RFID Radio Frequency Identification What is RFID?


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RFID Radio Frequency Identification What is RFID?

  1. 1. RFID Radio Frequency Identification
  2. 2. What is RFID? <ul><li>Radio Frequency Identification is an identification system used for retail and wholesale, security, veterinary, and military purposes. The RFID technology sector is growing rapidly as new uses for it are found. </li></ul><ul><li>RFID systems can be either active or passive. </li></ul><ul><li>You may be surprised to find that you have been using RFID technology for years without knowing it. </li></ul><ul><li>Some large companies, such as Wal-Mart and Microsoft, are mandating that their suppliers begin using RFID so that they can cut warehousing costs and other related expenses. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Common RFID devices <ul><li>EAS Tags, or Electronic Article Surveillance Tags, are seen in many forms in virtually all retail stores these days: </li></ul>EAS tag antenna, soft item tags, and hard item tags
  4. 4. Common RFID devices <ul><li>Lojack is a popular vehicle theft recovery system that uses active RFID technology: </li></ul>Shown is a common type of self-supporting RF tower and a Lojack equipped vehicle being recovered by the police
  5. 5. Common RFID devices <ul><li>Microchip devices are now commonly used by veterinarians: </li></ul>Microchip identification for dogs, cats, and livestock. Hand-held scanner and passive RFID “microchip”
  6. 6. Common RFID devices <ul><li>Another device that you may be familiar with is the Speedpass: </li></ul>Speedpass device on a keychain, in the store, and at the gas pump
  7. 7. How does RFID work? <ul><li>RFID uses specially coded active or passive radio frequency tags and antennas. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Active RFID <ul><li>Active RFID devices are RF tags with an attached power supply. These tags emit a signal whether or not there is an antenna in the vicinity to receive the data. </li></ul><ul><li>Lojack is an example of active RFID. When the vehicle is reported stolen, the RF device is remotely activated by the Lojack computers, and it begins sending out a radio signal that is coded to the vehicle’s unique identification number. Authorities can then track the location of the signal and recover the vehicle. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Passive RFID <ul><li>Passive RFID devices are RF tags that do not have an attached power supply. The passive RF tags receive their power when it is emitted from active antennas in close proximity. </li></ul><ul><li>Examples of passive RF devices are Speedpass, pet microchips, and EAS tags. Warehouses will use passive RF to track box contents and item counts. Passive RF is cheaper and simpler to utilize than the Active RF systems. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Who invented RFID? <ul><li>Like most technologies in use today, RFID got its start in WWII. The parent technology of RFID is the transponder. </li></ul><ul><li>Transponders are radio devices that can transmit and receive signals. They are found on virtually all aircraft and watercraft today. </li></ul><ul><li>In WWII, transponders were first used as IFF, or “Identify Friend or Foe,” systems to distinguish Allied aircraft from enemy aircraft. </li></ul>
  11. 11. RFID’s move to the civilian sector <ul><li>Mario Cardullo got the idea for the passive RFID tag in 1969. </li></ul><ul><li>In 1971, Cardullo contacted the NY Port Authority (NYPA) about testing the RFID system as an automatic toll device. </li></ul><ul><li>The NYPA balked, saying that nobody in their right mind would install it on their vehicle; much to the NYPA’s surprise, the RFID system was a hit. </li></ul><ul><li>The patent was issued in January 1973, and the applications for RFID have been multiplying since then. </li></ul>
  12. 12. What does the future hold? <ul><li>Large corporations such as Wal-Mart and Microsoft have mandated that their suppliers and manufacturing departments implement RFID systems by 2005. </li></ul><ul><li>The military is also moving toward RFID implementation by 2005. </li></ul><ul><li>Expect to see more RFID tags in stores in the next few years. </li></ul><ul><li>Apparel manufacturers, like Prada, will soon begin inserting RFID devices into clothing tags, shoes, and accessories for inventory and security purposes. </li></ul>
  13. 13. U.S. Department of Defense Directive <ul><ul><li>“… the DoD will be an early adopter of innovative RFID technology that leverages the Electronic Product Code (EPC) and compatible RFID tags. Our policy will require suppliers to put passive RFID tags on lowest possible piece part/case/pallet packaging by January 2005.” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mike Wynne </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition, Technology and Logistics </li></ul></ul>This slide courtesy of the Uniform Code Council, copyright 2003.
