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RFID

Steven DiBenedetto
Outline
•   Introduction and Principles
•   Evolution of Security
•   Tag Counting
•   Context/Location Awareness
•   Secu...
Introduction
• Radio Frequency Identification (RFID)
• Generally consists of a reader and tags.
  – Readers issue queries ...
RFID Equipment




http://www.rfidc.com/docs/introductiontorfid_technology.htm
RFID Principles
• Active: require powered infrastructure or
  attached battery
  – Examples: aircraft IFF transponder
  – ...
RFID Principles
• 2 main methods to power passive devices
  – Near-field RFID
     • Works off of magnetic induction field...
RFID Principles
• Operates in 3 main frequency bands
  – Low (125/134 KHz)
     • Useful for access control
  – High (13.5...
Example Applications
•   Originally developed for aircraft IFF systems.
•   More efficient check-out systems.
•   Automati...
Outline
•   Introduction and Principles
•   Evolution of Security
•   Tag Counting
•   Context/Location Awareness
•   Secu...
Past Security Issues
• Sniffing and Tracking
• Spoofing
  – Make adversary think you are someplace else.
• Replay
  – Stea...
Modern Security Issues
• Sniffing
   – Easy to eavesdrop or query tags with a compliant reader.
• Tracking
   – Well place...
Security Evolution
• No longer a clear concept of who is an attacker.
   – Past: Allies vs. Axis
   – Present: Potentially...
Security Evolution
• Back-end infrastructure
  – Past: Compromise affects a single plane.
  – Present: Potentially connect...
Evolution of Solutions
• Cryptography
  – Past
     • Issue random challenge.
     • Friendly responds with encrypted chal...
Evolution of Solutions
• Detection and evasion
  – Past: Radar predication devices showed radar
    locations on relief ma...
Evolution of Solutions
• Other techniques
  – Past
     • Hop between random frequencies to evade attacks.
     • Require ...
Security Feasibility
• Application considerations
  – Past
     • Cost not an issue thanks to war time budget.
     • Size...
Security Feasibility
• On-tag cryptography
  – Past: Crypto makes sense in a war.
  – Present
     • Crypto may cause powe...
Outline
•   Introduction and Principles
•   Evolution of Security
•   Tag Counting
•   Context/Location Awareness
•   Secu...
Tag Counting
• Objective: Quickly and accurately count the
  number of tags with a region.
  – Inventory items as they are...
Tag Count Frame Slotted Aloha
• Tag transmissions are scheduled by
  communication between tag and reader.
• Tags should i...
Tag Count Frame Slotted Aloha




          Tag Count Frame Slotted Aloha: A Novel Anti-collision Protocol in RFID Systems...
TCFSA Performance
• Evaluate based on:




• Number of arrivals = number of departures for
  simulations.
TCFSA vs. Other Aloha-based




   Tag Count Frame Slotted Aloha: A Novel Anti-collision Protocol in RFID Systems.
   Xiao...
TCFSA vs. ABS




       Tag Count Frame Slotted Aloha: A Novel Anti-collision
       Protocol in RFID Systems. Xiaodong D...
Outline
•   Introduction and Principles
•   Evolution of Security
•   Tag Counting
•   Context/Location Awareness
•   Secu...
Context Awareness
• Goal: Determine user’s location and what
  actions are being taken.
• Relative vs. Absolute location m...
Context Awareness Challenges
• Environment may be constantly changing.
• Heterogeneous data sources with varying
  levels ...
Location Sensing
• Objective: Track people or objects within a
  given area.
• Variety of commonly used solutions.
  – GPS...
RFID-based Location




Placement of 9 readers with two different ranges and the sub- regions.
LANDMARC: Indoor Location S...
LANDMARC
• Objective: Create a location sensing system
  using off the shelf hardware.
• Equipment:
  – RFID readers
     ...
LANDMARC Approach
• Adding more readers increases accuracy.
  – Expensive
  – Static obstructions and human movement can
 ...
LANDMARC Approach
• Maintain signal strength vectors.
  – Moving tag: S = (S1 , S2 , . . . , Sn )
  – Reference tag: θ = (...
LANDMARC Approach
• K-nearest neighbors algorithm for coordinates



