Presentation 9 - RFID
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    Presentation 9 - RFID Presentation 9 - RFID Presentation Transcript

    • RFID Group Members: Katherine Hughes, Justin Behm, Alan Gilewski, Robert Worth, Daniel Crucz, Michalis Kritikos Group Number: 5 Presentation Date: 4/30/2008
    • Presentation Overview
      • Introduction
      • Business Applications
      • Advantages of RFID
      • Disadvantages of RFID
      • Conclusion/ Recap
      • Quiz and Questions
    • Why is RFID important to you?
      • Technology is continuously improving and changing the business world.
      • Important to be aware of different technology options.
      • RFID is used in our everyday world.
      • RFID could one day be an essential part of your business or workplace.
    • Goals to Achieve
      • Detailed description and definition of RFID
      • Make audience aware of various advantages of the technology
      • Learn the various disadvantages of the RFID technology
      • Discuss the business applications
      • The future of RFID based on research and the team’s opinion
    • RFID Stands For…
      • R ADIO
      • F REQUENCY
    • RFID Defined
      • A technology which incorporates the use of electromagnetic coupling and radio waves to identify an object or person.
      • Made up of several components embedded into business practices to improve and transform key supply chain processes.
      • Provides a distinctive identifier for objects (similar in its purpose to bar codes or magnetic stripes on the back of credit cards).
      • RFID must be scanned in order to retrieve the needed information
    • History and Development
      • First Developed during WWII.
      • Created from radar experiments.
      • British needed to identify their own planes “friendlies” from French planes “foes”.
      • Actual year of invention was 1948.
      • For years after first development a great amount of research on RFID was done until it was actually used in commercial application.
    • History Of Use
      • After WWII security and safety was needed due to the use of nuclear materials, which lead to further developments in “tagging”.
      • RFID started being implemented in the 1970’s.
      • During this time the cost of each tag was excessive and the use was very limited.
    • RFID in the 1980’s
      • The 1980’s bought a great amount of development. In 1987 Norway had implemented the first successful toll collection system.
      • Toll systems were considered to be the breakthrough product for RFID.
      • In 1981 railroads began implementing RFID as a solution for the environment of their industry. The railroads used RFID to keep track of rolling stock. The radio frequency was able to go a travel a longer distance, and had the ability to read through snow, fog, dirt, and direct sunlight. Before RFID the railroads were implementing bar code technology.
      • In 1988 the main effort of RFID shifted to new applications to do things such as improve performance, reduce costs and reduce size
    • 1990’s to Present
      • From the 90’s to the present RFID manufactures are in deep competition to be the company to sell the cheapest, smallest and most reliable RFID device.
      • ( Business Applications Section will talk more about RFID in present use.)
    • How Does RFID Work?
      • RFID is comprised of three major components:
      • ♦ An antenna or coil
      • ♦ A transceiver (with decoder)
      • ♦ Transponder (RF tag)
    • RFID In Use
    • Antenna or Coil
      • The antenna emits radio signals to activate the tag and to read and write data into the tag.
      • The antenna is the channel between the tag and the transceiver, thus it controls the data attainment and communication.
      • The antennas are available in many different shapes and sizes. For example an antenna can be built into a doorframe in order to collect data from people walking through the door.
    • Antenna and Coil Continued…
      • The electromagnetic field, which the antenna produces, is constantly present when multiple tags are continually expected.
      • If constant detection is not needed the field can be activated by a sensory device.
      • Depending on the antennas needs you could opt to make it a handheld or a fixed-mount device.
      • Often the antenna is packaged with the transceiver and decoder.
    • Transceiver (with decoder)
      • The reader releases radio waves in ranges from one inch to 100 feet or more. The range depends on its output power and the radio frequency used.
      • When the RFID tag passes through the electromagnetic field it will then detect the reader’s activation signal.
      • At this point the reader will decode the data programmed in the tag’s circuit.
      • Finally, the data is passed to the host computer to be processed.
    • Transponder (RF Tag)
      • RFID tags are the heart of the RFID system because they store the information that describes the object being tracked.
      • Tags are classified according to their abilities:
      • ♦ Active
      • ♦ Passive
      • ♦ Read-Only
      • ♦ Write-Once
      • ♦ Read-Write
    • Active Tags
      • Contain a battery that runs the microchip’s circuitry.
      • Tag is able to send a stronger signal to the reader due to battery.
      • Allows a read range of about one hundred feet.
    • Passive Tags
      • Passive tags contain no batteries.