  14. 14. RFID security issues <ul><li>It may be possible for criminals with the right equipment to decode information like credit card numbers and other financial information. </li></ul><ul><li>Any information shared via the Internet is vulnerable (stock levels, corporate buying accounts, military supply orders). </li></ul><ul><li>Fraud and counterfeit RFID devices may someday be an issue that retailers and manufacturers have to address. </li></ul>
  15. 15. RFID social issues <ul><li>Believe it or not, there are people who believe that bar codes are the mark of the devil because of the way the numbering system looks (666). These people tend to believe that RFID is also evil. There are, however, some valid concerns about privacy: </li></ul><ul><li>It may be possible to scan consumers to find out what brand of clothing or shoes they wear, what credit cards they carry, what electronic devices they have, and so on. </li></ul><ul><li>If the US decides to implement anti-counterfeiting measures using RFID, it may be possible to scan a person to find out how much money they are carrying. </li></ul>
  16. 16. RFID…a quick review <ul><li>RFID was first developed as a transponder/IFF system in WWII. The military still uses RFID/IFF. </li></ul><ul><li>RFID got its modern form in the early seventies when Cardullo patented the first passive RFID tag. </li></ul><ul><li>RFID is becoming more prevalent as large corporate entities begin using the technology for inventory control and security. The military is implementing RFID in their supply chain. </li></ul><ul><li>RFID is becoming more popular with retailers as a point of sale device. </li></ul><ul><li>RFID is used for vehicle and equipment recovery, and for the identification of livestock and pets. </li></ul><ul><li>Many people fear that RFID technology is intrusive and unconstitutional. Some even believe that the technology is evil. </li></ul>
  17. 17. Presentation photo credits <ul><li>Slide 3: EAS devices. Labels. Youralarmstore.com. 8 February 2004. http://www.youralarmstore.com/Merchant2/merchant.mvc?Product_Code=RF400P&Category_Code=TG . </li></ul><ul><li>Hang tags. Youralarmstore.com. 8 February 2004. http://www.youralarmstore.com/Merchant2/merchant.mvc?Product_Code= MXTG&Category_Code =TG . </li></ul><ul><li>Antenna. Youralarmstore.com. 8 February 2004. http://www.youralarmstore.com/Merchant2/merchant.mvc?Product_Code=Dialoc+RF+9000S&Category_Code=S . </li></ul><ul><li>Slide 4: Lojack slide. Vehicle recovery and Lojack logo. Affordable Classics. 2003. 8 February 2004. </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.theft-retrieval.com / . </li></ul><ul><li>Tower. Glen Martin Engineering. 22 September 2003. 8 February 2004. http:// www.glenmartin.com/selfsupport.html . </li></ul><ul><li>Slide 5: Pet Microchip and Scanner. AVID Technology. 1996-2000. 8 February 2004. http://www.avidid.com/technology/index.html . </li></ul><ul><li>Slide 6: Speedpass slide. Speedpass. 8 February 2004. Keychain. http:// www.speedpass.com/how/index.jsp . </li></ul><ul><li>Pump. 8 February 2004. http://www.speedpass.com/how/pump_nonflash.jsp . </li></ul><ul><li>Counter. 8 February 2004. http://www.speedpass.com/how/register_nonflash.jsp . </li></ul>
  18. 18. Presentation works consulted <ul><li>Acsis, Inc. (RFID White Paper.) “Lessons from the Front Line: RFID Integration.” Ed. Dave Harty, Dir. Research and Development, Acsis, Inc. 28 January 2004. http:// www.acsisinc.com/media/RFID.pdf . </li></ul><ul><li>AIM Global. “The Association for Automatic Identification and Data Capture Technologies: RFID.” 18 July 2002. 28 January 2004. http:// www.aimglobal.org/technologies/rfid / . </li></ul><ul><li>AVID Microchip Identification Systems, Inc. AVID I.D. 2000-2001. 8 February 2004. http:// www.avidmicrochip.com / . </li></ul><ul><li>Baard, Mark. “RFID Will Stop Terrorists.” Wired Magazine . 8 August 2003. 8 February 2004. lcredi http://www.wired.com/news/privacy/0,1848,59624,00.html . </li></ul><ul><li>Bonsor, Kevin. “How E-ZPass Works.” 1998-2004. 8 February 2004. http://auto.howstuffworks.com/e-zpass.htm/printable . </li></ul><ul><li>---. “How Smart Labels Will Work.” HowStuffWorks, Inc . 1998-2004. 8 February 2004. http://www.electronics.howstuffworks.com/smart-label.htm/printable . </li></ul><ul><li>HowStuffWorks. “How Anti-Shoplifting Works.” HowStuffWorks, Inc . 1998-2004. 8 February 2004. http://electronics.howstuffworks.com/anti-shoplifting-device.htm/printable . </li></ul><ul><li>---. “What Are Those Microchips That People Put In Their Dogs?” 1998-2004. 8 February 2004. http://science.howstuffworks.com/question690.htm/printable . </li></ul><ul><li>Intermec Technologies Corporation. “The Write Stuff: Understanding the Value of Read/Write RFID Functionality.” 2003. 28 January 2004. http://products.adtrack.com/00374/pdf/rfidwhitepaper.pdf . </li></ul><ul><li>Lojack. “What is Lojack?” 2003. 8 February 2004. http://www.lojack.com/what/index.cfm . </li></ul><ul><li>Maddocks, Ralph. “RFID: Receiving You Loud and Clear.” Le Quebecois Libre . 16 August 2003. 14 February 2004. </li></ul><ul><li>Nice, Karim. “How Baggage Handling Devices Work.” HowStuffWorks, Inc . 1998-2004. 8 February 2004. http://travel.howstuffworks.com/baggage-handling.htm/printable . </li></ul><ul><li>RFID Journal Inc. “Genesis of the Versatile RFID Tag.” RFID Journal . 14 February 2004. http://www.rfidjournal.com/article/articleprint/392/-1/2/ . </li></ul><ul><li>Transponder News. “What are Transponders.” 14 February 2004. http://www.rapidttp.com/transponder/rfidbasi.html </li></ul><ul><li>Uniform Code Council. “EPCglobal: Supporting Industry Adoption of RFID.” Sue Hutchinson. Presentation, slide 4. 2 December 2003. 21 February 2004. http://www.dodait.com/rfid/4 . </li></ul>