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  • 1. RFID Prepared by Rui Wang Ram Katepally
  • 2. Any Guesses??
  • 3. Agenda
    • Introduction and Background
    • Physical Components
    • Data Transactions
    • Data Management
    • Applications
    • Conclusion
  • 4. What is RFID ?
  • 5. IBM Commercial for RFID Supply Chain
  • 6. RFID
    • Its first use is in World War II.
    • Global RFID Market spent $2.7 billion in 2006, and is projecting $26.2 Billion By 2016.
    • More and more companies are looking forward to deploying RFID.
  • 7.
    • RFID Tag(a.k.a Transponder)
    Physical Components
  • 8. Physical Components
    • RFID Reader(a.ka Interrogator)
    Handheld Reader PlugNPlay Readers Microprocessor + Circuit board + Antenna Fixed Reader
  • 9. How do they work together? Reader (Transceiver Antenna) Tag (Transponder) 2 1 Passive Mode
  • 10.
    • Active Mode
    • Built-in Battery makes tags broadcasting, reader becomes the listener
    • Semi-active Mode
    • passive mode with battery assisting
  • 11. RF Electromagnetic spectrum Works better on metal and water products Longer reading range, and faster reading speed
  • 12. RFID Standards
  • 13. RFID data Architecture Enterprise System Middleware Readers Tags Items Enterprise Interface Feature Implementation Reader Interface
  • 14. Elements of an RFID System
  • 15. Ubiquitous RFID data Readers
  • 16. RFID Data
    • Data generated from an RFID application is seen as a stream of RFID tuples of the form EPC, location, time.
    • large amount of data redundancy
    • Compressing multiple items that stay together at a single location is vital in order to reduce the enormous size of the cleansed RFID database.
  • 17. RFID Data Analysis
    • The essence of RFID is automated data collection
    • Databases are thus a critical part of most RFID systems
  • 18.  
  • 19. RFID data management & Challenges
    • How to interpret the enormous volume of data that an RFID application generates?
    • Walmart generates around 7 terabytes of data every day.
    • Database vendors like Oracle, IBM and Teradata provide solutions to integrate RFID information into enterprise data warehouses.
  • 20. RFID Back-End Database
    • The RFID system has several RFID readers at the front-end, and a database at the back-end
    • Real-life RFID deployments employ a wide variety of physically distributed RFID readers, access gateways, management interfaces, and databases.
    RFID TAGID ContainerContents 123 Apples 234 Pears
  • 21. RFID Back-End Database(cntd..)
  • 22.  
  • 23. Data Architecture(cntd..)
    • Node servers
    • Reside inside the reader hardware and check if tags are registered.
    • Cluster Server
    • - Routes tag reads from node servers to interface servers for applications.
    • - Also periodically checks with node servers to make sure they are still running.
  • 24. Data Architecture(cntd..)
    • Interface Server
    • - Based on the raw data from cluster server, Interface server computes higher level events.
    • - Maintain connection with applications
    • - Also respond to event Queries by applications
    • Application Server
    • - Runs the application logic and UI.
  • 25. Smart Card Commercial
  • 26. Case Study - RFID Credit Cards
    • RFID chip or contactless smart card chip
    • require only physical proximity of credit card and the reader
    • Use a small radio transponder that is energized and interrogated by a reader
    • According to Visa "This has been the fastest acceptance of new payment technology in the history of the industry"
  • 27.
    • RFID card readers capture the information such as:
    • Cardholder Name
    • Complete credit card number
    • Credit card expiration date
    • Credit card type
    • Information about software version and supported communications protocols
  • 28. Security Threats of RFID Smart Cards
    • Skimming Attack
    • - No cryptography or passwords were required to obtain this data
    • Eavesdropping Attack
    • Captures a copy of transmission between a legitimate credit card reader and an RFID credit card.
  • 29. Security of Tags and Readers
  • 30. Conclusion
    • Pros
    • No line of sight required
    • Enable automated process
    • Read multiple tags
    • Increase accuracy
    • Cons:
    • Costly
  • 31. Questions?