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RFID Authentication Protocol for Low-cost Tags

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RFID Authentication Protocol for Low-cost Tags

  1. 1. Outline Introduction Requirements for such RFID Protocols Related Work A Novel Authentication Protocol Conclusion References RFID Authentication Protocol for Low-cost Tags Boyeon Song and Chris J Mitchell 1 April 2008 Boyeon Song and Chris J Mitchell RFID Authentication Protocol for Low-cost Tags
  2. 2. Outline Introduction Requirements for such RFID Protocols Related Work A Novel Authentication Protocol Conclusion References Introduction RFID Requirements for such RFID Protocols Privacy, Security and Performance Related Work A Novel Authentication Protocol Design Principle Preliminaries Protocol Description Performance Conclusion References Boyeon Song and Chris J Mitchell RFID Authentication Protocol for Low-cost Tags
  3. 3. Outline Introduction Requirements for such RFID Protocols Related Work RFID A Novel Authentication Protocol Conclusion References RFID Automatic Identification and Data Capture (AIDC) Methods for automatically identifying objects, collecting data about them, and entering that data directly into computer systems Boyeon Song and Chris J Mitchell RFID Authentication Protocol for Low-cost Tags
  4. 4. Outline Introduction Requirements for such RFID Protocols Related Work RFID A Novel Authentication Protocol Conclusion References RFID Automatic Identification and Data Capture (AIDC) Methods for automatically identifying objects, collecting data about them, and entering that data directly into computer systems Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) A wireless AIDC technology that uses radio signals to identify a product, animal or person Boyeon Song and Chris J Mitchell RFID Authentication Protocol for Low-cost Tags
  5. 5. Outline Introduction Requirements for such RFID Protocols Related Work RFID A Novel Authentication Protocol Conclusion References RFID System Boyeon Song and Chris J Mitchell RFID Authentication Protocol for Low-cost Tags
  6. 6. Outline Introduction Requirements for such RFID Protocols Related Work RFID A Novel Authentication Protocol Conclusion References RFID System Three main components RFID tags: an identification device attached to an item, which uses radio frequency (RF) to communicate with RFID readers RFID readers: a device that can recognise the presence of RFID tags and read the information supplied by them A back-end server: has a database of detailed information regarding a tag (or the item attached to the tag) Boyeon Song and Chris J Mitchell RFID Authentication Protocol for Low-cost Tags
  7. 7. Outline Introduction Requirements for such RFID Protocols Related Work RFID A Novel Authentication Protocol Conclusion References Typical RFID Protocol Boyeon Song and Chris J Mitchell RFID Authentication Protocol for Low-cost Tags
  8. 8. Outline Introduction Requirements for such RFID Protocols Related Work RFID A Novel Authentication Protocol Conclusion References Typical RFID Protocol Boyeon Song and Chris J Mitchell RFID Authentication Protocol for Low-cost Tags
  9. 9. Outline Introduction Requirements for such RFID Protocols Related Work RFID A Novel Authentication Protocol Conclusion References Typical RFID Protocol Boyeon Song and Chris J Mitchell RFID Authentication Protocol for Low-cost Tags
  10. 10. Outline Introduction Requirements for such RFID Protocols Related Work RFID A Novel Authentication Protocol Conclusion References Typical RFID Protocol Boyeon Song and Chris J Mitchell RFID Authentication Protocol for Low-cost Tags
  11. 11. Outline Introduction Requirements for such RFID Protocols Related Work Privacy, Security and Performance A Novel Authentication Protocol Conclusion References Assumptions in RFID Protocols Tag has a rewritable, non-temper resistant, and constrained memory capacity. has limited processing power. Server has a secure database containing information for tags that it manages. has significantly greater computational ability than a tag. Channels The channel between the server and the reader is secure. The reader and the tags communicate over an insecure channel. Boyeon Song and Chris J Mitchell RFID Authentication Protocol for Low-cost Tags
  12. 12. Outline Introduction Requirements for such RFID Protocols Related Work Privacy, Security and Performance A Novel Authentication Protocol Conclusion References Requirements for RFID Protocols Boyeon Song and Chris J Mitchell RFID Authentication Protocol for Low-cost Tags
