RFID Radio Frequency Identification

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  • 1. RFID Technology Center: Laboratory Facilities at WMU Dr. Bradley J. Bazuin Assistant Professor Western Michigan University Electrical and Computer Engineering US Patent Office Visitors 4 August 2005
  • 2. RFID Technology and ROI Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) technologies provides a means to wirelessly identify, monitor and track individuals or products. With recent improvements in capability and performance, RFID systems are being applied in an every increasing range of industrial and consumer applications. New RFID systems can provide a significant return on investment (ROI) for applications where technical performance limitations can be overcome and RFID Tag cost are not too severe. Based on the potential ROI, emerging standards, and the pace of advancements, numerous high volume retailers and the US Department of Defense have mandated the use of passive RFID Tags and systems for supply chain management. 4 August 2005 2
  • 3. RFID History and Derivation As with many “new” areas of technology (the next killer app?), RFID systems and technology have emerged from an extended incubation period due to significant advances in related technologies and the availability of new, low cost components. Wireless identification, tracking and monitoring systems have been employed for decades as espionage devices, in radar systems, for missile and wildlife telemetry, and as transponders for aircraft identification and tracking or military IFF. More recent systems include automobile bridge and highway tolls, employee security badges and implanted animal identification chips. The exponential growth, incredible demand and significant technical advances related to cellular telephony and other wireless communication systems have provided both subsystems and components for RFID. Advances and devices include: RF antennas, RF and mixed signal ICs, RF receiver and transmitter designs, software radio based modulation and demodulation, communication protocols and data networking. 4 August 2005 3
  • 4. Overview This presentation will provide an overview of RFID. The general concepts, potential applications, and range of devices and systems that perform wireless identification. The predominant RFID system standard for global supply chain management, the EPCglobal Network™, will be described along with various technological factors that effect the systems ability to reliable detect and read passive tags. An RFID developer’s kit will then be used to demonstrate basic system operation and a range of technical factors that should be considered when installing and using RFID. 4 August 2005 4
  • 5. Outline System Overview Applications and Types of Systems Product Codes and the EPCglobal Network™ Mandates for Use RFID in Southwest Michigan Technical Design Considerations Factors Effecting System Performance RFID Development System Demonstrations 4 August 2005 5
  • 6. RFID Concepts A non-contact system that can monitor and track items or individuals. Provide unique identification that allows for a wide range of applications. Perform the operation using unobtrusive, “low cost” components. Use Wireless Communications techniques to facilitate the system design. 4 August 2005 6
  • 7. RFID System Server RF Antenna Data Wireless Communications RFID Reader Ethernet LAN Tag Antenna Tag Antenna Tag IC Internet Additional Access RFID Tag Readers Internet Port Low cost RFID tags on products, flats, pallets, etc. RFID antennas and readers installed at tracking portals Database Server for collecting, processing and providing ID information Network/Internet access for tagged item information 4 August 2005 7
  • 8. RFID Applications Supply Chain Management Shipping, receiving, inventory Asset Management Monitoring and tracking position or location of assets Electronic Article Surveillance (EAS) Theft Prevention Logistics Where is all the stuff ? Access Control Personal Security Fast Pass toll lanes, parking garages Manufacturing and Process Management Quality Control 4 August 2005 8
  • 9. Metro Group Future Store Initiative http://www.metrogroup.de and http://www.future-store.org Intel, Solution Blueprints, Transforming the Retail Shopping Experience. http://intel.com/business/bss/solutions/blueprints/pdf/metro_rcds.pdf 4 August 2005 9
