The Practicalities, Perils and Promise of RFID Joe McCarthy Connector in Chief Interrelativity, Inc 26 April 2005
Outline <ul><li>What is RFID? </li></ul><ul><li>What is it good for? </li></ul><ul><li>What are the risks? </li></ul><ul><...
What is RFID? Radio frequency identification (RFID)   is a generic term that is used to describe  a  system  that transmit...
“ It’s simple, but it isn’t easy”
Complications <ul><li>Tag size, shape, frequency </li></ul><ul><li>Passive, semi-passive, active </li></ul><ul><li>Distanc...
 
EPCglobal <ul><li>TAGS   RFID  </li></ul><ul><li>EPC   Electronic Product Code </li></ul><ul><li>ONS   Object Name Service...
Costs <ul><li>Tags </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Passive: $0.20 - $0.40 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Active: $10 - $50 </li></ul></u...
RFID Market <ul><ul><li>Today: $2B, 1.8B tags (400M passive, 1.4B active) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2008: $7B; 2015: $27B...
“ Identify any object  anywhere automatically”
Supply Chain Item Case Pallet Container Transport Vessel / Vehicle
Access Control Buildings Ski resorts Countries Containers
Asset Tracking Livestock Salmon Pets Beer kegs Airline luggage Documents & Folders At school On the bus At the park
RFID in Healthcare Equipment Medications Patients Blood Surgical sites
 
Transactions ExxonMobil SpeedPass MasterCard PayPass Illinois Tollway I-Pass PowerPay
“ The innocent have  nothing to fear”
<ul><li>Internet: aggregate electronic data </li></ul><ul><li>RFID + Internet: aggregate physical world data (!) </li></ul...
Hacks http://rfid-analysis.org/
“ The future is here, it’s just unevenly distributed
RFID + Mobile Phones <ul><li>KDDI </li></ul><ul><ul><li>RFID  readers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Active & Passive </li></u...
RFID + Sensors <ul><li>TempSens </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Up to 64 temp. readings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Three modes </li>...
RFID + Robots <ul><li>Kobe, Japan </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mobility Support Project </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Utah State Univers...
RFID + People <ul><li>VeriChip (Applied Digital Solutions) </li></ul>
RFID + Displays <ul><li>Proactive Displays : Large displays with sensors that can detect and respond to people nearby </li...
Ticket2Talk
Thanks! / Questions? <ul><li>For more information </li></ul><ul><ul><li>http://interrelativity.com/rfid </li></ul></ul>
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  1. 1. The Practicalities, Perils and Promise of RFID Joe McCarthy Connector in Chief Interrelativity, Inc 26 April 2005
  2. 2. Outline <ul><li>What is RFID? </li></ul><ul><li>What is it good for? </li></ul><ul><li>What are the risks? </li></ul><ul><li>What is on/over the horizon? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ It may be simple, but it’s not easy” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Identify any object anywhere automatically” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ The innocent have nothing to fear” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ The future is here, it’s just unevenly distributed.” </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. What is RFID? Radio frequency identification (RFID) is a generic term that is used to describe a system that transmits the identity (in the form of a unique serial number) of an object or person wirelessly, using radio waves . [RFID Journal] [Roy Want, Intel] Si Coil Encapsulation RFID Transponder Computer RFID Interrogator RFID Transponder Energy Clock Data
  4. 4. “ It’s simple, but it isn’t easy”
  5. 5. Complications <ul><li>Tag size, shape, frequency </li></ul><ul><li>Passive, semi-passive, active </li></ul><ul><li>Distance, orientation </li></ul><ul><li>RF interference (EMI) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Other tags, readers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Other sources of RF </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Metal, liquids, … </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Standards </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ISO, EPC </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Patents </li></ul><ul><li>Data Format </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Writeable tags </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Interoperability </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tags, readers, backend systems, countries </li></ul></ul>Many meters Microwave 2.45 GHz Meters UHF 915 MHz Feet HF 13.56 MHz Inches LF 128 kHz Range Category Frequency
