R.F.I.D. Radio Frequency Identification Device
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R.F.I.D. Radio Frequency Identification Device

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  • 1. R.F.I.D. Radio Frequency Identification Device June 22, 2005 Megan Falzone Henry Hagopian Rina Rub Eric Schaeffer
  • 2. Presentation Agenda  Definition and Technology Overview  Benefits to Implementation  Barriers to Adoption  RFID Applications  Current  Future
  • 3. Overview RFID – Radio Frequency Identification  Means of storing and retrieving data  What does it do?  Sends information via an electromagnetic transmission to an RF compatible circuit  Components  Reader with an Antenna  RFID Tag
  • 4. RFID Tags  Tags  Active Tags  Passive Tags  Non-battery (Pure Passive)  Battery (Semi-Passive)  Memory Type  Read / Write  Memory can be read, stored, and revised  Higher cost  Read Only  Programmed at factory  Lower cost
  • 5. History  Scientific Community  1948 - RFID theory invented in a paper entitled “Communication by Means of Reflected Power” in 1948  Government Involvement  1975 - Los Alamos Scientific Laboratories (LASL)  Releases research to public  Publishes “Short Range Radio-Telemetry for Electronic Identification Using Modulated Backscatter”  Commercial Involvement  1991 - Texas Instruments subsidiary TIRIS develops and markets RFID
  • 6. RFID Technology Spending on the Rise 7 6 5 4 3 $ in Billions 2 1 0 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 Source: ABI Research
  • 7. Technological Benefits  Advanced Monitoring  Data Advantages  Re-writeable Tags  Withstand Harsh Conditions  Direct Line-of-Sight Not Required  Flexible Read Range  Multiple Simultaneous Reads
  • 8. RFID—Why Not?  Implementation: From Barcodes to RFID  Cost Prohibitive and Labor Intensive  Incompatibility  11-digit barcode vs. 13-digit RFID tag  Requires Evaluation of IT Infrastructure  Capacity to handle and store terabytes of data?
  • 9. RFID—Why Not?  Privacy Concerns  ClientIdentification and Tracking  Other Nefarious Uses  RFDump
  • 10. RFID—Why Not?  Lack of Regulation and Standardization  Need for Standard Frequency  Defines tag and reader relationship  Impacts transmission range and speed  Multiple Global Groups = Multiple Conflicting Standards  GM Case
  • 11. EPCGlobal  Gen2 EPCGlobal:  Mission: Set Global Standard for Electronic Product Codes/RFID  Standard for Passive Tag Recently Sent to ISO for Review  Consumer Privacy Guidelines
  • 12. RFID in Action Today  Contactless Payment Systems ExxonMobil Speedpass  First introduced by Mobil in 1997 (and Exxon-branded service stations in 2001)  Speedpass uses RFID reader located in the pump to talk to a small transponder device.  Example of a passive tag - programmed with a unique code  Simple and convenient for the customer  Point device at the reader and credit card is automatically charged.  More than 6 million active Speedpass devices in the US
  • 13. RFID in Action Today  Electronic Toll Collection  MTA Fast Lane (E-ZPass System)  Auto Transponder -Example of an Active tag  Tag communicates vehicle identification and classification within milliseconds  266,000 drivers - almost half of the Turnpike's toll transactions - use FAST LANE each day.  More than 700,000 vehicles currently have FAST LANE transponders.  E-ZPass System on the Route 95 Corridor Maine to Maryland
  • 14. Leading the RFID Charge with Suppliers 10,000 Suppliers 43,000 Suppliers
  • 15. Leading the RFID Charge with Suppliers  June 2003 - Ultimatum to 100 largest suppliers  By April 2005 – 23,000 pallets tagged by suppliers  Currently using passive tags – need to be scanned  Six million reads in a month  Improving the retailer’s ability to track inventory  RFID currently installed in 104 stores and 36 Sam’s Club’s  Plans to have in 600 stores and 12 distribution centers by year-end.  Wal-Mart’s next 200 suppliers have to start tagging by 2006.
  • 16. The Future of RFID “For the life of me, I cannot understand why terrorists have not attacked our food supply, because it is so easy to do.”  Tommy Thompson, Former Health and Human Services Secretary December, 2004.
  • 17. RFID and the Nation’s Food Supply  Opportunities for Foul Play Exist in the Food Chain  Public Health Security and Bioterrorism Preparedness and Response Act of 2002 “Track and Trace”  4-8 hours to provide access to FDA if threat exists  “Track and Trace” rules are primary reason for implementing RFID  Information associated with RFID tags would be very beneficial in the product-recall process.  The recent Mad Cow scare is driving the cattle industry to adopt RFID
  • 18. Calling Dr. RFID  Patient Identification  Jacobi Medical Center (NY) and Saarbrucken Hospital (Germany)  Outfitted over 1,200 patients with RFID wristband  Allows Doctors instant access medical history with a wireless PDA  Prevention of Surgical Mix-ups  Five to Eight wrong-site surgeries per month in the US  New RFID technology approved by the FDA in Nov. 2004  Surgichip is a 2-by-1 inch RFID encoded tag  Tags are read by OR staff to confirm patient procedure
  • 19. Big Brother’s Passport to Pry  US State Dept. plan to have US Passport embedded with a passive RFID chip by the end of 2005  A target in your pocket?  Early tests showed chip may be read from yards away  May identify US citizens abroad  Vulnerable to identity theft at home  Public Outcry - comment period ended in April 2005  Feds now “taking a very serious look” at a privacy solution
  • 20. Conclusions  Widespread RFID solutions are on the horizon  Well beyond inventory management  The most important technological development for retailers since the barcode  A $7 Billion global RFID market by 2008  Many challenges still exist  Privacy issues raised by consumer groups  Tags are still relatively expensive compared to barcodes  High up-front costs – software, hardware, data storage, security solutions, and technology implementation