• w represents the weight of a reference tag.
  – Uni...
LANDMARC Evaluation
• Reference tags limit some interference effects.
• More readers improves accuracy, but very
  expensi...
LANDMARC Evaluation




LANDMARC: Indoor Location Sensing Using Active RFID. LIONEL M. NI, YUNHAO LIU, YIU CHO LAU and ABH...
Outline
•   Introduction and Principles
•   Evolution of Security
•   Tag Counting
•   Context/Location Awareness
•   Secu...
Location-based Storage
• Use the properties of a physical location as
  implicit access control.
  – May be enough securit...
FragDB Approach
• Fluid boundaries
  – Use tag IDs are pointers to memory holding a
    fragment of data.
  – Data is frag...
FragDB Approach
• Time variance
  – Tag should change its ID periodically.
     • Timer component on tag
     • Change ID ...
FragDB Approach
• Secure storage
  – Data is not stored at location.
  – Only need knowledge about location key.




  Fra...
Summary
• RFID does not provide a one size fits all
  solution for computing needs.
• Lots of security and privacy concern...
References
• RFID Centre. http://www.rfidc.com
• An Introduction to RFID Technology. Roy Want.
• Activity and Location Rec...
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RFID

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Transcript of "RFID"

  1. 1. RFID Steven DiBenedetto
  2. 2. Outline • Introduction and Principles • Evolution of Security • Tag Counting • Context/Location Awareness • Secure Storage
  3. 3. Introduction • Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) • Generally consists of a reader and tags. – Readers issue queries to tags which then respond. • RFID is among the most loved and reviled technologies of our time. – Poster child for ubiquitous computing. – Enemy #1 for privacy groups. • Lots of interesting problems concerning context awareness and privacy.
  4. 4. RFID Equipment http://www.rfidc.com/docs/introductiontorfid_technology.htm
  5. 5. RFID Principles • Active: require powered infrastructure or attached battery – Examples: aircraft IFF transponder – Pros: can generate own signal, wider range of uses – Cons: more expensive, limited battery life • Passive: powered by a tag reader – Example: labels – Pros: no battery or maintenance needed, cheap – Cons: few uses, still too expensive for some uses
  6. 6. RFID Principles • 2 main methods to power passive devices – Near-field RFID • Works off of magnetic induction fields • Tag responds through load modulation • Limited effective range. – Far-field RFID • Tags capture EM waves emitted by a dipole antenna. • Response loses power more quickly than near-field.
  7. 7. RFID Principles • Operates in 3 main frequency bands – Low (125/134 KHz) • Useful for access control – High (13.56 MHz) • Provides read ranges up to 1.5 meters – Ultra High (850 – 950 MHz) • High speed reading and range up to 3 meters. • Favored for inventory tracking.
  8. 8. Example Applications • Originally developed for aircraft IFF systems. • More efficient check-out systems. • Automatic toll collection devices. • Access control.
  9. 9. Outline • Introduction and Principles • Evolution of Security • Tag Counting • Context/Location Awareness • Secure Storage
  10. 10. Past Security Issues • Sniffing and Tracking • Spoofing – Make adversary think you are someplace else. • Replay – Steal IFF transponder to answer identification challenges. • Denial of Service – Jamming radars result in hesitation or friendly fire.
  11. 11. Modern Security Issues • Sniffing – Easy to eavesdrop or query tags with a compliant reader. • Tracking – Well placed readers can track you and “constellations” of who/what you associate with. • Spoofing – Tag cloning. See Oyster Cards. • Replay • Denial of Service – Tag relocation – Faraday cages
