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  • 1. RFID Prepared by Rui Wang Ram Katepally
  • 2. Any Guesses??
  • 3. Agenda <ul><li>Introduction and Background </li></ul><ul><li>Physical Components </li></ul><ul><li>Data Transactions </li></ul><ul><li>Data Management </li></ul><ul><li>Applications </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusion </li></ul>
  • 4. What is RFID ?
  • 5. IBM Commercial for RFID Supply Chain
  • 6. RFID <ul><li>Its first use is in World War II. </li></ul><ul><li>Global RFID Market spent $2.7 billion in 2006, and is projecting $26.2 Billion By 2016. </li></ul><ul><li>More and more companies are looking forward to deploying RFID. </li></ul>
  • 7. <ul><li>RFID Tag(a.k.a Transponder) </li></ul>Physical Components
  • 8. Physical Components <ul><li>RFID Reader(a.ka Interrogator) </li></ul>Handheld Reader PlugNPlay Readers Microprocessor + Circuit board + Antenna Fixed Reader
  • 9. How do they work together? Reader (Transceiver Antenna) Tag (Transponder) 2 1 Passive Mode
  • 10. <ul><li>Active Mode </li></ul><ul><li>Built-in Battery makes tags broadcasting, reader becomes the listener </li></ul><ul><li>Semi-active Mode </li></ul><ul><li>passive mode with battery assisting </li></ul>
  • 11. RF Electromagnetic spectrum Works better on metal and water products Longer reading range, and faster reading speed
  • 12. RFID Standards
  • 13. RFID data Architecture Enterprise System Middleware Readers Tags Items Enterprise Interface Feature Implementation Reader Interface
  • 14. Elements of an RFID System
  • 15. Ubiquitous RFID data Readers
  • 16. RFID Data <ul><li>Data generated from an RFID application is seen as a stream of RFID tuples of the form EPC, location, time. </li></ul><ul><li>large amount of data redundancy </li></ul><ul><li>Compressing multiple items that stay together at a single location is vital in order to reduce the enormous size of the cleansed RFID database. </li></ul>
  • 17. RFID Data Analysis <ul><li>The essence of RFID is automated data collection </li></ul><ul><li>Databases are thus a critical part of most RFID systems </li></ul>
  • 18.  
  • 19. RFID data management & Challenges <ul><li>How to interpret the enormous volume of data that an RFID application generates? </li></ul><ul><li>Walmart generates around 7 terabytes of data every day. </li></ul><ul><li>Database vendors like Oracle, IBM and Teradata provide solutions to integrate RFID information into enterprise data warehouses. </li></ul>
  • 20. RFID Back-End Database <ul><li>The RFID system has several RFID readers at the front-end, and a database at the back-end </li></ul><ul><li>Real-life RFID deployments employ a wide variety of physically distributed RFID readers, access gateways, management interfaces, and databases. </li></ul>RFID TAGID ContainerContents 123 Apples 234 Pears
  • 21. RFID Back-End Database(cntd..)
  • 22.  
  • 23. Data Architecture(cntd..) <ul><li>Node servers </li></ul><ul><li>Reside inside the reader hardware and check if tags are registered. </li></ul><ul><li>Cluster Server </li></ul><ul><li>- Routes tag reads from node servers to interface servers for applications. </li></ul><ul><li>- Also periodically checks with node servers to make sure they are still running. </li></ul>
  • 24. Data Architecture(cntd..) <ul><li>Interface Server </li></ul><ul><li>- Based on the raw data from cluster server, Interface server computes higher level events. </li></ul><ul><li>- Maintain connection with applications </li></ul><ul><li>- Also respond to event Queries by applications </li></ul><ul><li>Application Server </li></ul><ul><li>- Runs the application logic and UI. </li></ul>
  • 25. Smart Card Commercial
  • 26. Case Study - RFID Credit Cards <ul><li>RFID chip or contactless smart card chip </li></ul><ul><li>require only physical proximity of credit card and the reader </li></ul><ul><li>Use a small radio transponder that is energized and interrogated by a reader </li></ul><ul><li>According to Visa &quot;This has been the fastest acceptance of new payment technology in the history of the industry&quot; </li></ul>
  • 27. <ul><li>RFID card readers capture the information such as: </li></ul><ul><li>Cardholder Name </li></ul><ul><li>Complete credit card number </li></ul><ul><li>Credit card expiration date </li></ul><ul><li>Credit card type </li></ul><ul><li>Information about software version and supported communications protocols </li></ul>
  • 28. Security Threats of RFID Smart Cards <ul><li>Skimming Attack </li></ul><ul><li>- No cryptography or passwords were required to obtain this data </li></ul><ul><li>Eavesdropping Attack </li></ul><ul><li>Captures a copy of transmission between a legitimate credit card reader and an RFID credit card. </li></ul>
  • 29. Security of Tags and Readers
  • 30. Conclusion <ul><li>Pros </li></ul><ul><li>No line of sight required </li></ul><ul><li>Enable automated process </li></ul><ul><li>Read multiple tags </li></ul><ul><li>Increase accuracy </li></ul><ul><li>Cons: </li></ul><ul><li>Costly </li></ul>
  • 31. Questions?

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