  6. 7. EPCglobal <ul><li>TAGS RFID </li></ul><ul><li>EPC Electronic Product Code </li></ul><ul><li>ONS Object Name Service </li></ul><ul><li>PML Physical Markup Language </li></ul><ul><li>Savant TM Distributed Operating System </li></ul><ul><li>ALE Application Level Events (devices, data, apps) </li></ul>Tag Local Host ONS PML Savant Reader Product Remote Host Network Network Network EPC
  7. 8. Costs <ul><li>Tags </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Passive: $0.20 - $0.40 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Active: $10 - $50 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Readers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Passive (UHF): $500 - $3,000 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Active: readers + “signposts” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Computers, networking, databases, … </li></ul><ul><li>Training (mandatory, $10K, 1-2 weeks) </li></ul><ul><li>Forrester Research estimate (for a $12B consumer products company): </li></ul><ul><ul><li>$128,000 for consulting and integration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>$315,000 for the time of the internal project team </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>$80,000 for tag and reader testing </li></ul></ul>
  8. 9. RFID Market <ul><ul><li>Today: $2B, 1.8B tags (400M passive, 1.4B active) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2008: $7B; 2015: $27B, 1 trillion tags </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>RFID vs. barcodes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>5-10B barcodes / year </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>To reach 10B RFIDs / year, need < $0.01 / tag cost (2020) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Requires alternate technology, print them off </li></ul></ul></ul>Intellitag PM4i (Intermec) Sabre 1555 (Intermec)
  9. 10. “ Identify any object anywhere automatically”
  10. 11. Supply Chain Item Case Pallet Container Transport Vessel / Vehicle
  11. 12. Access Control Buildings Ski resorts Countries Containers
  12. 13. Asset Tracking Livestock Salmon Pets Beer kegs Airline luggage Documents & Folders At school On the bus At the park
  13. 14. RFID in Healthcare Equipment Medications Patients Blood Surgical sites
  14. 16. Transactions ExxonMobil SpeedPass MasterCard PayPass Illinois Tollway I-Pass PowerPay
  15. 17. “ The innocent have nothing to fear”
  16. 18. <ul><li>Internet: aggregate electronic data </li></ul><ul><li>RFID + Internet: aggregate physical world data (!) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tracking & tracing: people, places & things </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Item-level vs. supply chain </li></ul></ul>Risks BoycottBenetton.com BoycottGillette.com BoycottTesco.com
  17. 19. Hacks http://rfid-analysis.org/
  18. 20. “ The future is here, it’s just unevenly distributed
  19. 21. RFID + Mobile Phones <ul><li>KDDI </li></ul><ul><ul><li>RFID readers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Active & Passive </li></ul></ul><ul><li>NTT DoCoMo n901iC FOMA® </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sony FeliCa chip (+ surround sound, card scanner…) </li></ul></ul>
  20. 22. RFID + Sensors <ul><li>TempSens </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Up to 64 temp. readings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Three modes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Interval (2 sec – 18 hrs) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Out-of-range events </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Out-of-range + max/min </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Shelf life: up to 18 months </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Applications: perishable food, drugs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>www.ksw-microtec.de </li></ul></ul>
  21. 23. RFID + Robots <ul><li>Kobe, Japan </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mobility Support Project </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Utah State University </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Center for Persons with Disabilities </li></ul></ul>
  22. 24. RFID + People <ul><li>VeriChip (Applied Digital Solutions) </li></ul>
  23. 25. RFID + Displays <ul><li>Proactive Displays : Large displays with sensors that can detect and respond to people nearby </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Awareness & interactions among people in shared spaces </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Virtual community  physical community </li></ul></ul>Digital profiles (WWW) Physical tags (RFID) Real-world interactions + =
  24. 26. Ticket2Talk
  25. 27. Thanks! / Questions? <ul><li>For more information </li></ul><ul><ul><li>http://interrelativity.com/rfid </li></ul></ul>
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