RFID Primer (slides)


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  • To help you understand how tightly integrated RFID applications are to the customer’s environment, we have prepared an analysis of each system component, describing the component and environmental properties and considerations.
  • NOTE: Bullet 5 - Tag is NOT actually generating and transmitting a signal. The Tag modifies the signal and sends it back to the reader. Intermec tags are “passive tags” because they are NOT generating and transmitting their own signal.
  • Most industrial and commercial manufacturers have catalog or part numbers already assigned to their products. They often question the need for an additional number, thinking that their distributors and/or end customers should use their supplier assigned catalog or part numbers. Following are some of the reasons why UPC numbers are needed: UCC.QED.I.10
  • RFID Primer (slides)

    1. 2. An RFID Primer by: Craig K. Harmon Mississippi Valley State University 19 November 2002
    2. 3. Craig K. Harmon • President • Q.E.D. Systems Visit our web sites: http://www.qed.org and http://www.autoid.org <ul><li>Standards Development and Data Collection Education, Consulting, & Systems Design </li></ul><ul><li>Past 2-Term Chairman U.S. TAG to ISO/IEC JTC 1/SC 31/WG 2 “Data Structure” </li></ul><ul><li>Chair, ANSI NCITS T6 (Radio Frequency Identification) - ANSI NCITS 256:’99, ‘01, ‘03 </li></ul><ul><li>Chair, U.S. TAG to ISO/IEC JTC 1/SC 31/WG 4 “RFID” </li></ul><ul><li>Chair, ANSI MH 10/SC 8/WG 4, RFID for Returnable Containers </li></ul><ul><li>Chair, ISO TC 122/WG 4 (Shipping Labels) & ISO TC 122/WG 7 (Product Packaging) </li></ul><ul><li>Chair, ISO TC 122/104 JWG - Supply Chain Applications of RFID </li></ul><ul><li>Senior Project Editor ISO/IEC JTC 1/SC 31/WG 4/SG 3 (RFID - Air Interface - ISO 18000) </li></ul><ul><li>JTC 1/SC 31 Liaison Officer to the International Telecommunications Union (ITU-R) </li></ul><ul><li>JTC 1/SC 31 Liaison Officer to the International Air Transport Association (IATA) </li></ul><ul><li>JTC 1/SC 31 Liaison to the European Telecommunications Standards Institute (ETSI) </li></ul><ul><li>ISO TC 104 (Freight Containers / RFID) Liaison Officer to JTC 1/SC 31 </li></ul><ul><li>Project Editor, ISO 18185 (Freight Containers - eSeals) </li></ul><ul><li>Project Leader, ISO 23389 (Freight Containers - Smart Containers) </li></ul><ul><li>Chairman & Project Editor, ANSI MH10.8.2 (Data Application Identifiers) </li></ul><ul><li>U.S. Expert IEC TC 91 (Packaging of Electronic Components) </li></ul><ul><li>Charter member, AIDC 100 </li></ul><ul><li>Vocabulary Rapporteur to ISO/IEC JTC 1/SC 31 </li></ul><ul><li>Project Editor, American Trucking Association (ATA) ADE Work Group </li></ul><ul><li>AIAG Bar Code, Applications, 2D, Tire, Returnables, and RFID Committees </li></ul><ul><li>Project Editor, EIA Shipping Label, Product, Product Package, & Component Marking </li></ul><ul><li>Advisor, U.S. Department of Defense Migration to Commercial Standards </li></ul><ul><li>U.S. Delegate, North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) </li></ul><ul><li>Author, Reading Between The Lines </li></ul><ul><li>Author, Lines of Communication — Bar Code & Data Collection Technology for the 90s </li></ul>
    3. 4. What is RFID? <ul><li>RFID is an ADC technology that uses radio-frequency waves to transfer data between a reader and a movable item to identify, categorize, track... </li></ul><ul><li>RFID is fast, reliable, and does not require physical sight or contact between reader/scanner and the tagged item </li></ul>
    4. 5. What Constitutes an RFID System? <ul><li>One or more RF tags </li></ul><ul><li>Two or more antennas </li></ul><ul><li>One or more interrogators </li></ul><ul><li>One or more host computers </li></ul><ul><li>Appropriate software </li></ul>
    5. 6. Components of an RFID System RFID API Software (Communicates with the RFID Reader) Customer-Specific Application Software Host Computer Host Memory Space Reader Antenna Application Program Interface (API) Application Program Interface (API)
    6. 7. Antenna Reader Firmware Customer’s MIS Host Application Software API TCP/IP Power ~ Asset Asset/Tag RFID System Components (block diagram) Tag Insert
