RFID: Technologies and Application
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RFID: Technologies and Application RFID: Technologies and Application Presentation Transcript

  • RFID: Technologies and Application Luigi Battezzati Ph.D. Visiting Professor di Operations al Politecnico di Milano Osservatorio sulle applicazioni del RFID del Politecnico di Milano Geneve, March, 16th 2005
  • RFID Applications: RFID Applications: Tag Tag on product on product Tag Tag on people on people RFID & Logistics RFID & Logistics Trends and Trends and Conclusion Conclusion Luigi Battezzati 2005 - Osservatorio sulle applicazioni del RFID in Italia - 2
  • RFID Applications RFID technology is ready for changing the world • Identify individual items • Line of sight not required • Store and modify information on transponder • Stable in variety of conditions • Read through most non-metals • RFID transponder cost 50 cents today (5 cents tomorrow ?) Luigi Battezzati 2005 - Osservatorio sulle applicazioni del RFID in Italia - 3
  • 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s 2000s Radar refined and Early explorations Development of the Explosion of RFID Commercial applications Emergence of standards. RFID revolution begins used major World of RFID technology. theory of RFID. development. of RFID enter RFID widely deployed. Worldwide Standards War II effort Start of applications Test of RFID mainstream. RFID becomes a part of Contact less payment field trials. accelerate. everyday life. Auto-id and EPC Early adopter implementations of RFID 1973 1977 1980 1985 1950s Transponder system Electronic Electronic Electronic proximity Over 350 direct-reference patents 1948 and apparatus license identification identification Harry Stockman invents RFDI D.B. Harris patents plate for system motor system with the publication of his paper "Radio transmission systems vehicles Electronic tag "Communication by Means of with modulable passive identification 2000’ Reflected Power" responder" system HF ISO 1978 1982 Identification system Electronic Remote passive standard:13,56 Mhz using coded passive identification identification transponders system system Passive encoding Apparatus and Implant microwave method for an telemetry 2000’ transponder electronic system Calypso std for ticketing 1952 identification, 1963- 1964 Identification system actuation and F.L. Vernon's R.F. Harrington advances theory with using coded passive recording system 1999-2003 "Application of the microwave transponders Auto-id Center "Field measurements using active scatterers" and homodyne" "Theory of loaded scatterers" Electronic detection 1984 at MIT for developing and identification Radar apparatus for EPC for FMCG system detecting and/or classifying an agitated reflective target Passive transponder apparatus for use in Betteryless, portable, 2004 an interrogator frequency divider useful as a Near Field Communication responder system transponder of electromagnetic radiation (NFC) Electronic identification for integration between system with power input- Mobile phone and RFID output interlock and increased capabilities 2005? Animal feeding and monitoring system ISO and EPC: UHF standard 1959 Friend or Foe (IFF) long-range transponder 1975 system reaches breadboard demonstration stage Los Alamos Scientific Laboratories (LASL) releases its RFID research to public sector; publishes "Short-range radio-telemetery for electronic identification using modulated backscatter" 1966 1976-1977 Commercialization of EAS, LASL spinoffs Indentronix and Vast number of companies 1-bit Electronic Article Amtech 1982 1991 Surveilance technology: Mikron founded TI establishes TIRIS, enter RFID marketplace Checkpoint, Sersormatic (later purchases the first multinational by Philips) semiconductor 1975-1978 company to develop Large companies, e.g. Raytheon, and market RFID RCA, and Fairchild, develop electronic identification systems Modern successful commercial applications include Supply Chain Management:Wal mart, Metro 1979 1982 1986 1993 1996 War logistics: Gulf war of US Army First molded-neck Glass-encased ISO EID City of L.A. Transportation/Distribution Industrial implantable collar EID injectible EID standard adopts pet Security and Access Control RFID tags developed tagging Animal Identification Automated Library Systems Checkpoint Systems Toll Road Control Healthcare 1991 1994 Digital Card Mail AAR adopts All USA Toys RFID std railcars equipped with RFID First RFID toll 1992-1995 collection system Multi-protocol traffic control Wide-scale implemented in Norway and toll collection systems electronic toll implemented in Texas, collection in US Oklaoma, and Georgia * Tabella elaborata da Luigi Battezzati sulla base della RFID Timeline Luigi Battezzati 2005 - Osservatorio sulle applicazioni del RFID in Italia - 4
  • RFID Applications Several types of RFID transponder… *Source SOFTWORK Luigi Battezzati 2005 - Osservatorio sulle applicazioni del RFID in Italia - 5
  • RFID Applications …antennas and readers* Reader card Proximity Reader Portable Reader Mid Range Reader Long Range Reader Antenna Mid e Long Range RFID Gate *Source SOFTWORK Luigi Battezzati 2005 - Osservatorio sulle applicazioni del RFID in Italia - 6