  • 10. RFID Frequency Considerations Operating Frequency Ranges and Application Available Frequency Bands RF Signal Characteristics and Propagation M icrowave 2.45 GHz & Frequency Ranges LF 125 KHz HF 13.56 M Hz UHF 868 - 915 M Hz 5.8 GHz Typical M ax Read Range Shortest 1"-12" Short 2"-24" Medium 1'-10' Longest 1'-15' (Passive Tags) Generally passive tags, Active tags with integral Active tags with integral Generally passive tags, Tag Power Source using inductive or battery or passive tags, battery or passive tags, using inductive coupling capacitive coupling EM-field coupling EM-field coupling Data Rate Slower Moderate Fast Faster Ability to read near metal Better Moderate Poor Worse or wet surfaces Access Control & Security, Identifying items Supply chain tracking, through manufacturing Library books, Laundry Supply chain tracking, Highway toll Tags, Applications processes or in harsh identification, Access Highway toll Tags Identification of vehicle environments, Ranch Control, Employee IDs fleets, Asset tracking animal identification, Employee IDs 4 August 2005 10
  • 11. 125-134 kHz Frequency Bands Access control, inventory control, automotive security and electronic livestock identification applications. Radio waves (predominantly inductive coupling) at these frequencies penetrate through water, tissue, aluminum and wood but do not penetrate across metals. Large antennas are required to receive and transmit the signal. This frequency range is well suited for applications requiring the reading of small amounts of data at low speed within minimal distances on the order of 1 to 12 inches. TI-RFid™ Low Frequency Products This band enjoys relative freedom from regulatory limitations because it has not been reserved as an ISM frequency range, although in this frequency interval other systems operate typically for aeronautical and marine navigational services. Accenture, Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) White Paper, 16 Nov. 2001. http://www.accenture.com/xdoc/en/services/technology/vision/rfidwhitepapernov01.pdf 4 August 2005 11
  • 12. 13.56 MHz Frequency Band Electronic article surveillance (EAS) used in retail stores, access control and security, clothing identification, and smart cards. Electromagnetic fields (predominantly inductive coupling) can propagate through water and tissue but cannot penetrate metals. Antennas are made simply of TI-RFid™ ISO Inlay turns of coils of small radius (10-20cms). Tag Square This frequency range is well suited for applications requiring the reading of small amounts of data at low speed within minimal distances on the order of 2 to 24 inches. Radio transcontinental connections and other ISM applications, such as remote control systems, demonstration radio equipment and pagers as well as integrated circuit card applications. It is important to note that the regulations regarding power levels allowed for RFID systems operating on this bandwidth differ from the U.S. to Europe. Accenture, Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) White Paper, 16 Nov. 2001. http://www.accenture.com/xdoc/en/services/technology/vision/rfidwhitepapernov01.pdf 4 August 2005 12
  • 13. 400 MHz-1 GHz Frequency Band Supply chain management, EPCglobal Network™, Highway Tolls. Ultra High Frequency (UHF) RFID. Typical bands are located at 430-460 MHz and 860-960 MHz, with 902-928 MHz in the US (ISM). Intermec Intellitag® UHF Free Space Insert Electromagnetic waves do not penetrate closed metallic objects, but they may travel around open metallic items of finite size. Water and tissues do not allow propagation of radio waves. This frequency range is well suited for applications requiring the reading of moderate amounts of data at higher speeds within Alien Technology moderate distances on the order 1 to 10 feet. SquiggleT TAG Systems using this large band are for example mobile commercial radio systems, cellular telephones, wireless telephone handset, TV broadcasting, telemetry systems, and amateur radio systems. Significant differences exist between the U.S. and Europe frequency band allocations. Worldwide, cellular telephone bands exist in the range of 810 to 960 MHz. Accenture, Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) White Paper, 16 Nov. 2001. http://www.accenture.com/xdoc/en/services/technology/vision/rfidwhitepapernov01.pdf 4 August 2005 13