    7. 8. RESPONSES COMMANDS Tag Physical Memory APPLICATIONRESPONSES APPLICATION INTERROGATOR RF TAG APPLICATIONCOMMANDS Command / Response Unit PHYSICAL INTERROGATOR DATA PROTOCOL PROCESSOR ISO/IEC 15961 ISO/IEC 18000 Encoder Logical Memory AIR INTERFACE ISO/IEC 15962 ISO/IEC 15962 Annexes Logical Memory Map Note: The Logical Memory Map in the Tag Physical Memory is given by the Tag architecture and the mapping rules in the Tag Driver. All the information in the Logical Memory is represented in the Logical Memory Map Decoder Tag Driver and Mapping Rules Application Program Interface DEVICE COMMANDS DEVICE RESPONSES
    8. 9. RFID Operation <ul><li>Sequence of Communication </li></ul><ul><li>Host Manages Reader(s) and Issues Commands </li></ul><ul><li>Reader and tag communicate via RF signal </li></ul><ul><li>Carrier signal generated by the reader (upon request from the host application) </li></ul><ul><li>Carrier signal sent out through the antennas </li></ul><ul><li>Carrier signal hits tag(s) </li></ul><ul><li>Tag receives and modifies carrier signal </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ sends back” modulated signal (Passive Backscatter - FCC and ITU refer to as “field disturbance device”) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Antennas receive the modulated signal and send them to the Reader </li></ul><ul><li>Reader decodes the data </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Results returned to the host application </li></ul></ul>
    9. 10. RFID Operations
    10. 11. What is RFID? -- The Tags <ul><li>Tags can be read-only or read-write </li></ul><ul><li>Tag memory can be factory or field programmed, partitionable, and optionally permanently locked </li></ul><ul><li>Bytes left unlocked can be rewritten over more than 100,000 times </li></ul>
    11. 12. <ul><li>Tag ID Only </li></ul><ul><li>Programmable Database Pointer </li></ul><ul><li>Mission Critical Information </li></ul><ul><li>Portable Database </li></ul><ul><li>Read Only (Factory Programmed) </li></ul><ul><li>WORM - Write Once, Read Many times </li></ul><ul><li>Reprogrammable (Field Programmable) </li></ul><ul><li>Read/Write (In-Use Programmable) </li></ul>RFID System Basics
    12. 13. <ul><li>Tags can be attached to almost anything: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>pallets or cases of product </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>vehicles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>company assets or personnel </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>items such as apparel, luggage, laundry </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>people, livestock, or pets </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>high value electronics such as computers, TVs, camcorders </li></ul></ul>What is RFID? -- The Tags
    13. 14. Are All Tags The Same? <ul><li>Basic Types: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Active </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Tag transmits radio signal </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Battery powered memory, radio & circuitry </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>High Read Range (300 feet) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Passive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Tag reflects radio signal from reader </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Reader powered </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Shorter Read Range (4 inches - 15 feet) </li></ul></ul></ul>
    14. 15. <ul><li>Variations: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Memory </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Size (16 bits - 512 kBytes +) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Read-Only, Read/Write or WORM </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Type: EEProm, Antifuse, FeRam </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Arbitration (Anti-collision) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ability to read/write one or many tags at a time </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Frequency </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>125KHz - 5.8 GHz </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Physical Dimensions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Thumbnail to Brick sizes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Price ($0.50 to $250) </li></ul></ul>Are All Tags The Same?