      • Passive tags get power from a reader.
      • Readers send electromagnetic waves that produce a current in the tag’s antenna which then powers the microchip’s circuits.
      • A passive tags read range is approximately thirty feet.
    • Read-Only Tag
      • Read-only contain data such as tracking numbers.
      • These tracking numbers are usually serialized and pre-written onto them by the tag manufacturer.
      • Read-only tags are usually the least expensive because information can not be added onto them as they move through the supply chain.
    • Write-Once & Read-Write
      • Write-once tags allow a user to write information into the tag one time during the production. The information can be something like a batch or serial number.
      • Full read-write tags allow for new data to be written to the tag as it is needed. These tags also allow for original data to be written over.
    • Business Applications
    • Asset Tracking
      • RFID tags applied to company assets which are stored away
      • Companies then use the tags and RFID technology to locate assets when they needed
      • The location of the assets are accurate within 10 feet
      • Think of our Libraries…
      • RFID tracks library books that are checked out or in.
    • RFID Utilized in Manufacturing
      • Manufacturing companies utilize RFID to track parts
      • Work-in-Progress tracking made easier
      • Reduce defects
      • Increase of throughput
      • Manage production of different versions of the same product
      • Assists in tracking part arrivals
      • Follows parts along assembly lines
    • RFID Used In Retail
      • Assists in identifying which products need to be restocked
      • When shelf supplies are low store will be able to quickly identify where product is needed and where they will obtain the needed product
      • Overall, allows for higher customer satisfaction
      • Helps automate checkout lines
      • Reduces line waiting times
    • Payment Systems
      • Helps speed up processes where payments are necessary.
      • Most commonly found on toll ways
      • Used in collecting tolls, which we know in Illinois as the IPASS system.
      • More convenient for drivers and eases the flow of traffic.
      • Mobil Speedpass
    • Security and Access Control
      • Companies use RFID to assist in limiting access of unauthorized personnel to information among other things
      • Confirms information is only being viewed by those who are allowed to view it.
      • Added value to Electronic Article Surveillance
      • Commonly used in stored as anti-shoplifting tool it signals alarm to go off.
      • Control access to gates communities (ex: Crystal Tree, in Orland Park)
      • Controls access in Airports (O’Hare Airport)
    • Case Study #1: Victory Land Group
      • A supplier company for Wal-Mart
      • Knew that it had to keep up with demand and competitors
      • Implemented Electronic Product Code (EPC) and RFID smart labels
      • Constructed a new distribution center with RFID capabilities
      • Zebra and R4 Global Solutions, a leading RFID systems integrator worked with VLG on the implementation and since then has worked with a dozen Wal-Mart suppliers.
      • Results:
      • * VLG is able to go onto Wal-Mart’s Retailer Link Supplier website to track the progress of its tagged merchandise.
      • * VLG uses the information for its own planning.
      • * Considering more ways to use RFID internally.
      • * Began discussing RFID technology with its own suppliers
    • Case Study #2: Federal Express
      • Federal Express (world’s largest express parcel delivery company)
      • Delivers 3.2 Million parcels daily and operates over 42,500 vehicles worldwide.
      • Company’s couriers use an automatic keyless entry and ignition system which uses RFID transponders embedded into a wristband.
      • Results:
      • * Personnel do not have to worry about juggling and keeping track of their keys when delivering packages
      • * Carriers are more productive on their routes.
      • * If wristband is misplaced, the RFID system can reprogram a new code within a matter of seconds.
      • * When carrier places his or her band within 6 inches of the reader, the door will unlock, keeping all other doors locked in order to prevent unauthorized entry.
    • Advantages
    • Advantages of RFID
      • ♦ Reductions in Costs
      • ♦ Reduction in Inventory and Theft
      • ♦ Improves Forecasting, Planning and overall customer experience
    • Reducing Warehouse and Distribution/Point-of-Sale Labor Costs
      • Sensors allow for easier tracking of inventory with high accuracy.
      • Point-of-Sale transaction times reduced
      • Fraud minimized with RFID-enabled products.
      • Overall, need for human labor is diminished as adoption of product increases, saving on labor costs.
    • Reduce Inventory & Theft
      • Accurate tracking of inventory helps maintain appropriate levels of inventory in stock.
      • With theft accounting for losses equivalent to 1.5% of sales, RFID keeps track of when or where an item went missing.
      • Eliminating excess/missing inventory vital when trying to maintain a successful business.