  • 14. 2.45 GHz –5.8 GHz Frequency Bands 2.4000-2.4835GHz Supply chain management, transportation, vehicle identification all at longer ranges. In this frequency range the electromagnetic waves act very much as optical rays, hence non-transparent obstacles attenuate the power of radio signals traveling through them. Moderate amounts of data at higher data rates, longer ranges 1 to 15 feet US ISM, wireless Ethernet (IEEE 802.11b & g), and amateur radio systems. 5.725-5.875 GHz Movement sensor systems such as those in shops or department stores. Wireless Ethernet (IEEE 802.11a) and amateur radio systems. Accenture, Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) White Paper, 16 Nov. 2001. http://www.accenture.com/xdoc/en/services/technology/vision/rfidwhitepapernov01.pdf 4 August 2005 14
  • 15. The WalMart Mandate Wal-Mart Backs RFID Technology Will require suppliers to use 'smart' tags by 2005 News Story by Jaikumar Vijayan and Bob Brewin JUNE 16, 2003 (COMPUTERWORLD) - Chicago—Wal-Mart Stores Inc. last week said it plans to require its top 100 suppliers to put radio-frequency identification tags on shipping crates and pallets by January 2005, a move that's likely to spur broader adoption of the technology because of Wal-Mart's market clout. Leeway found in Wal-Mart's RFID mandate By Ann Bednarz, Network World, 11/29/04 According to ABI Research, only about 30% of Wal-Mart's top 100 suppliers will have accomplished full-scale RFID implementations by January. The remaining 70% have only been testing the waters with shallow "slap-and-ship" efforts. ("Slap-and-ship" refers to adding RFID tags at the distribution center, simply to meet retailer requirements, as opposed to integrating RFID technology early in manufacturing processes.) This story appeared on Network World Fusion at http://www.nwfusion.com/news/2004/112904walmart.html 4 August 2005 15
  • 16. The US Department of Defense (DoD) Memorandum from the Undersecretary of Defense, Subject: Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) Policy, 2 Oct. 2003. Additionally, the DoD will be an early adopter of innovative RFID technology that leverages the Electronic Product Code (EPC) and compatible RFID tags. Our policy will require suppliers to put passive RFID tags on lowest possible piece part/case/pallet packaging by January 2005. We also plan to require RFID tags on key high value items. The DoD Components will establish initial capability to read RFID tags at key sites to be prepared for the January 2005 implementation. We will develop business roles based on the results of initial RFID projects to be completed and analyzed no later than May 2004. We will issue a final version of this policy in July 2004. The policy can be found at http://www.acq.osd.mil/log/logistics_materiel_readiness/organizations/sci/rfid/rfid_policy.html The DoD has established a web site for RFID. It can be reached using http://www.dodrfid.org or http://www.acq.osd.mil/log/rfid/index.htm. 4 August 2005 16
  • 17. Additional Major Users and Mandates Albertsons’ Target Costco Kroger Best Buy CVS Sam’s Club Tesco USDA, National Animal ID System 4 August 2005 17
  • 18. Product Codes Uniform Code Council Inc. The UCC´s family of wholly-owned subsidiaries, divisions, and partnerships powerfully connects companies in the supply chain with standards-based solutions that are universally open, industry- driven, and globally endorsed. This unique position provides an unprecedented blend of integrity, value, and authority to move global business forward to a more efficient future. http://www.uc-council.org/ Universal Product Code (UPC) • Barcodes Electronic Product Code (ePC) (http://www.epcglobalinc.org/ ) • RFID Tags and Formats • An alternative to UPC (future merging/replacement) • Specifications 4 August 2005 18
  • 19. The EPCglobal Network™ The EPCglobal Network ™ is a method for using RFID technology in the global supply chain by using inexpensive RFID tags and readers to pass Electronic Product Code numbers, and then leveraging the Internet to access large amounts of associated information that can be shared among authorized users. There are five components of the network. 1. ELECTRONIC PRODUCT CODE (EPC) Unique number that identifies a specific object in motion in the supply chain. 2. ID SYSTEM The ID System consists of EPC tags and EPC readers. 3. EPC MIDDLEWARE EPC Middleware manages real-time read events and information, provides alerts, and manages the basic read information for communication to EPC Information Services (EPC IS) and a company’s other existing information systems. 4. DISCOVERY SERVICES A suite of services that enable users to find data related to a specific EPC and to request access to that data. 5. EPC INFORMATION SERVICES (EPC IS) Enables users to exchange EPC-related data with trading partners through the EPCglobal Network. The EPCglobal Network™: Overview of Design, Benefits, & Security, EPCglobal CORPORATE HEADQUARTERS, Lawrenceville, New Jersey, September 24, 2004, www.EPCglobalinc.org. 4 August 2005 19