    15. 16. RFID System Basics <ul><li>How far? </li></ul><ul><li>How fast? </li></ul><ul><li>How many? </li></ul><ul><li>How much? </li></ul><ul><li>Attached to and surround by what? </li></ul>
    16. 17. What is RFID? -- The Readers <ul><li>Readers (interrogators) can be at a fixed point such as </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Entrance/exit </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Point of sale </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Warehouse </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Readers can also be mobile -- tethered, hand-held, or wireless </li></ul>
    17. 18. <ul><li>Advantages </li></ul><ul><li>Uses normal CMOS processing — basic and ubiquitous </li></ul><ul><li>Relative freedom from regulatory limitations </li></ul><ul><li>Well suited for applications requiring reading small amounts of data at slow speeds and minimal distances </li></ul><ul><li>Penetrates materials well (water, tissue, wood, aluminum) </li></ul><150 kHz (125 kHz & 134 kHz )
    18. 19. <ul><li>Disadvantages: </li></ul><ul><li>Does not penetrate or transmit around metals (iron, steel) </li></ul><ul><li>Handles only small amounts of data </li></ul><ul><li>Slow read speeds </li></ul><ul><li>Large Antennas -- compared to higher frequencies </li></ul><ul><li>Minimal Range </li></ul><150 kHz (125 kHz & 134 kHz )
    19. 20. <ul><li>Disadvantages: </li></ul><ul><li>Tag construction: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>is thicker (than 13.56 MHz) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>is more expensive (than 13.56 MHz) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>more complex (requires more turns of the induction coil) </li></ul></ul><150 kHz (125 kHz & 134 kHz )
    20. 21. 13.56 MHz <ul><li>Advantages </li></ul><ul><li>Uses normal CMOS processing--basic and ubiquitous </li></ul><ul><li>Well suited for applications requiring reading small amounts of data and minimal distances </li></ul><ul><li>Penetrates water/tissue well </li></ul><ul><li>Simpler antenna design (fewer turns of the coil); lower costs to build </li></ul><ul><li>Higher data rate (than 125 kHz--but slower than higher MHz systems) </li></ul><ul><li>Thinner tag construction (than 125 kHz) </li></ul><ul><li>Popular Smart Card frequency </li></ul>
    21. 22. <ul><li>Disadvantages </li></ul><ul><li>Government regulated frequency (U.S. versus Europe) </li></ul><ul><li>Does not penetrate or transmit around metals (unless very thick) </li></ul><ul><li>Large Antennas (compared to higher frequencies) </li></ul><ul><li>Larger tag size than higher frequencies </li></ul><ul><li>Tag construction: requires more than one surface to complete a circuit </li></ul><ul><li>Reading Range of ≈ 0.7 m </li></ul>13.56 MHz
    22. 23. RFID Primer…Frequencies <ul><li>Electromagnetic Field </li></ul><ul><li>Coupling: UHF </li></ul><ul><li>> 300 MHz <3 (<1) GHz </li></ul><ul><li>(862-928 MHz ANSI MH10.8.4, ISO 18185, B-11 & GTAG) </li></ul><ul><li>(433.92 MHz ISO 18185) </li></ul>1000 MHz Cell Phone RFID: Toll Roads Data Terminal
    23. 24. >300 MHz <1GHz <ul><li>Advantages </li></ul><ul><li>Effective around metals </li></ul><ul><li>Best available frequency for distances of >1m </li></ul><ul><li>Tag size smaller than 13.56 MHz </li></ul><ul><li>Smaller antennas </li></ul><ul><li>Range: licensed to 20-40' with reasonable sized tag (stamp to eraser size) </li></ul><ul><li>Good non-line-of-sight communication (except for conductive, &quot;lossy&quot; materials) </li></ul><ul><li>High data rate; Large amounts of Data </li></ul><ul><li>Controlled read zone (through antenna directionality) </li></ul>
    24. 25. <ul><li>Disadvantages </li></ul><ul><li>Does not penetrate water/tissue </li></ul><ul><li>Regulatory issues (differences in frequency, channels, power, and duty cycle) </li></ul><ul><li>Regulatory issues in Europe (similar band 869 MHz requires frequency agile chip) </li></ul>>300 MHz <1GHz