  13. 13. Outline Introduction Requirements for such RFID Protocols Related Work Privacy, Security and Performance A Novel Authentication Protocol Conclusion References Requirements for RFID Protocols Boyeon Song and Chris J Mitchell RFID Authentication Protocol for Low-cost Tags
  14. 14. Outline Introduction Requirements for such RFID Protocols Related Work Privacy, Security and Performance A Novel Authentication Protocol Conclusion References Requirements for RFID Protocols Boyeon Song and Chris J Mitchell RFID Authentication Protocol for Low-cost Tags
  15. 15. Outline Introduction Requirements for such RFID Protocols Related Work Privacy, Security and Performance A Novel Authentication Protocol Conclusion References Requirements for RFID Protocols Boyeon Song and Chris J Mitchell RFID Authentication Protocol for Low-cost Tags
  16. 16. Outline Introduction Requirements for such RFID Protocols Related Work Privacy, Security and Performance A Novel Authentication Protocol Conclusion References Requirements for RFID Protocols Boyeon Song and Chris J Mitchell RFID Authentication Protocol for Low-cost Tags
  17. 17. Outline Introduction Requirements for such RFID Protocols Related Work A Novel Authentication Protocol Conclusion References Prior RFID protocols HM scheme [Henrici and M¨ller, 2004] u MW scheme [Molnar and Wagner, 2004] D scheme [Dimitriou, 2005] KN scheme [Karthikeyan and Nesterenko, 2005] DPLK scheme [Duc et al., 2006] CC scheme [Chien and Chen, 2007] LK scheme [Lim and Kwon, 2006] Boyeon Song and Chris J Mitchell RFID Authentication Protocol for Low-cost Tags
  18. 18. Outline Introduction Requirements for such RFID Protocols Related Work A Novel Authentication Protocol Conclusion References Privacy and Security Properties of Prior Schemes Property HM MW D KN DPLK CC LK Information Privacy ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ Location Privacy − ◦ − − ◦ ◦ ◦ Tag Impersonation − ◦ ◦ ◦ − ◦ ◦ Replay attack − ◦ ◦ − − ◦ ◦ DoS attack ◦ ◦ − − − ◦ ◦ Backward Traceability − − ◦ − − − ◦ Forward Traceability − − − − − − Server Impersonation − − − − − − ◦ : provided : provided under an assumption − : not provided Boyeon Song and Chris J Mitchell RFID Authentication Protocol for Low-cost Tags
  19. 19. Outline Introduction Requirements for such RFID Protocols Related Work A Novel Authentication Protocol Conclusion References Storage of Prior Schemes Storage DPLK CC LK Server (l + l1 + l2 ) · N (l + 2l1 + 2l2 ) · N 2(l + 3l3 + ml4 ) · N Tag l + l1 + l2 l + l1 + l2 l + l3 + c N : The number of tags l : The bit-length of a tag identifier (e.g., l = 64, 96 or 128) l1 : The bit-length of a PIN in the DPLK and CC protocols (e.g., l1 = 32) l2 : The bit-length of a session key in the DPLK and CC protocols (e.g., l2 = 16) l3 : The bit-length of a server validator in the LK protocol (e.g., l3 = 32) l4 : The bit-length of a tag secret transmitted in the LK protocol (e.g., l4 = 32) m : The maximum number of authentication failures in the LK protocol (e.g., m = 64) c : The size of a counter in the LK protocol (e.g., c = 100) Boyeon Song and Chris J Mitchell RFID Authentication Protocol for Low-cost Tags
  20. 20. Outline Introduction Requirements for such RFID Protocols Related Work A Novel Authentication Protocol Conclusion References Computation of Prior Schemes Computation DPLK CC LK On receiving the 2nd flow (k + 1)F kF (k1 + 1)F Server On sending the 3rd flow 1F 1F 1F On updating or refreshing 1F 2F (k1 + k2 + m)F Total (k + 3)F (k + 3)F (2k1 + k2 + m + 2)F On sending the 2nd flow 2F 1F 1F Tag On receiving the 3rd flow 1F 1F 2F On updating or refreshing 1F 2F 1F Total 4F 4F 4F F : A computationally complex function (such as a Cyclic Redundancy Code (CRC) or Pseudo-Random Function (PRF)) N : The number of tags m : The maximum number of authentication failures in the LK protocol (e.g., m = 64) n : The length of the backward key chain in the LK protocol (e.g., n = 220 ) k : An integer satisfying 1 ≤ k ≤ 2N k1 : An integer satisfying 0 ≤ k1 ≤ m − 1 k2 : An integer satisfying 0 ≤ k2 ≤ n − 2 Boyeon Song and Chris J Mitchell RFID Authentication Protocol for Low-cost Tags
  21. 21. Outline Introduction Design Principle Requirements for such RFID Protocols Preliminaries Related Work Protocol Description A Novel Authentication Protocol Performance Conclusion References New RFID Protocol Goals To meet the identified privacy and security requirements To maximise performance efficiency. Boyeon Song and Chris J Mitchell RFID Authentication Protocol for Low-cost Tags
