unlicensed frequencies