  • RFID Applications The overview of RFID costs * shows the component values….. (IC) Chip Antenna Assembly Case Total When ? Cost 20 cents 5 cents 5 cents 20 cents 50 cents 2001 30 cents 2003 ? 2 cents 1 cent 1 cent 1 cent 5 cents 2005 ?? 0.5 cents 0.1cent 0.1cent 0.3cent 1 cent 2010 ??? Printed on Objects Plastic Printed *Source: Shoumen Datta MIT , 2003 0.1 cents ? Luigi Battezzati 2005 - Osservatorio sulle applicazioni del RFID in Italia - 7
  • ….but it does not show the component relevance RFID Applications for reaching the best RFID performances • Chip: • not critical component • commodity • Antenna: • antenna –reader design is crucial • strong customization for any application • Assembly: • the production quality is important • production plant focused on automation • Case: • case design is critical due to environmental constraints • strong customization for any application Luigi Battezzati 2005 - Osservatorio sulle applicazioni del RFID in Italia - 8
  • RFID Applications Basically RFID changes material flows but it impacts on the information flows also: the MIS architectures could became really distributed and… Centralized MIS architectures Item identification coupled with object (ex bar code) Information in Database of MIS coupled with item identification MIS reliability is necessary for capturing the data changes Distributed MIS Architectures Item identification and transactions coupled with object (ex RFID transponder with memory) Information in Database of MIS up dated when it's possible and useful MIS reliability is not necessary for capturing the data changes …so you can saving money and improving MIS reliability in the same time Luigi Battezzati 2005 - Osservatorio sulle applicazioni del RFID in Italia - 9
  • RFID Applications RFID technology assessment is not enough for taking decisions… RFID researches are focused on • Technology • Individual applications RFID applications • automation of existing activities • No impact on business processes re-design • No benchmark with best practices But RFID is not a more intelligent bar code only • It is able to change totally the existing processes • It can improving dramatically the existing performances • It will create an intelligent and distributed environment Luigi Battezzati 2005 - Osservatorio sulle applicazioni del RFID in Italia - 10
  • RFID Applications …concerning RFID implementation benefits So our focus are the business processes • activity evaluation • performance measurement • re-design for capturing every RFID potential benefits RFID taxonomy gives us • a general RFID framework focused on business processes • common characteristics for RFID Benefits of different industrial sectors • a possible benchmark with existing best practices • a methodology for evaluating the cost/benefits of RFID. The object of RFID is first driver of our taxonomy • product: major characteristics are supply chain management and end user utilization • people: major characteristics are the Human-RFID interaction and Human Privacy Problem Luigi Battezzati 2005 - Osservatorio sulle applicazioni del RFID in Italia - 11
  • The life’s cycle is the cluster rule for classifying RFID Applications the RFID value for supply chain actors Manufacturers and Retailers Fresh Products: FMCG: Yogurt Grocery Short Flowers Health & beauty Best seller: CD, Hardware life’s cycle Books Newspapers (utilisation) Consumer s Fashion Products: Durable Goods: Prêt à Porter Cars Long Personal Computer Home Appliances Seasonal Durable Apparel basic life’s cycle Goods products (utilisation) Short life’s cycle Long life’s cycle Luigi Battezzati 2005 - Osservatorio sulle applicazioni del RFID in Italia - 12
  • Human RFID interaction is not natural but it could be RFID Applications helped by a tool friendly for everybody: the mobile phone Mobile Phone Network Tag RF-ID Interphace SMS Tag RF-ID Tag RF-ID RFID Reader Tag RF-ID Luigi Battezzati 2005 - Osservatorio sulle applicazioni del RFID in Italia - 13
  • Luigi Battezzati 2005 - Osservatorio sulle applicazioni del RFID in Italia - 14
  • Finally the privacy is more and more RFID Applications critical for everybody • The fear of total control is in the mind of everybody • RFID on people is really an other tool for controlling the people behavior • But we are already controlled by different way: – Credit card transaction – Video cameras in the towns – Other transaction activated electronically • The key problem is not the additional control by RFID but the power for using and integrating the database of our transaction • In any case the transponder can be put in “sleeping mode” after sales if the customer requested it Luigi Battezzati 2005 - Osservatorio sulle applicazioni del RFID in Italia - 15
  • RFID Applications: RFID Applications: Tag Tag on product on product Tag Tag on people on people RFID & Logistics RFID & Logistics Trends and Trends and Conclusion Conclusion Luigi Battezzati 2005 - Osservatorio sulle applicazioni del RFID in Italia - 16
  • Several examples of applications and project Tag on Product pilots on durable goods • Animal identification – Pet – Cows – Dolphins • Automotive – Manufacturing: Ford, BMW, GM, Toyota etc – Electronic Immobilisation: Immobiliser • Textile and luxury – Intelligent store of Prada – Intelligent supply chain of Benetton • Home appliances – Electrolux:microwave oven, washing machine and refrigerator – Bticino: My Home Luigi Battezzati 2005 - Osservatorio sulle applicazioni del RFID in Italia - 17