  22. 22. Outline Introduction Design Principle Requirements for such RFID Protocols Preliminaries Related Work Protocol Description A Novel Authentication Protocol Performance Conclusion References Main features A challenge-response approach (replay attack) The server database stores both the most recent and the current data for each tag. (denial-of-service attack) The server and tag update their shared secrets probabilistically using a hash function h and exchanged random numbers r1 and r2 . (backward and forward traceability) Boyeon Song and Chris J Mitchell RFID Authentication Protocol for Low-cost Tags
  23. 23. Outline Introduction Design Principle Requirements for such RFID Protocols Preliminaries Related Work Protocol Description A Novel Authentication Protocol Performance Conclusion References Main features A challenge-response approach (replay attack) The server database stores both the most recent and the current data for each tag. (denial-of-service attack) The server and tag update their shared secrets probabilistically using a hash function h and exchanged random numbers r1 and r2 . (backward and forward traceability) A random number r2 generated by a tag serves as a temporary secret for the tag. Boyeon Song and Chris J Mitchell RFID Authentication Protocol for Low-cost Tags
  24. 24. Outline Introduction Design Principle Requirements for such RFID Protocols Preliminaries Related Work Protocol Description A Novel Authentication Protocol Performance Conclusion References Main features A challenge-response approach (replay attack) The server database stores both the most recent and the current data for each tag. (denial-of-service attack) The server and tag update their shared secrets probabilistically using a hash function h and exchanged random numbers r1 and r2 . (backward and forward traceability) A random number r2 generated by a tag serves as a temporary secret for the tag. A tag only needs to store an identifier ti . Boyeon Song and Chris J Mitchell RFID Authentication Protocol for Low-cost Tags
  25. 25. Outline Introduction Design Principle Requirements for such RFID Protocols Preliminaries Related Work Protocol Description A Novel Authentication Protocol Performance Conclusion References Main features A challenge-response approach (replay attack) The server database stores both the most recent and the current data for each tag. (denial-of-service attack) The server and tag update their shared secrets probabilistically using a hash function h and exchanged random numbers r1 and r2 . (backward and forward traceability) A random number r2 generated by a tag serves as a temporary secret for the tag. A tag only needs to store an identifier ti . A server database stores an identifier ti and a bit-string ui used for server validation for each tag, where ti = h(ui ). (server impersonation attack) Boyeon Song and Chris J Mitchell RFID Authentication Protocol for Low-cost Tags
  26. 26. Outline Introduction Design Principle Requirements for such RFID Protocols Preliminaries Related Work Protocol Description A Novel Authentication Protocol Performance Conclusion References Main features A challenge-response approach (replay attack) The server database stores both the most recent and the current data for each tag. (denial-of-service attack) The server and tag update their shared secrets probabilistically using a hash function h and exchanged random numbers r1 and r2 . (backward and forward traceability) A random number r2 generated by a tag serves as a temporary secret for the tag. A tag only needs to store an identifier ti . A server database stores an identifier ti and a bit-string ui used for server validation for each tag, where ti = h(ui ). (server impersonation attack) Boyeon Song and Chris J Mitchell RFID Authentication Protocol for Low-cost Tags
  27. 27. Outline Introduction Design Principle Requirements for such RFID Protocols Preliminaries Related Work Protocol Description A Novel Authentication Protocol Performance Conclusion References Notation h A hash function, h : {0, 1}l → {0, 1}l fk A keyed hash function, fk : {0, 1}l × {0, 1}l → {0, 1}l (a MAC algorithm) ⊕ XOR operator Concatenation operator ← Substitution operator x k Right circular shift operator, which rotates all bits of x to the right by k bits, as if the left and right ends of x were joined. x k Left circular shift operator, which rotates all bits of x to the left by k bits, as if the left and right ends of x were joined. Boyeon Song and Chris J Mitchell RFID Authentication Protocol for Low-cost Tags