    25. 26. RFID Primer…Frequencies <ul><li>Electromagnetic </li></ul><ul><li>Field Coupling: </li></ul><ul><li>2.45 GHz </li></ul>RFID: Item Management Microwave EAS 2.45 GHz
    26. 27. 2.45 GHz <ul><li>Advantages </li></ul><ul><li>Tag size smaller than inductive or UHF (1&quot;x 1/4&quot;) </li></ul><ul><li>Range: greater range than inductive w/o battery </li></ul><ul><li>More bandwidth than UHF (more frequencies to hop) </li></ul><ul><li>Smaller antennas than UHF or inductive </li></ul><ul><li>High data rate </li></ul>
    27. 28. <ul><li>Advantages </li></ul><ul><li>Good non-line-of-sight communication (except for conductive, &quot;lossy&quot; materials) </li></ul><ul><li>Can store large amounts of Data </li></ul><ul><li>Controlled read zone (through antenna directionality) </li></ul><ul><li>Effective around metals with tuning/design adaptations </li></ul>2.45 GHz
    28. 29. <ul><li>Disadvantages </li></ul><ul><li>More susceptible to electronic noise than UHF </li></ul><ul><li>Shared spectrum with other technologies-- </li></ul><ul><li>microwave ovens, RLANS, TV devices, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Requires non-interfering, &quot;good neighbor&quot; tactics like FHSS </li></ul><ul><li>Competitive requirement: single chip--highly technical; limited number of vendors </li></ul><ul><li>Regulatory approvals still &quot;in process&quot; </li></ul>2.45 GHz
    29. 30. RFID Primer…Frequency <ul><li>>5.8 GHz </li></ul><ul><li>(European Road Telematics Frequency) </li></ul><ul><li>Advantages: </li></ul><ul><li>Less congested band/less interference </li></ul><ul><li>Disadvantages : </li></ul><ul><li>Not available in U.S. or many other countries (5.9 now in FCC review) </li></ul><ul><li>Must orient antennas carefully </li></ul><ul><li>Range limited (due to scaling issues/wavelengths) </li></ul><ul><li>Chip difficult to build </li></ul><ul><li>Expensive </li></ul>RFID: European Tolls 300 GHz
    30. 31. Spectrum Regulation <ul><li>The radio frequency (RF) spectrum is a scarce and shared resource, used nationally and internationally, and subject to a wide range of regulatory oversight. In the U.S., the Federal Communications Commission is a key regulatory body that allocates spectrum use and resolves spectrum conflicts. The International Telecommunication Union (ITU) is a specialized agency of the United Nations which plays the same role internationally. </li></ul>
    31. 32. Regulations - ITU
    32. 33. Regulatory Differences <ul><li>Usage of channel </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Primary service </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Secondary service </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cannot interfere with primary service </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cannot claim protection of interference from primary service </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Can claim protection of interference from other secondary users </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Industrial, Scientific, & Medical (ISM) Bands </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Narrowband or Spread Spectrum </li></ul><ul><li>Power level </li></ul><ul><li>Duty cycle </li></ul>
    33. 34. Spectrum Regulation <ul><li>Not all portions of the spectrum are subject to licensing and regulation. Some portions are unlicensed. The Industrial, Scientific and Medical (ISM) bands available for unlicensed use are: </li></ul>245 ±1 GHz 122.5 ±.5 GHz 61.25 ±0.25 GHz 24.125 ±0.125 GHz 5800 ±75 MHz 2450 ±50 MHz 915 ±13 MHz 40.68 ±.02 MHz 27.12 ±.163 MHz 13.56 ±.007 MHz 6.78 ± .015 MHz 130 ± 5 kHz
    34. 35. Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) Applications
    35. 36. Portal Applications Bill of Lading Material Tracking