  • Tag on Product The Auto-ID Center pushed the RFID application for FMCG • In 1999 the Auto-ID Center was founded at MIT. The Center, in partnership with over 50 global organizations and companies is working on the realization of an RFID network for FMCG – developing new technologies that will lower the costs of the network – defining standardized protocols and languages – building of the infrastructure This network will allow physical objects to communicate with each other seamlessly through the Internet. This architecture will – track every single manufactured item – significantly reduce the need of human intervention • The Auto-ID Center is organizing Adoption Forums focusing on specific industries whose goal is to create consensus, awareness, and standards Luigi Battezzati 2005 - Osservatorio sulle applicazioni del RFID in Italia - 18
  • Tag on Product Consistent Global Identification An Example of How GTIN Integration Works With the EPC Illustrative Example (EAN-13): 12 34567 89012 8 EAN - 13 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 8 Company Prefix Item Reference Check Digit ) 1 2 3 4 56 7 8 9 01 2 8 > Remove Check Digit 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 8 EPC: 3 1234567 89012 0000000123456 Header EPC Manager Number Object Class Number Serial Number GTIN Luigi Battezzati 2005 - Osservatorio sulle applicazioni del RFID in Italia - 19
  • Tag on Product The EPC Network EPC Information Enterprise Service (PML) Applications Integration Layer • ERP • Inexpensive • Warehouse tags Management ONS Systems • Minimum data • Inventory on the tag Management • Data Warehouse • Middleware • Merchandise between Middleware Management readers and • Store Systems information • Etc. systems Readers • Information RFID stored on EPC Tag Tag Tag Information Services, and accessed through Object Name Service Luigi Battezzati 2005 - Osservatorio sulle applicazioni del RFID in Italia - 20
  • Tag on Product Electromagnetic spectrum Electric Radio Infra-red Visible Ultra- X-Rays Gamma Cosmic Waves Waves Light Violet Rays Rays Radio Spectrum 9kHz 30kHz 300kHz 3000kHz 30MHz 300MHz 3000MHz 30GHz 300GHz 3000GHz VLF LF MF HF VHF UHF SHF EHF Not designated Long Medium Short Wave Wave Wave VHF Very High Frequency The “RFID” VLF Very Low Frequency LF Low Frequency UHF Ultra High Frequency Frequencies MF Medium Frequency SHF Super High Frequency HF High Frequency EHF Extremely High Frequency 860-960 2,45 and 5,8 GHz 125-134 kHz 13,56 Mhz MHz Luigi Battezzati 2005 - Osservatorio sulle applicazioni del RFID in Italia - 21
  • RFID Applications: RFID Applications: Tag Tag on product on product Tag Tag on people on people RFID & Logistics RFID & Logistics Trends and Trends and Conclusion Conclusion Luigi Battezzati 2005 - Osservatorio sulle applicazioni del RFID in Italia - 22
  • Tag on People Several examples of applications and project pilots • Transport – Railways and metro in Japan – Bus in Seoul (Korea) – Public transports (Germany) – Lufthansa Fidelity card • Payments – Exxon – Toll Systems • Health and Public Service – Malaysia: identity card – France: social security card • Free time – Chicago Marathon – Ski pass – Football Luigi Battezzati 2005 - Osservatorio sulle applicazioni del RFID in Italia - 23
  • Tag on People RFID is growing for people transport The public transport around half public involves all over the world million of people. Also in this case the possibility to use different means with different tickets makes the management more complex. In Europe the project is developed Calypso that has adopted a technology based on passive transponder RFID to 13,56 MHz according to the standard ISO 1545 that work with the objective to be a contactless card for payments. In this way it is possible not only to manage the price of the trip in dynamic way but also to use the transponder for purchasing from the automatic equipment that distribute drinks or other products Luigi Battezzati 2005 - Osservatorio sulle applicazioni del RFID in Italia - 24
  • Tag on People Luigi Battezzati 2005 - Osservatorio sulle applicazioni del RFID in Italia - 25
  • RFID Applications: RFID Applications: Tag Tag on product on product Tag Tag on people on people RFID & Logistics RFID & Logistics Trends and Trends and Conclusion Conclusion Luigi Battezzati 2005 - Osservatorio sulle applicazioni del RFID in Italia - 26