  • 20. The EPCglobal Network™: Overview of Design, Benefits, & Security, EPCglobal CORPORATE HEADQUARTERS, Lawrenceville, New Jersey, September 24, 2004, www.EPCglobalinc.org., p.7. 4 August 2005 20
  • 21. RFID in Southwest Michigan RFID Technology Center (http://www.rfidtechnologycenter.com/ ) Leadership groups includes members from: Michigan Blueberry Growers/Global Berry Farms, Flowserve Corporation, BlueGranite, Kalamazoo Valley Plant Growers, Steelcase, Precept Partner, Southwest Michigan First, WMU CEAS, M-TEC Center RFID Users Group Meetings Representatives/Employees have attended from numerous local companies, such as: Perrigo, Pfizer, Humphrey Products, HermanMiller, Steelcase, etc. WMU College of Engineering and Applied Sciences (CEAS) Electrical and Computer Engineering (ECE) RFID Laboratory Wireless Communications and RF Design Advanced Digital Signal Processing including Software Radios Paper Engineering, Chemical Engineering, and Imaging (PCI) Printing RFID Antennas Incorporating RFID tags in the printing process National Council for Air and Stream Improvement (NCASI) Materials studies for recycling http://www.ncasi.org/ 4 August 2005 21
  • 22. RFID Technology Center The RFID Technology Center's focus is to explore ways that West Michigan can become a center for Radio Frequency Identification by enhancing the growth of existing technology companies as well as starting new ones. The RFID Center's focus is to showcase West Michigan as a leader in the RFID industry, while simultaneously assisting businesses in successfully implementing this technology to solve their problems using RFID. Offices are located at Kalamazoo Valley Community College's Michigan Technical Education Center (M-TEC) at the Groves Kathy Johnson, Director Laboratory located at WMU CEAS A-216 Dr. Bradley Bazuin, Principal Investigator http://www.rfidtechnologycenter.com 4 August 2005 From the RFID Technology Center Vision statement, http://www.rfidtechnologycenter.com/vision.aspx 22
  • 23. WMU RFID Laboratory Established as an outgrowth of the RFID Action Group Startup RFID equipment funding provided by the College of Engineering and Applied Sciences (CEAS) Dean’s Office, Dr. Michael Atkins Principal Investigator is Dr. Bradley Bazuin, WMU Electrical and Computer Engineering (ECE) Department 4 August 2005 23
  • 24. WMU RFID Laboratory Goals RFID Research and Development Laboratory Goals to provide an RFID resource center for Southwestern Michigan; to provide technical and theoretical training for RFID users, implementers, and developers; to define and develop RFID system solutions for non-mainstream, challenging environments and implementations; and to research critical technology to improve the accuracy, reliability, and performance of RFID systems. Long-term Research Areas RFID signal propagation, multipath and interference effects, RFID communication signal structures and formats, the application of software radio techniques and real-time signal processing to RFID systems, and the application of smart antenna and adaptive signal processing technology. 4 August 2005 24
  • 25. RFID System Trial Global Berry Farms RFID Trial Owned by MBG Marketing in Grand Junction, Michigan, Naturipe Berry Growers in Watsonville, CA., and Hortifrut, S.A. in Santiago, Chile. The trial involves the identification and tracking of blueberry flats from growers, to cooling, storage, and shipment. 4 August 2005 25
  • 26. GBF/MBG RFID Trial RFID Installation – July 2004 1st RFID Tests – 3 August 2004 GBF/MBG: J. Conner & C. McMillan BlueGranite: Matthew Mace & Ron WMU RFID Lab: Brad Bazuin Trials continued – August 2004 Results - Significant technical challenges have been identified in the areas of: RF signal propagation into and through blueberries and packed pallets, the adequate placement and range of the RFID antennas and readers, the optimal design and placement of RFID tags, and the number and read rate of RFID tags on a pallet (up to 132). 4 August 2005 26
  • 27. RFID Technical Design Considerations and Demonstration 4 August 2005 27
  • 28. Alien Technology Corporation Demonstration Kit One of the leading RFID suppliers developing systems compatible with EPC Global standards. http://www.alientechnology.com/index.html Alien Technology™ Hardware Setup Guide ALR-9780, ALR-9750-A, v02.00.00, 2003 4 August 2005 28
