RSSI issues put it in the valley of despair for factory applications
Minimally requires TDOA to be usable
“ Simple” RFID Architecture Tag Vendor s/w Reader/ Antenna Message Parser Asset Mapping Business Rules RFID “application” Business Application(s)
XML message :
Vendor Enterprise (Pre-defined RFID tag) “ RFID Application” can be used to determine what needs to be delivered where and how (variation 2) (variation 1)
Badge Access Management System (AMS) The proximity (badge) reader communicates with a control panel that resides locally. The panel keeps a local copy of badges that have previously accessed the building along with some other data. If the badge being scanned is not in the panel, a request is sent to the AMS host to validate the badge. The AMS host executes the proximity chip id employee BEMSID “look-up” as appropriate. Proximity Reader Local Control Panel (upon verification, opens door) delivers proximity chip id Verification request AMS Application Badging Application BIT Bems ID Translator
RFID Architecture Logical View Unprocessed Tag Data Parsed Tag Data Matrics Antenna Reader Database Loader RFID Oracle Database Tag ID Tag Data Shop Orders RFID Tag (Matrics format) Tag ID Assigned by Matrics RFID Hardware Applications Web based Management Visibility screen DC/MRC I/F to ERP HEI VAX User Screens XML Parser Temporary Flat Files Tag data in XML Files Parsed Tag Data Matrics Visibility Manager (MVM) Middleware
From an AMR Research, Inc publication ( Report #16660, October 2003):
RFID must be business case/business process driven :
“ The Bottom Line: In order for companies to find value in RFID, it needs to be viewed as more than a bar code replacement; successful companies have overhauled their business processes to take advantage of the process automation capabilities it offers”
“ RFID will not cure a bad business process. Achieving the transformational potential of this technology requires creative thinking, often from cross-functional areas of your enterprise.”
Infrastructure is a major consideration in RFID implementations
“ The back end is the key; there is too much focus on tags and readers and not enough on the impact on the software infrastructure and systems integration required to support RFID. Our research shows that this is the area that present the most risk of unexpected cost and project overrun.”
Critical Components Large Assemblies Contract Tools In-Transit Materiel How can we use RFID? Calibrated Measuring Tools Legal Documents Technical Documents Hazardous Material Receipts Shipments Inventory Phones How We Got Started Computing Assets What Problem(s) are we Trying to Solve?
RFID Project Approval Process Frequency Management Council (Local) Approval Safety Health Environmental Affairs (Local) Network Support (Local) Business Case (TCO) Lean Assessment Non Standard Justification Process Identification Use Case Definition IT Interfaces Approved Hardware/Software RFID Technology Standards Common Use Cases
Value Proposition and Customers Logistics Chain of custody, Movement history Maintenance Task manning/tooling/ requred certs) Reliability Recurring Maintenance Actions, Failure Patterns Unstructured Data OEM feedback, Helpful observations Legacy OEM, Birth record, Certs/Specs Authenticity Validation of authenticity & Authorizations for Repair and custody Engineering Curious, life limited or Unique repair Control documents Sustainment Collaboration on Business Value
Life Cycle Data Management
Part tracking and reliability
OSD Spend is over $250M/year on RFID technology BCA estimates $1M value increase of RFID enabled A/C Logistics Chain of custody, Movement history Demand Planning Inventory Behavior, Consumption History Inventory Where, How Much Supply Chain Visibility from Partner to Partner Flow Velocity & Idle Time Transportation In-Transit Visibility Asset Management Property, Equipment Visibility Operations
RFID is a user of the unlicensed RF spectrum resource. Due to current and legacy technology and licensing constraints, this is a limited resource. The Boeing RF The Boeing RF resource must be used in accordance with established company RF management processes and priorities. The priorities for the use of the unlicensed spectrum resource were established at a company-wide wireless summit in St. Louis in May, 2001. Processes Priorities RFID at the RF Layer 802.11. Usage Standards Other Boeing ISM & UNII
1. Product 2. Process that support product 3. General purpose WLAN 4. Single purpose
Try to satisfy priority 2 and 4 requirements with services added to the general purpose wireless service.
CNO should team with Engineering to maximize compatibility and synergy between “e-enabled” products and facilities.
Passive Tag RFID: Passive tag RFID systems will in most cases be priority 4, single purpose users of the RF spectrum. Proposed applications must be reviewed with Boeing Frequency Management for compatibility with existing uses of the Boeing RF spectrum resource. Active Tag RFID (RTLS): Requirements for active tag RFID systems in most cases will be satisfied by a Boeing Network Location Service (BNLS) and its WLAN coverage. Requirements for a standalone non-standard RTLS are by definition priority 4, single purpose users of the RF spectrum. Proposed applications must be reviewed with Boeing Frequency Management for compatibility with existing uses of the Boeing RF spectrum resource. RFID Boeing RF Priorities
Bar Coding – anywhere using IEEE 802.11 for communication to network (relatively close range laser bar code range at 10s of feet)
RFID Passive Tag – gates and docks (receiving and transportation)
Away from other RF at same frequency (902-928MHz)
Confined RF location
Work on “Good Neighbor” protocols at PHY/MAC
RFID Active Tag – anywhere using the existing infrastructure (IEEE 802.11)
Security Requirements for RFID Tag Data Data collected from RFID tags, including either the tag’s or tagged item’s identifier may be subject to rules for both “sensitive data” and “data integrity.”
Data that is sensitive to disclosure (e.g. proprietary) should not be stored on tags.
Any sensitive data to be stored on tags must be encrypted using an approved standard before being transmitted and written to the tag.
Tag writing and storage must use measures to detect tampering and provide non-repudiation of the originator commensurate with the value of the data (e.g. HMAC or digital signature).
Passive tag for airplane Line Replaceable Units (LRUs)
Passive tag for receiving supply chain parts
Boeing Worldwide Wireless Requirements
EPCGlobal (Japan, Europe, US)
Manufacturers/ Suppliers Transportation/Supply/ Theater Depots/TDCs POEs/PODs Distribution Centers/Depots Customers PASSIVE ACTIVE PASSIVE PASSIVE ACTIVE PASSIVE Traditional Active and Passive Tag Roles
Manufacturers/ Suppliers Transportation/Supply/ Theater Depots/TDCs POEs/PODs Distribution Centers/Depots Customers PASSIVE ACTIVE PASSIVE Actual Active and Passive Tag Roles