  • The transport has been the first application of RFID & Logistics transponder RFID • The aerial sector has always been to the state-of-the-art for the active transponders – The first examples in the second world war – The following development in the civil aviation • The railway transport has followed quickly – Transcore has labelled the totality of the means railway USA with technology UHF – The European situation is more complex • The principal countries have made non homogeneous choices – The system Eurobalise S21 at the base of the European Train Control System (ETCS) with inductive coupling to 27,115 MHz – In every case it is necessary to distinguish the management of the handling from the management of the maintenance • Finally the transport on car or truck has been touched by the RFID – The tolls systems are developed firstly in Americas by the Canadian highways and after in Europe by Autostrade (Italian highways) with active technologies but passive transponders are coming now – The management of the truck traffic and its effects (usury of the roads, safety) has pushed the German Government to the proposal of a revolutionary system that unites telephony cellular GPS: may be the traditional toll systems are enough and less expensive. Luigi Battezzati 2005 - Osservatorio sulle applicazioni del RFID in Italia - 27
  • Container management is the best application of RFID & Logistics RFID in Logistics • A container is reusable so the cost of the transponder is diluted in the time • The more important system of containers in the world is the International Container Transport – The sector of the international transports involves around 7 million containers. – The manual recognition is complex, expensive and not without errors. – From the end of the years '60 the containers are internationally identified according to ISO 6346 that it foresees an alphanumeric code that identifies the owner and a number of register of the container • Then a norm ISO has been created 10374 that it foresees to identify through the container an active transponder read-only that you can read up to 13 meters distance with 15 years of active life of the battery that it corresponds to the technical life of the container Luigi Battezzati 2005 - Osservatorio sulle applicazioni del RFID in Italia - 28
  • RFID & Logistics The case management is already interesting for FMCG • The most greater part of the applications of the transponders RFID indeed you realize in the sector of the FMCG they currently concern containers or reusable systems of transport, for instance: – Marks&Spencer has a line of fresh products shipped by recyclable trays, on which the 70% of the 120 million of wrappings that cross the supply chain travels. The use of the RFID has allowed to reduce the costs and the time of crossing improving the level of service. – CHEP, in February 2002 has begun a project pilot in his center of distribution in Florida, whose purpose is that to trace the handling of 250 thousand pallets. The objectives of the project pilots are the followings: a best understanding of the handling, an improvement of the measurement of the times of the working cycles and the identification of the possible points of attention along the chain and the integration of the information RFID in the systems ERP – Wal-mart has asked to his principals for 100 suppliers to be compatible RFID within January 2005 according to the followings principles • Transponder on pallet and reusable containers only • Standard EPC of the Auto-id of the MIT – Metro is developping same RFID project in Europe Luigi Battezzati 2005 - Osservatorio sulle applicazioni del RFID in Italia - 29
  • RFID Applications: RFID Applications: Tag Tag on product on product Tag Tag on people on people RFID & Logistics RFID & Logistics Trends and Trends and Conclusion Conclusion Luigi Battezzati 2005 - Osservatorio sulle applicazioni del RFID in Italia - 30
  • Trends & Conclusions Major trends on RFID technologies… 2005 2007 2008 2012 Passive Transponder Passive Transponder Costs are reducing Polymer Technology New UHF standards diffusion for manufacturing EPC and ISO harmonization low cost transponder Silicon Technology is mature Feasibility of Polymer Technology Active Transponder Active Transponder Technology of Long life battery Long life battery diffusion Standards“de facto” Standard ISO based on Designing Tools for customized Standard “de facto” MEMS Cost reduction Luigi Battezzati 2005 - Osservatorio sulle applicazioni del RFID in Italia - 31
  • Trends & Conclusions …and the structure of demand and applications 2005 2007 2008 2010 Applications Re-usableTransponder Applications Durable Goods Fast Moving Consumer Goods at Logistics item level Security Business to Consumer Services Distributed Intelligence Demand Project based Demand Best practices development RFID is product on the shelf” Education, training and change Standard “plug and play” management Transponder “autonomous” Luigi Battezzati 2005 - Osservatorio sulle applicazioni del RFID in Italia - 32
  • Trends & Conclusions RFID is a building block of Distributed Intelligence 1853 1913 1969 2025 2061 2081 Rapid Adoption Distributed Textile Railway Auto Computer Nanotech Intelligence 1800 1853 1913 1969 2005 2025 Introduction 1771 1825 1886 1939 1977 1997 of Technology Industrial Revolution Information Evolution Source: Norman Poire MIT Luigi Battezzati 2005 - Osservatorio sulle applicazioni del RFID in Italia - 33
  • Conclusion Trends & Conclusions • The tag is not another kind of bar code label but a real killer application • The automatic identification and the distributed data storage change the business processes • The value of application of RFID doesn't impact on the same activities with the same weight. • RFID is a building block of distributed intelligence Luigi Battezzati 2005 - Osservatorio sulle applicazioni del RFID in Italia - 34