  • 29. RFID Tags RFID Tags Squiggle-Tag, I-Tag, and D-Tag Patterned Antenna and an Integrated Circuit No Battery, power is derived from the RF Signal Alien Technology™ Hardware Setup Guide ALR-9780, ALR-9750-A, v02.00.00, 2003 4 August 2005 29
  • 30. RFID Technical Design Considerations Operating Frequency Available Frequency Bands RF Signal Propagation (range, reflections, and material transmittance) Interference Communication Signal Interrogation Signal with request commands and control Response Signal with unique identification and data Tag Design Passive or Active Power Antenna Design and Performance Integrated Circuit Design Reader and Reader Antenna Networking Requirements 4 August 2005 30
  • 31. RFID Communication Signals RFID 915 MHz band EPC Communication Format Frequency Hopping Start Period ASK Modulation TAG Response Alien RFID Reader and Tag, RHCP Reader Antenna Tektronix RSA3308A, LHCP RSA Antenna 4 August 2005 31
  • 32. RFID Command Signal Format ASK 1/8 To=zero and 3/8 To=one Preamble.Clock Synch.Start-of-Frame Command.Pointer.Length.Value.End-of-Freme 4 August 2005 32
  • 33. RFID Response Signal Format PCM One cycle=zero, Two cycle=one 4 August 2005 33
  • 34. RF Signal Propagation f Gt Gr Pt Pr Transmitter Receiver R Transmit Power – regulated maximum Transmit Antenna Gain –antenna design Frequency and Range – signal attenuation in free space Receiving Antenna Gain – antenna design Receiver Sensitivity – weakest signal that can be received 4 August 2005 34
  • 35. Friis Transmission Formula Gt ⋅ Gr ⋅ λ2 Pr = Pt ⋅ (4 ⋅ π ⋅ R )2 where Pr / t is the received (or transmitted) signal power Gr / t is the effective antenna gain R is the distance between the transmitter and receiver, and λ is the wavelength Wireless Range Equation λ Pt ⋅ Gt ⋅ Gr c Pt ⋅ Gt ⋅ Gr R= ⋅ = ⋅ 4 ⋅π Pr 4 ⋅π ⋅ f Pr where c is the speed of light and f is the frequency 4 August 2005 35
  • 36. Antenna Types and Gain Patterns The RF Café Antenna Patterns web site http://www.rfcafe.com/references/electrical/antenna_patterns.htm RFID Antennas E&M Theory resonance based on antenna conductivity and topology • Antenna designs based on classical theory and modern computer aided design software systems Microstrip or Patch Antenna Structures • Demonstrate the critical importance of J.D. Kraus and R. J. Marhefka, “ground planes” in antenna performance Antennas: For All Applications, 3rd ed., (frequency and gain dependences) McGrawHill, New Yark, NY, 2002, p. 14. 4 August 2005 36
  • 37. Visualizing Friis Gt (dBm ) Pt (dBm ) Two Range examples: Gr (dBm ) Short Range R1 Signal Power (dBm) Long Range R2 Margin Pr (dBm ) Power in decibel- 0m R1 m Distance (m) milliwatts (dBm) Gt (dBm ) (log-domain math) Pt (dBm ) Known as R-squared Signal Power signal loss (dBm) Gr (dBm ) Pr (dBm ) Gt ⋅ Gr ⋅ λ2 Pr = Pt ⋅ No Margin (4 ⋅ π ⋅ R )2 0m Distance (m) R2 m 4 August 2005 37
  • 38. Friis with Additional Factors Gt Gr Pt Pr Transmitter Receiver Cable Loss R Cable Loss Gt (dBm ) Pt (dBm ) Signal No Losses Power (dBm) Gr (dBm ) Losses Pr (dBm ) 0m Rm Distance (m) Additional RF Transmission Losses RF cable losses and RF opaque materials in the path Multiple reflected signal paths (multipath) 4 August 2005 38
  • 39. Factors Effecting System Performance Distance (free space signal propagation) Transmit Power, Frequency, Range, and Receiver Sensitivity Transmit and Receiving Antenna Gain, Beam Pattern and Polarization Material in or near the Signal Path and Device Signal Attenuation in the Path Change in Antenna Gain due to nearby materials (ground plane) Multipath Reflections from Conductors Interference Other Signals in the Environment Reader-to-Reader Interference (multiple simultaneous readers) Adjacent Channel Interference (strong signals in nearby frequencies) 4 August 2005 39
  • 40. Materials Added Attenuation in the Signal Path Cardboard Boxes Walls, Windows or Shields Conducting Planes in the Signal Path– Absorb RF Signals Electro-Magnetic (EM) Field can not propagate through the material All Electrically Conductive Materials Conducting Planes very near the Antenna Changes in Antenna Properties EM active materials must be considered as part of the Antenna Conducting Planes near the Signal Path to the Antenna EM Waveform Reflection Coherent Multipath adds or subtracts from direct path Noncoherent Multipath acts like in-band interference 4 August 2005 40
  • 41. RFID Tag Design Passive or Active Power Receive and rectify power (passive) Store, receive, and rectify power (semi-active) Battery (active) Antenna Design and Performance Integrated Circuit Design High frequency vs. low frequency components Operating at the RF signal frequency or the communication “symbol” rate? Reliable Fabrication and Deployment Low-cost, batch processed, 100% success rate (is 6-9’s good enough?) Real-world environment and handling 4 August 2005 41