  28. 28. Outline Introduction Design Principle Requirements for such RFID Protocols Preliminaries Related Work Protocol Description A Novel Authentication Protocol Performance Conclusion References Assumption There are implementations of h and fk which are suitable for a low cost tag, and sufficiently secure, and resistant to collision. Boyeon Song and Chris J Mitchell RFID Authentication Protocol for Low-cost Tags
  29. 29. Outline Introduction Design Principle Requirements for such RFID Protocols Preliminaries Related Work Protocol Description A Novel Authentication Protocol Performance Conclusion References Assumption There are implementations of h and fk which are suitable for a low cost tag, and sufficiently secure, and resistant to collision. [Weis, 2003]: non-linear feedback shift registers for a different candidate paradigm for low cost RFID hash functions [Y¨ksel, 2004]: several universal hash functions designed u specifically for efficient hardware implementations and ultra-low power devices [Pramstaller et al., 2006]: a compact hardware implementation of a hash function Whirlpool Boyeon Song and Chris J Mitchell RFID Authentication Protocol for Low-cost Tags
  30. 30. Outline Introduction Design Principle Requirements for such RFID Protocols Preliminaries Related Work Protocol Description A Novel Authentication Protocol Performance Conclusion References Boyeon Song and Chris J Mitchell RFID Authentication Protocol for Low-cost Tags
  31. 31. Outline Introduction Design Principle Requirements for such RFID Protocols Preliminaries Related Work Protocol Description A Novel Authentication Protocol Performance Conclusion References Boyeon Song and Chris J Mitchell RFID Authentication Protocol for Low-cost Tags
  32. 32. Outline Introduction Design Principle Requirements for such RFID Protocols Preliminaries Related Work Protocol Description A Novel Authentication Protocol Performance Conclusion References The Protocol Server Reader Tag: Ti Ti : (ti , ui ), (ˆi , ui ) t ˆ r1 ti r1 −−−→ r2 ∈ {0, 1}l M1 = ti ⊕ r2 r1 ,M1 ,M2 M1 ,M2 M2 = fti (r1 ⊕ r2 ) Search (ti , ui ) ←−−− ←−−− s.t. r2 ← M2 ⊕ ti and M2 = fti (r1 ⊕ r2 ) M3 = ui ⊕ (r2 l/2) M3 M3 −−−→ −−−→ ui ← M3 ⊕ (r2 l/2) ui ← ui ˆ If h(ui ) = ti , ˆi ← ti t ti ← h(ui l/4)⊕ ui ← (ui l/4)⊕ (ti l/4) ⊕ r1 ⊕ r2 ) (ti l/4) ⊕ r1 ⊕ r2 ti ← h(ui ) Boyeon Song and Chris J Mitchell RFID Authentication Protocol for Low-cost Tags
  33. 33. Outline Introduction Design Principle Requirements for such RFID Protocols Preliminaries Related Work Protocol Description A Novel Authentication Protocol Performance Conclusion References Privacy and security Property HM MW D KN DPLK CC LK Sec. 4 Information Privacy ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ Location Privacy − ◦ − − ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ Tag Impersonation − ◦ ◦ ◦ − ◦ ◦ ◦ Replay attack − ◦ ◦ − − ◦ ◦ ◦ DoS attack ◦ ◦ − − − ◦ ◦ ◦ Backward Traceability − − ◦ − − − ◦ ◦ Forward Traceability − − − − − − Server Impersonation − − − − − − ◦ : provided : provided under an assumption − : not provided Boyeon Song and Chris J Mitchell RFID Authentication Protocol for Low-cost Tags
  34. 34. Outline Introduction Design Principle Requirements for such RFID Protocols Preliminaries Related Work Protocol Description A Novel Authentication Protocol Performance Conclusion References Storage Storage DPLK CC LK Sec. 4 Server (l + l1 + l2 ) · N (l + 2l1 + 2l2 ) · N 2(l + 3l3 + ml4 ) · N 4l · N Tag l + l1 + l2 l + l1 + l2 l + l3 + c l N : The number of tags l : The bit-length of a tag identifier (e.g., l = 64, 96 or 128) l1 : The bit-length of a PIN in the DPLK and CC protocols (e.g., l1 = 32) l2 : The bit-length of a session key in the DPLK and CC protocols (e.g., l2 = 16) l3 : The bit-length of a server validator in the LK protocol (e.g., l3 = 32) l4 : The bit-length of a tag secret transmitted in the LK protocol (e.g., l4 = 32) m : The maximum number of authentication failures in the LK protocol (e.g., m = 64) c : The size of a counter in the LK protocol (e.g., c = 100) Boyeon Song and Chris J Mitchell RFID Authentication Protocol for Low-cost Tags