    36. 37. Portal Applications <ul><li>Limited number items at forklift speeds </li></ul><ul><li>8’ X 10’ doorways </li></ul><ul><li>Electronic receipt & dispatch </li></ul><ul><li>Wrong destination alert </li></ul><ul><li>Electronic marking </li></ul><ul><li>Pallet/container item tracking </li></ul>
    37. 38. Conveyor / Assembly Line Read / Write Operations Higher Accuracy than Bar Code
    38. 39. Conveyor / Assembly Line <ul><li>Up to 450 fpm </li></ul><ul><li>60+ items per container </li></ul><ul><li>Inexpensive tunnels </li></ul><ul><li>Longer tunnel more items </li></ul><ul><li>Electronic receipt </li></ul><ul><li>Sorting </li></ul><ul><li>Electronic marking </li></ul>
    39. 40. Hand Held Application Categories Wireless Batch Fixed Station
    40. 41. Application Examples Material Handling Inspecting / Maintaining Where is it? What is it? What is inside the box? Where is it going? Where has it been? Should it be here? What have I assembled or disassembled? How many do I have? Do I have enough? Has this been repaired? Is this under warrantee? Has this been inspected? Is this complete? What is the asset’s status or state? Wireless / Batch Inventory Management Material Handling By Destination Material Handling Aggregate / De-aggregate
    41. 42. Shipping Validation Tote/Box/Unit Level Inventory
    42. 43. Intelligent Labels
    43. 44. The HazMat Label
    44. 45. HazMat Smart Label <ul><li>Low power > long range </li></ul><ul><li>1024 bit memory </li></ul><ul><li>Read/write/lock on 8 bits </li></ul><ul><li>Advanced protocol </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Efficient multi-id  Lock data permanently </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>12 ms/8 byte read  25ms/byte write </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Group select  Broadcast write </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>40 tags/second  Anti-collision </li></ul></ul>
    45. 46. Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) Standards
    46. 47. Standards Organizations International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) IEEE INCITS International Organization for Standardization (ISO) International Telecommunications Union (ITU) (United Nations) TC 104 Freight Containers TC 8 Ships & Marine Tech SC 31 Automatic Data Capture ISO/IEC Joint Technical Committee 1 (JTC 1) ITU-T (fka CCITT) Telecommunications ITU-R (fka CCIR & IFBR) Radio-frequency Issues ITU-D (fka BDT) Telecommunications Development ECMA Comité Européen Normalisation (CEN) Comité Européen Normalisation Electrotechnique (CENELEC) Comité Européen Postal & Telegraph (CEPT) TC 122 Packaging International Regional National Standards Australia (SAA) AFNOR Deutches Institut fur Normung (DIN) JISC ANSI British Standards Institution (BSI) AIM MHI UCC EIA Industry Other CompTIA ATA EIA AIA HIBCC AIAG UCC Other WG 1 - Symbology WG 2 - Data Content WG 3 - Conformance WG 4 - RFID United Postal Union (UPU) (United Nations) T6 B10 SC 17 IC Cards VDA ODETTE
    47. 48. <ul><li> Technology (Symbology, RFID, I.C. Card) </li></ul><ul><li> Data Content (DIs, AIs, Syntax) </li></ul><ul><li> Conformance (Print Quality, Test Specifications) </li></ul><ul><li> Application Standards (Ship Label, Product Package) </li></ul>Types of Standards
    48. 49. The Layers of Logistic Units (Optically Readable Media) Movement Vehicle (truck, airplane, ship, train) Layer 5 ISO TC 204 (None) AIAG B-15 Container (e.g., 40 foot Sea Container) Layer 4 ISO TC 104 (None) Layer 3 ISO TC 122/WG 4 (15394) ANSI MH10.8.1 AIAG B-10/14 EIA 556-B UCC 6 Layer 2 ISO TC 122/WG 4 (15394) ANSI MH10.8.1 AIAG B-10/14 EIA 556-B UCC 6/EAN Genl Spec Layer 1 ISO TC 122/WG 7 (22742) ANSI MH10.8.6 AIAG B-4 (TBD) EIA 621/624 & IEC TC 91 UCC 1 /EAN Genl Spec Layer 0 ISO TC 122 (TBD) ANSI MH10.8.7 AIAG B-4 EIA SP-3497 UCC 1 /EAN Genl Spec Unit Load “ Pallet” Unit Load “ Pallet” Transport Unit Transport Unit Transport Unit Transport Unit Pkg Pkg Pkg Pkg Pkg Pkg Pkg Pkg Item Item Item Item Item Item Item Item Item Item Item Item Item Item Item Item