  • 42. Specific Demonstrations RFID Kit Elements Tag reading RF beam patterns Range restrictions (read rate and programming) Tag orientation Material Consideration Non-conductive materials Metal and fluids Range reduction 4 August 2005 42
  • 43. Summary RFID encompasses a range of systems operating at different frequencies with significantly different capabilities. The DoD, Wal-Mart, and numerous retailers are mandating the use of RFID for supply chain management. EPCglobal Network ™ is standardizing RFID in the UHF band for global, standardized, royalty free use. EPC will either combine with or replace UPC RFID System Design and System Engineering must be performed. RFID Resources required … 4 August 2005 43
  • 44. RFID Resources Test Portal RFID Test Systems RFID Tags RF Test Equipment Antennas and Cables Network Computers 4 August 2005 44
  • 45. Questions Dr. Bradley J. Bazuin Assistant Professor, Electrical and Computer Engineering Western Michigan University, Kalamazoo, MI Office: CEAS A-241 Phone: (269) 276-3149 Web Page: homepages.wmich.edu/~bazuinb/ E-mail: brad.bazuin@wmich.edu 4 August 2005 45
  • 46. 4 August 2005 46
  • 47. Additional Slides Dr. Bazuin’s Resume RFID Laboratory Equipment System Engineering Research Areas Technical Challenges Summary RFID Signal Capture Command and Response 4 August 2005 47
  • 48. Dr. Bradley Bazuin Education Stanford University, Stanford, California. Class of 1989. Doctor of Philosophy in Electrical Engineering. Dissertation: Totally-Implantable Biomedical Dimension Telemetry: Transducers, Pulse Width Digitization, Control, and PSK Telemetry. Advisors: James D. Meindl, currently Director of the Georgia Institute of Technology Microelectronic Research Center (MiRC). Stanford University, Stanford, California. Class of 1982. Master of Science Degree in Electrical Engineering. Emphasis in integrated circuit design and signal processing. Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut. Class of 1980. Bachelor of Science Degree in Engineering and Applied Science, Intensive Major in Electrical Engineering. Magna Cum Laude, Departmental Honors, Lanphier Memorial Prize for achievement in Electrical Engineering. Tau Beta Pi. Academia Western Michigan University, College of Engineering and Applied Science, Electrical and Computer Engineering Department, 1903 W. Michigan Ave., Kalamazoo, Michigan. Jan. 2000 to present, Tenure Track Appointed Assistant Professor. Current research topics include; RFID, smart wireless SAW sensors, software radio architecture and implementation, GPS, and chaos-based communication system implementation and synchronization. Instructor for: ECE 357, Computer Architecture; ECE 371, Linear Systems; ECE 451 Microcontroller Applications, ECE 605 Advanced Microprocessor Applications, ECE 680, Design Factors in Distributed Systems, ECE 357, Computer Architecture; ECE 560 Time Varying Fields in Communications, and ECE 650, Advanced Computer Architecture; ECE 680, Design Factors in Distributed Systems and; ECE 695, Multirate Digital Signal Processing. . Faculty advisor for ECE481 and ECE482 Senior Projects. 4 August 2005 48
  • 49. Dr. Bradley Bazuin Employment Radix Technologies, Inc., 329 N. Bernardo Ave., Mountain View, California. Dec. 1991 to July 2000, full time permanent. Principal Engineer. Tasks, assignments and programs have included: system engineering for multiple advanced tactical COMINT systems, spatial adaptive signal processing for interference mitigation and cochannel signal processing systems; system engineering and simulations for anti-jam GPS processing and systems, and novel signal processing for arbitrary bandwidth beamforming communications transponders and; custom ASIC developments for filter bank analysis and synthesis and a dual complex multiply-accumulate VLIW digital signal processor. Proposal author and principal investigator for a number of Small Business Innovative Research (SBIR) programs. ARGOSystems, Inc., 310 North Mary, Sunnyvale, California. Sept. 1989 to Dec. 1991, full time permanent. Principal Engineer. (ARGOSystems was purchased by and became a wholly owned subsidiary of The Boeing Company during my employment.) Assignments include System Engineer for an advanced tactical COMINT system, ASD ASIC Design Center manager, ASIC IR&D Program Manager, and ASIC/Digital Design section Functional Manager. System Engineering work involves a second generation COMINT system which involves digitally channelized receivers, instantaneous direction finding, signal detection, qualification, and feature extraction, tracking of emitters based on signal parameters, and digital demodulation. ARGOSystems, Inc. , 310 North Mary, Sunnyvale, California. June 1981 to Sept. 1989, part time permanent. Member of the technical staff, ASD ASIC Design Center manager and ASIC IR&D Program manager. Stanford University, Center for Integrated Electronics in Medicine (CIEM), Biomedical Telemetry. June 1980 to Dec. 1988. Research assistant. 4 August 2005 49