  35. 35. Outline Introduction Design Principle Requirements for such RFID Protocols Preliminaries Related Work Protocol Description A Novel Authentication Protocol Performance Conclusion References Computation Computation DPLK CC LK Sec. 4 On receiving the 2nd flow (k + 1)F kF (k1 + 1)F kF Server On sending the 3rd flow 1F 1F 1F − On updating or refreshing 1F 2F (k1 + k2 + m)F 1F Total (k + 3)F (k + 3)F (2k1 + k2 + m + 2)F (k + 1)F On sending the 2nd flow 2F 1F 1F 1F Tag On receiving the 3rd flow 1F 1F 2F 1F On updating or refreshing 1F 2F 1F 1F Total 4F 4F 4F 3F F : A computationally complex function (such as a CRC, PRF or hash function) N : The number of tags m : The maximum number of authentication failures in the LK protocol (e.g., m = 64) n : The length of the backward key chain in the LK protocol (e.g., n = 220 ) k : An integer satisfying 1 ≤ k ≤ 2N k1 : An integer satisfying 0 ≤ k1 ≤ m − 1 k2 : An integer satisfying 0 ≤ k2 ≤ n − 2 Boyeon Song and Chris J Mitchell RFID Authentication Protocol for Low-cost Tags
  36. 36. Outline Introduction Requirements for such RFID Protocols Related Work A Novel Authentication Protocol Conclusion References Summary The proposed protocol the most identified privacy and security properties. the least tag-side memory among the four schemes. fewer complex function invocations than the other three protocols, both for the server and the tag. Boyeon Song and Chris J Mitchell RFID Authentication Protocol for Low-cost Tags
  37. 37. Outline Introduction Requirements for such RFID Protocols Related Work A Novel Authentication Protocol Conclusion References Thank you Any Questions and Comments? Boyeon Song and Chris J Mitchell RFID Authentication Protocol for Low-cost Tags
  38. 38. Outline Introduction Requirements for such RFID Protocols Related Work A Novel Authentication Protocol Conclusion References H. Chien and C. Chen. Mutual authentication protocol for RFID conforming to EPC class 1 generation 2 standards. Computer Standards & Interfaces, 29(2):254–259, February 2007. T. Dimitriou. A lightweight RFID protocol to protect against traceability and cloning attacks. In Conference on Security and Privacy for Emerging Areas in Communication Networks — SecureComm, pages 59–66, Athens, Greece, September 2005. IEEE. D. N. Duc, J. Park, H. Lee, and K. Kim. Enhancing security of EPCglobal gen-2 RFID tag against traceability and cloning. In Symposium on Cryptography and Information Security — SCIS 2006, Hiroshima, Japan, January 2006. The Institute of Electronics, Information and Communication Engineers. A. Henrici and P. M¨ller. u Hash-based enhancement of location privacy for radio-frequency identification devices using varying identifiers. In R. Sandhu and R. Thomas, editors, International Workshop on Pervasive Computing and Communication Security — PerSec 2004, pages 149–153, Orlando, Florida, USA, March 2004. IEEE Computer Society. S. Karthikeyan and N. Nesterenko. RFID security without extensive cryptography. In Workshop on Security of Ad Hoc and Sensor Networks — SASN ’05, pages 63–67, Alexandria, Virginia, USA, November 2005. ACM Press. Boyeon Song and Chris J Mitchell RFID Authentication Protocol for Low-cost Tags
  39. 39. Outline Introduction Requirements for such RFID Protocols Related Work A Novel Authentication Protocol Conclusion References C. Lim and T. Kwon. Strong and robust RFID authentication enabling perfect ownership transfer. In P. Ning, S. Qing, and N. Li, editors, Conference on Information and Communications Security — ICICS ’06, volume 4307 of Lecture Notes in Computer Science, pages 1–20, Raleigh, North Carolina, USA, December 2006. Springer-Verlag. D. Molnar and D. Wagner. Privacy and security in library RFID: Issues, practices, and architectures. In B. Pfitzmann and P. Liu, editors, Conference on Computer and Communications Security — ACM CCS, pages 210–219, Washington, DC, USA, October 2004. ACM Press. N. Pramstaller, C. Rechberger, and V. Rijmen. A compact FPGA implementation of the hash function whirlpool. In ACM/SIGDA 14th international symposium on Field Programmable Gate Arrays — FPGA’06, ACM Press, pages 159–166, New York, 2006. Stephen Weis. Security and privacy in radio-frequency identification devices. Master’s thesis, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Massachusetts, USA, May 2003. K. Y¨ksel. u Universal hashing for ultra-low-power cryptographic hardware applications. Master’s thesis, Dept. of Electronical Engineering, Worcester Polytechnic Institute, Worcester, MA, USA, 2004. Boyeon Song and Chris J Mitchell RFID Authentication Protocol for Low-cost Tags
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