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  1. 1. RFID Mohammad Reza Ghaderi 2/7/2007 1
  2. 2. Agenda What is RFID? How Does RFID Work? Why RFID? RFID Standards EPCglobal Classification RFID Cost 2/7/2007 2
  3. 3. What is RFID? RFID is a method of auto identification that is suitable for identifying both products and assets within the supply chain environment. It is not a new technology and has been in the public domain for at least 10 years. Technical limitations and cost have so far proved to be a barrier to its widespread adoption. It may be considered an enhancement of existing methods (e.g., printed bar codes) for automatic object identification. 2/7/2007 3
  4. 4. What is RFID? RFID technology comprises 3 basic elements : The RFID tag The RFID reader/writer The host line of business system 2/7/2007 4
  5. 5. The RFID Tag The RFID tag is a radio data device designed to carry data. It consists of a piece of integrated circuitry, some memory and an RF antenna. A useful classification of RFID tags: Passive (do not have their own power source, powered from incident RF, communicating via modulated backscatter) Semi-Passive and Active (containing a battery or other power source for long range communication) 2/7/2007 5
  6. 6. The RFID Tag Designs are currently available for use at a variety of frequencies, typically 125 KHz, 13.56 MHz, 2.45GHz and around 900MHz. Every tag is manufactured with its own unique identification number. Additionally, depending on the tag type and specification, the tag will have the ability to store more data. 2/7/2007 6
  7. 7. The RFID Reader / Writer The RFID reader/writer consists of some circuitry and an antenna. In the case of passive tags, the RF field created from the antenna both energizes the tags and picks up their RF transmission of data. In the case of active tags, the RF field reads the tags and may also be used to activate the tag 2/7/2007 7
  8. 8. The Host System The host system is normally a line of business software application In a similar manner to standard barcodes, RFID tags are merely an automated way to provide input data to the host system. RFID tags can also provide an automated output from the system allowing dynamic update of the data held on the tag. In all cases, the host system will need software modifications to integrate the data provided by the RFID reader/writer. 2/7/2007 8
  9. 9. How does RFID Work? 2/7/2007 9
  10. 10. Read/Write Distance & Speed 2/7/2007 10
  11. 11. Why RFID? RFID technology is not a replacement for bar codes. It may be considered an enhancement of existing methods (e.g., printed bar codes) for automatic object identification. 2/7/2007 11
  12. 12. RFID Benefits Does not require line of site Extended data capacity compared with bar codes Tags can be hidden for security Tags can be protected for harsh environments Wide and versatile tag format Read/write can be automated for transparent operation Highly secure and difficult to replicate – ideal for authentication or warranty applications Data can be dynamically modified/updated for continuous re-use Multiple tags can be read at once 2/7/2007 12
  13. 13. RFID Drawbacks Relatively high cost of tags Read/write range can limit application Multiple read/writes are time dependent Standards are still emerging and not mature Non-reads must be catered for within the system 2/7/2007 13
  14. 14. Standards Legislative bodies are developing standards which cover both the RF protocol and data format levels. ISO15693 has already been published covering high frequency passive tags called “Smart Labels” and products to this standard are available from multiple suppliers. EAN and the Uniform Code Council (UCC) are promoting the adoption of a global standard for supply chain applications known as Global Tag (GTAG) ISO have also released a new standard, ISO18000 which defines UHF and other frequency passive tag formats. Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) is also working on a UHF RF tag standard. (Auto ID lab & EPCglobal) 2/7/2007 14
  15. 15. EPCglobal classification Class-1: Identity Tags (normative) Passive-backscatter Tags with the following minimum features: An electronic product code (EPC) identifier A Tag identifier (TID) A 'kill' function that permanently disables the Tag Optional password-protected access control Optional user memory 2/7/2007 15
  16. 16. EPCglobal classification Class-2: Higher-Functionality Tags Passive Tags with the following anticipated features above and beyond those of Class-1 Tags: An extended TID Extended user memory Authenticated access control Additional features (TBD) as will be defined in the Class-2 specification 2/7/2007 16
  17. 17. EPCglobal classification Class-3: Semi-Passive Tags Semi-passive Tags with the following anticipated features above and beyond those of Class-2 Tags: An integral power source Integrated sensing circuitry Class-4: Active Tags Active Tags with the following anticipated features above and beyond those of Class-3 Tags: Tag-to-Tag communications Active communications Ad-hoc networking capabilities 2/7/2007 17
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  20. 20. RFID Cost Cost is everything in RFID. The problem is you have to make a lot of something to learn how to make it cheaply 2/7/2007 20
  21. 21. RFID Cost Cost Trends for Various Terminals 1000 83% slope CDMA 17% learning factor 78% slope 1997 TDMA GSM 76% 66% slope Costs in $ USD 100 2000 2000 CDMA/IS-95 Wholesale Prices GSM Wholesale Prices TDMA/IS136 Wholesale Prices Herschel Shostek Associates, Ltd for GSM data, 1998. 10 0.001 0.01 0.1 1 10 100 1000 SAW Subscribers (M) 8/8/99 2/7/2007 21
  22. 22. RFID Markets 100k Daimler-Chrysler Shipping container tracking 10k TI Factory Savi Data capacity 1k Microchip automation (bits) Xcyte Motorola 100 Airline bag Micron Communications/ Philips tags IBM ID Micro Motorola 10 Scientific Generics Hughes 0.1 1 10 100 Cost ($) 2/7/2007 22
  23. 23. Conclusion If we can build a radio tag that encodes 40 to 100 bits, can be read at a range of 1 meter and sells for less than a dime, we’ll be driving fancy cars & smoking expensive cigars. 2/7/2007 23
  24. 24. References 1) “Radio Frequency IDentification: Applications and Implications for Consumers” A Workshop Report from the Staff of the Federal Trade Commission, March 2005. 2) EPC™ Radio-Frequency Identity Protocols Class-1 Generation-2 UHF RFID Protocol for Communications at 860 MHz – 960 MHz Version 1.0.9 3) “RFID Tagging Technology,” Microlise, Jan 2003 4) Yale Braunstein, Patrick Riley, “RFID – From economics to business & applications” 5) Gregory Wright, “Radio Tags, Technology Snags and Market Lags: Finding a Future for Radio Frequency Identification” 2/7/2007 24
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