    • Improve Forecasting/Planning and Minimize Out-of-stock Conditions
      • Eliminating out-of-stock conditions is made easier with RFID tracking
      • Predict with higher accuracy the current levels of stock
      • Better prediction in location of incoming shipments
      • Maximize revenue
      • Maintain high levels of customer satisfaction
    • Improve Overall Customer Experience
      • Use of RFID and interactive kiosks can allow the merchant to extend offers to customers based on the contents of their carts.
    • Disadvantages
    • Disadvantages of RFID
      • ♦ Cost
      • ♦ Collision
      • ♦ Failure
    • Cost of RFID
      • More expensive than current technologies
      • Cost of an RFID scanner is $500-$2000
      • Current cost of an RFID tag is between 7¢-15¢
      • Cost of active tag is $10-$50
      • Barcodes cost less than 1¢ or around 3¢ with a security strip
    • Collision
      • Signals can ‘Collide’ when multiple signals are read at once.
      • Those signals are either lost or are read with errors.
      • At times the collision goes undetected for long periods of time.
    • Failure
      • Total failure of the tag or reader
      • 12%-15% of all tags fail in their first reading
      • Reader failure is common and requires replacing the reader.
      • Barcode failure is extremely rare
    • Summary/Recap
      • RFID- R adio F requency ID entification
      • A technology which incorporates the use of electromagnetic coupling and radio waves to identify an object or person.
      • Provides a distinctive identifier for objects (similar in its purpose to bar codes or magnetic stripes on the back of credit cards).
    • Summary/Recap
      • Important Business Applications
      • ♦ Asset Tracking
      • ♦ Manufacturing Companies
      • ♦ Retail Stores
      • ♦ Payment Systems
      • ♦ Security and Access Control
    • Summary/Recap
      • Advantages:
      • ♦ Reduction in Costs
      • ♦ Reduction in Inventory and Theft
      • ♦ Improves forecasting/planning and overall customer experience
      • Disadvantages:
      • ♦ Cost
      • ♦ Collision
      • ♦ Failure
    • Importance to Our Lives
      • RFID used in everyday living.
      • Makes our lives easier (IPASS, Speedpass)
      • Saves money and reduces theft to businesses we may work for currently or will work for in the future.
      • Important to be familiar with and aware of current technology trends to keep a competitive advantage for ourselves and for our future employers.
    • Quiz Question #1
      • What is not a type of RF tag?
      • A.) Passive Tag
      • B.) Read-Only Tag
      • C.) Passive-Read Once Tag
      • D.) Write-Once Tag
    • Quiz Question #2
      • What is not one of the major components of RFID?
      • A.) Transponder (Rf Tag)
      • B.) Alkaline Battery
      • C.) Antenna or Coil
      • D.) Transceiver (With Decoder)
    • Quiz Question #3
      • What is not one of the major disadvantages of RFID technology?
      • A.) Collision
      • B.) Cost
      • C.) Reduction of Inventory
      • D.) Failure
    • Bibliography
      • The History and Development of RFID Technology. Online. 12 April 2008.
      • A History of Development. Online. 13 April 2005.
      • How RFID Works. Online. 2 April 2008.
      • Leeming, Greg. RFID Overview . 8 September 2008.
      • Technologies: RFID/ What is RFID. Online. 12 April 2008.
      • Experts On Demand . 19 December 2005.,295208,sid63_gci1153220,00.html
      • What you need to know. September 2007. Transponder News. April 3, 2008. http:// .
      • “ Zebra and R4 Global Solutions make EPC compliance labeling fast and simple for Victory Land Group” Victory Land Group Case Study, Zebra Technologies. Nov 8, 2005
      • “ Security Access and Convenience for Express Parcel Couriers” Texas Instruments Incorporated. June 30, 2004.
    • Bibliography Continued…
      • What Every Internal Auditor Should Know About RFID. Knowledgeleader. June 2008
      • The Ecosystem: What RFID Is. Online. Volume 09 Issue 03. 3 August 2005.
      • What is RFID? Online. 2 April 2008.
      • RFID JOURNAL The World’s RFID Authority. April 2, 2008.
      • Frequently Asked Question. RFID JOURNAL The World’s RFID Authority. April 2, 2008.
      • What you need to know. September 2007. Transponder News. April 3, 2008.
      • Ilie-Zudor, Elisabeth; Kemeny, Zsolt; Egri, Péter; Monostori, László. THE RFID TECHNOLOGY AND ITS CURRENT APPLICATIONS. September 2006. Computer and Automation Research Institute, Hungarian Academy of Sciences. April 3, 2008.