  12. 12. Security Evolution • No longer a clear concept of who is an attacker. – Past: Allies vs. Axis – Present: Potentially everyone. • Physical security went out the window. – Past: IFF transponder was on a plane. – Present: Device may already be in adversary’s possession. • Security vs. Privacy – Past: Exclusively security. – Present: Security and privacy are now critical.
  13. 13. Security Evolution • Back-end infrastructure – Past: Compromise affects a single plane. – Present: Potentially connected to important databases and other middleware. • Social factors – Past: Attacks are always attacks. – Present: Attacks may also be an attempt at self- defense.
  14. 14. Evolution of Solutions • Cryptography – Past • Issue random challenge. • Friendly responds with encrypted challenge. • Interrogator validates response. – Present • Symmetric & asymmetric key cryptography. • May offload solution of a back-end device.
  15. 15. Evolution of Solutions • Detection and evasion – Past: Radar predication devices showed radar locations on relief maps. – Present: RFID Guardian detects scans and logs their meaning. • Temporary deactivation – Past: Turn off IFF device. – Present: Password protected sleep or Faraday cages.
  16. 16. Evolution of Solutions • Other techniques – Past • Hop between random frequencies to evade attacks. • Require a code to be periodically entered into transponder. – Present • Periodically regenerate tag name or ID. • Re-encrypt tag data.
  17. 17. Security Feasibility • Application considerations – Past • Cost not an issue thanks to war time budget. • Size not an issue thanks to deployment on bombers. – Present: • Wide scale deployment requires low cost. • Size is an issue for ubiquitous deployment.
  18. 18. Security Feasibility • On-tag cryptography – Past: Crypto makes sense in a war. – Present • Crypto may cause power/size constraints. • Move crypto off-tag. • Key revocation – Past: Revoke IFF key if a plane is stolen. – Present: Determining when a key has been compromised is difficult.
  19. 19. Outline • Introduction and Principles • Evolution of Security • Tag Counting • Context/Location Awareness • Secure Storage
  20. 20. Tag Counting • Objective: Quickly and accurately count the number of tags with a region. – Inventory items as they are unloaded. • Multiple tags responding can cause collisions. • Passive tags have little functionality. – Unable to detect collisions and neighbors. • Tags may be read multiple times.
  21. 21. Tag Count Frame Slotted Aloha • Tag transmissions are scheduled by communication between tag and reader. • Tags should implement: – identified flag – Random number generator – Slot counter – Simple state machine
  22. 22. Tag Count Frame Slotted Aloha Tag Count Frame Slotted Aloha: A Novel Anti-collision Protocol in RFID Systems. Xiaodong Deng, Mengtian Rong, Tao Liu, Yong Yuan and Dan Yu
  23. 23. TCFSA Performance • Evaluate based on: • Number of arrivals = number of departures for simulations.
  24. 24. TCFSA vs. Other Aloha-based Tag Count Frame Slotted Aloha: A Novel Anti-collision Protocol in RFID Systems. Xiaodong Deng, Mengtian Rong, Tao Liu, Yong Yuan and Dan Yu
  25. 25. TCFSA vs. ABS Tag Count Frame Slotted Aloha: A Novel Anti-collision Protocol in RFID Systems. Xiaodong Deng, Mengtian Rong, Tao Liu, Yong Yuan and Dan Yu
  26. 26. Outline • Introduction and Principles • Evolution of Security • Tag Counting • Context/Location Awareness • Secure Storage
  27. 27. Context Awareness • Goal: Determine user’s location and what actions are being taken. • Relative vs. Absolute location measurements – Measuring based on last known location • E.g. measure distance walked based on pace and time – Measurement based on reference E.g. GPS system
  28. 28. Context Awareness Challenges • Environment may be constantly changing. • Heterogeneous data sources with varying levels of reliability. • May desire different levels of privacy based on location. – Location is more than a set of coordinates. – Expected behavior at location? • Privacy varies based on who is looking for information.