    49. 50. The Layers of Logistic Units (Radio Frequency Identification - RFID) Container (e.g., 40 foot Sea Container) Movement Vehicle (truck, airplane, ship, train) Item Item Item Item Item Item Item Item Item Item Item Item Item Item Item Item Pkg Pkg Pkg Pkg Pkg Pkg Pkg Pkg Transport Unit Transport Unit Transport Unit Transport Unit Unit Load “ Pallet” Unit Load “ Pallet” Layer 5 ISO TC 104 (ISO 14816) ISO TC 204 IATA ISO TC 8 AAR Layer 4 (UHF) ISO TC 104 (ISO 10374) ISO TC 104 (ISO 18185) ISO TC 104 (ISO 23389) ISO TC 104 (ISO 14816) ISO TC 122/104 JWG Layer 3 (UHF) ISO TC 122/104 JWG ANSI MH10.8.4 AIAG (TBD) EIA (TBD) EAN.UCC GTAG Layer 2 (UHF) ISO TC 122/104 JWG ANSI MH10.8.8 AIAG (TBD) TCIF (TBD) Layer 1 ISO TC 122/104 JWG Layer 0 ISO TC 122/104 JWG AIAG B-11
    50. 51. International Standards Organization (ISO) International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) ISO/IEC Joint Technical Committee 1 (JTC 1) - IT ISO/IEC JTC 1 Subcommittee 31 WG 1 Data Carrier Secretariat Uniform Code Council (UCC) Technical Committee (TC) 122 (Packaging) WG 4 (Transport Labels) National Body (NB) Technical Advisory Groups (TAG) U.S. TAG Administrator MHI Shipping Labels Product Package Marking Dimensions & Layout Symbology Recommendations (Linear & 2D) Print Quality Level Label Materials License Plate Recommendations Database / EDI Issues WG 2 Data Structure WG 3 Conformance Convener S. Ackley (US) Convener E. Boonet (BE) Convener C. Swindin (UK) Code 39 ITF MaxiCode Data Matrix EAN/U.P.C. Code 128 PDF417 DAI Data Syntax Symbology Identifiers Linear Print Quality 2D Print Quality Printing Specs Test Specs BC Printers Test Specs BC Readers Test Specs BC Verifiers WG 4 RF Tags Convener H. Barthel License Plate Supply Chain Applications of RFID Air Interface Unique RF Tag ID Defs. Logical Mem Map ASN.1 Commands Application Profiles QR Code WG 7 (Package Labels) RFID Performance RFID Conformance Technical Committee (TC) 104 (Freight Containers) RFID Focused ISO Standards
    51. 52. AIAG B-11 Tire Tag <ul><li>ANSI INCITS 256 (T6) and ISO/IEC 18000, Part 4 & Part 6 compliant </li></ul><ul><ul><li>902 - 928 MHz for U.S. / 869 MHz for Europe </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2450 MHz for Japan </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Molded into tire, applied with adhesive, or label </li></ul><ul><li>1024 bits </li></ul><ul><li>ISO 15418/MH10.8.2 Data Identifiers </li></ul><ul><li>Successfully demonstrated in the U.S. & the E.U. </li></ul>
    52. 53. ISO 18185 & IMO <ul><li>The International Maritime Organization (IMO) is a United Nations Treaty organization. </li></ul><ul><li>Maritime Safety Commission (MSC) MSC 75/17/32 (12 April 2002) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ With all of the above in mind, the United States proposes that new regulations for container security be added to Chapter XI of SOLAS as follows (It should be noted that two options are provided for seals, one for a mechanical seal and another for an electronic seal, depending upon whether or not the ISO 18185 standard for electronic seals is adopted in time for the IMO conference in December 2002.): </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Option One for electronic seals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The shipper shall ensure that before a loaded container is offered for shipment on board a ship, the container is sealed with an electronic seal* that records the seal’s unique identification number, the container number to which it is affixed and the status of the seal. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reference is made to ISO Standard 18185, Freight Containers - Radio Frequency Communication Protocol for Electronic Seal. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Option Two for mechanical seals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The shipper shall ensure that before a loaded container is offered for shipment on board a ship, the container is sealed with a mechanical high security seal* that is uniquely numbered. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reference is made to American Society of Testing Materials (ASTM) Standard F832, Classification for Security Seals, Level D. NOTE: The United States is not aware of an ISO mechanical seal standard. If one does exist, it should be referenced here, in lieu of the ASTM standard.” </li></ul></ul>
    53. 54. <ul><li>Bolt Seal Security Tag </li></ul><ul><li>Electronically secures ocean containers, air cargo ULD containers, trailers, </li></ul><ul><li>Monitors presence and integrity of bolt seal, generates alarm upon bolt removal or breakage </li></ul><ul><li>Re-usable tag </li></ul><ul><li>Reduces manual inspections </li></ul><ul><li>Minimizes theft, loss and tampering </li></ul>Sealing and anti-tamper capability
    54. 55. ISO 23389 (ISO TC 104) <ul><li>Smart Container (Supply Chain meets Security) </li></ul><ul><li>ISO 23389 - Freight Containers - Read-Write Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) </li></ul><ul><li>Project Approved 18 January 2002 </li></ul><ul><li>CD Status by the first quarter of 2003 </li></ul><ul><li>Sensor interface (shock/vibration, temperature, light) </li></ul><ul><li>Seal communication </li></ul><ul><li>External communication </li></ul>
    55. 56. MIT AutoID Center http://www.autoidcenter.org/ <ul><ul><li>Officially began 1 October 1999 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Initially funded by Uniform Code Council, The Gillette Company and Procter and Gamble </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Software components </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Object Naming Service (ONS) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Savant </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Physical Markup Language (PML) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Air interface protocols </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>860 - 930 MHz </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>13.56 MHz </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Supply chain impact studies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Field trials </li></ul></ul>
    56. 57. ePC - How it works Graphics supplied from MIT AutoID Center Transmitting ePC Codes Creating ePC Codes
    57. 58. Object Naming Systems (ONS) Graphics supplied from MIT AutoID Center
    58. 59. The 5¢ Tag <ul><li>Predicated on Alien model </li></ul><ul><li>Fluidic Self Assembly (FSA) </li></ul><ul><li>Cost of any RF tag is the bonding of the Antenna </li></ul><ul><li>Does not consider newer techniques (e.g., antenna in silicon) </li></ul><ul><li>Does not address I.P. </li></ul><ul><li>While the 500 billionth tag may cost $.05, what will the 1,000th tag cost </li></ul><ul><li>Where is 5¢ cost effective </li></ul><ul><li>$1 and $2 and $50 tags are cost effective today </li></ul>Graphics supplied from MIT AutoID Center
    59. 60. Instant Checkout…A Dream Come True?? “ Chip to remove shopping blues” — Post-Courier, January 1994 “ Tiny microchip identifies groceries in seconds.” — Chicago Tribune “ Checkout in one minute” — The Times, London “ Scanning range of four yards” — NY Times “ 1.5¢ electronic bar code announced” — San Francisco Chronicle
    60. 61. Lads, Dads, & Granddads                                                          
    61. 62. ???
    62. 63. Thank You!
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