  • 50. RFID Lab Portal Versatruss Box-Truss Portal Modular construction for reconfigurablity Four columns for stability Sufficient height and width to accommodate a single-wide garage door http://www.versatruss.com/ Antennas and RFID readers will be mounted as desired on the structure Two independent readers may mounted and active at the same time 4 August 2005 50
  • 51. RFID Development Kits Alien Technology Reader with four antennas Matrics Reader with four high-performance area antennas Additional Antennas Two Maxrad vertically polarized directional panel antennas Two Cushcraft RH circularly polarized panel antennas 4 August 2005 51
  • 52. RFID Interfaces, Command and Control RFID Reader RS-232 Serial Interface Ethernet 10-base-T MAC for TCP/IP network connection RFID System Host Computer PC Com Port Interface TCP/IP network connection Alien Technology™ Hardware Setup Guide RFID System Host Software ALR-9780, ALR-9750-A, v02.00.00, 2003 Command and Control of RFID Reader Operation Send software application required setup commands Receive message when RFID tags are read Read RFID Reader tag buffer and store Provide visibility into RFID Reader operation Provide a User Interface 4 August 2005 52
  • 53. RFID System Elements RFID Reader An RF Transmitter and Receiver Amplitude Shift Keying (ASK) Communication Signal Frequency Hopping, Time-Division- Duplex (TDD) Backscatter Embedded Microcontroller executes Alien Technology™ Hardware Setup Guide all operations ALR-9780, ALR-9750-A, v02.00.00, 2003 RF Antenna Directional Panel Antennas One to four antennas operated as time-division-multiplexed (TDM) elements 4 August 2005 53
  • 54. RF Test Equipment Agilent 4396B Spectrum/Network Analyzer 10Hz to 1.8 GHz Optional higher precision time base Agilent 4395B Spectrum/Network Analyzer 10Hz to 500 MHz Wavetek Signal Generator 0.2 MHz to 2.2 GHz HP Signal Generator 0.1 MHz to 990 MHz Miscellaneous Equipment Oscilloscopes, Power Supplies, Low Freq. Waveform Generators, etc RF Amplifiers, Filters, Attenuators, Switches, Splitters/Combiners, etc. 4 August 2005 54
  • 55. System Engineering Deal with RFID as a complete “System” Analyze why, where, and how RFID will be applied. Define a processes, technologies, and installations that “optimized” each part of the RFID System (item packing, tag location, tag/reader type, reader antenna locations, number and type of antenna, tag ID value limits, etc.). Will what you achieve be good enough? RF and System Engineering for RFID Existing engineering research literature: body mounted antennas, antenna propagation studies, antenna directivity, near and far field effect, signal propagation, etc. – how do they apply to RFID! Historical engineering tricks: limit reader search range, precharge RFID tags, place tags in optimal locations, add “isolation or shielding” for tags Provide Technical Advise on “RFID System” application and installation 4 August 2005 55
  • 56. Research Areas Laboratory testing based on MBG field trial data Evaluation of Network Access Software Evaluation of embedded reader software/algorithm performance Evaluation of propagation and environmental factors Additional Field Trials and Demonstrations Defined by RFID Action Group and RFID Technology Center Research and Quantify Factors Effecting System Performance Define System Engineering Approach for RFID implementations in Southwest Michigan 4 August 2005 56
  • 57. Technical Challenges Summary RF signal propagation c PT ⋅ GT ⋅ GR R= Losses, multipath fading, interference 4 ⋅π PR ⋅ LPathLosses and noise, received signal strength and power transfer Antenna Performance EM radiation patterns, backscatter, polarity, efficiency, materials conductivity and impedance, detuning RF Communications Format/structure, detection thresholds and demodulation Embedded control, messaging protocols, signal processing sequences and rates 4 August 2005 57
  • 58. RFID Signal Capture Configuration 4 August 2005 58