  29. 29. Location Sensing • Objective: Track people or objects within a given area. • Variety of commonly used solutions. – GPS – Infrared sensors – Ultrasonic sensors – RFID – 802.11
  30. 30. RFID-based Location Placement of 9 readers with two different ranges and the sub- regions. LANDMARC: Indoor Location Sensing Using Active RFID. LIONEL M. NI, YUNHAO LIU, YIU CHO LAU and ABHISHEK P. PATIL. Wireless Networks 10, 701–710, 2004
  31. 31. LANDMARC • Objective: Create a location sensing system using off the shelf hardware. • Equipment: – RFID readers • 8 power levels • Event-based or continuous update scheme • Detection range of 150 ft • 802.11b interface – Active RFID tags
  32. 32. LANDMARC Approach • Adding more readers increases accuracy. – Expensive – Static obstructions and human movement can effect readings. • Add static tags to act as landmarks. – Reference tags will behave similar to target tags. – Requires active tags.
  33. 33. LANDMARC Approach • Maintain signal strength vectors. – Moving tag: S = (S1 , S2 , . . . , Sn ) – Reference tag: θ = (θ1 , θ2 , . . . , θ) • Measure using Euclidean distance of strengths
  34. 34. LANDMARC Approach • K-nearest neighbors algorithm for coordinates • w represents the weight of a reference tag. – Uniform weights results in more errors. – Calibrate weights based on E
  35. 35. LANDMARC Evaluation • Reference tags limit some interference effects. • More readers improves accuracy, but very expensive. LANDMARC: Indoor Location Sensing Using Active RFID. LIONEL M. NI, YUNHAO LIU, YIU CHO LAU and ABHISHEK P. PATIL. Wireless Networks 10, 701–710, 2004
  36. 36. LANDMARC Evaluation LANDMARC: Indoor Location Sensing Using Active RFID. LIONEL M. NI, YUNHAO LIU, YIU CHO LAU and ABHISHEK P. PATIL. Wireless Networks 10, 701–710, 2004
  37. 37. Outline • Introduction and Principles • Evolution of Security • Tag Counting • Context/Location Awareness • Secure Storage
  38. 38. Location-based Storage • Use the properties of a physical location as implicit access control. – May be enough security for a given piece of data. – Analogous to how people use to manage privacy. • Requirements: – Fluid boundaries – Time variance – Time continuity – Secure storage
  39. 39. FragDB Approach • Fluid boundaries – Use tag IDs are pointers to memory holding a fragment of data. – Data is fragmented based level of redundancy. • Simple split (no redundancy) • Redundant split • FEC 2:1 – Allows reassembly with any set of half the fragments.
  40. 40. FragDB Approach • Time variance – Tag should change its ID periodically. • Timer component on tag • Change ID upon query with probability • Time continuity – Old IDs must be stored on tag. – Gradually expire old IDs.
  41. 41. FragDB Approach • Secure storage – Data is not stored at location. – Only need knowledge about location key. FragDB – Secure Localized Storaged Based on Super-Distributed RFID-Tag Infrastructures. Marc Langheinrich
  42. 42. Summary • RFID does not provide a one size fits all solution for computing needs. • Lots of security and privacy concerns remain to be answered. • RFID will continue to be a solid foundation for ubiquitous computing applications.
  43. 43. References • RFID Centre. http://www.rfidc.com • An Introduction to RFID Technology. Roy Want. • Activity and Location Recognition Using Wearable Sensors. Seon- Woo Lee and Kenji Mase. • Managing Context Information in Mobile Devices. Panu Korpipää, Jani Mäntyjärvi, Juha Kela, Heikki Keränen, and Esko-Juhani Malm • Tag Count Frame Slotted Aloha: A Novel Anti-collision Protocol in RFID Systems. Xiaodong Deng, Mengtian Rong, Tao Liu, Yong Yuan and Dan Yu. • FragDB – Secure Localized Storaged Based on Super-Distributed RFID-Tag Infrastructures. Marc Langheinrich • LANDMARC: Indoor Location Sensing Using Active RFID. LIONEL M. NI, YUNHAO LIU, YIU CHO LAU and ABHISHEK P. PATIL. Wireless Networks 10, 701–710, 2004
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