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  • Pricing and vulnerability There are other disadvantages, too. Topping the list is cost. Book tags cost between 40¢ and 70¢ per tag. Media tags run about $1 each. The prices of tags are coming down, but library tags will not decrease as fast as those used in warehouse applications. Those tags work on different frequencies and are meant for use at the group level rather than the short-range item level. A library with 100,000 books and 5000 media items would spend $45,000 on tags alone. This is for plain tags. Customized tags, with logos, for instance, will cost more. Hardware costs in the thousands, sometimes tens of thousands of dollars. For example, self-check machines can cost nearly $20,000, and inventory wands can cost between $4000 and $8000. Some vendors require the additional purchase of a computer server, or special software. None of the prices include ongoing maintenance contracts (between eight and 15 percent of the hardware price). There is also the cost of conversion to consider; either staff will have to reallocate their time from other functions or temporary staff must be hired.
  • Perceptions
  • Perceptions Information usually encoded on the RFID chip is whatever was on the bar code. In some cases, information can be added, but generally it is: author, title, call number, location, barcode number.
  • PowerPoint Presentation

    1. 1. RFID in Plain English Special Libraries Association Baltimore, MD June 12, 2006 Max Anderson, SOLINET
    2. 2. What I will tell you <ul><li>What RFID is, in a nutshell </li></ul><ul><li>What are the advantages and disadvantages </li></ul><ul><li>How can you determine ROI? </li></ul><ul><li>How you can determine if your library might benefit from RFID </li></ul>
    3. 3. What is RFID? <ul><li>Radio Frequency Identification </li></ul><ul><li>System that can combine theft-detection and tracking of library materials </li></ul><ul><li>Radio-frequency combined with microchip technology </li></ul><ul><li>Uses radio waves to identify individual items & to transfer data from a tag to a reader to a database </li></ul>
    4. 4. How it works <ul><li>Tag or Transponder contains a microchip which stores a serial number that identifies a product & other info </li></ul><ul><li>Tag has an antenna which enables the chip to transmit the ID data to a reader </li></ul><ul><li>The reader converts the radio waves returned from the tag into a form that can then be passed on to computers </li></ul>
    5. 5. Standards <ul><li>EPCglobal Inc. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Standardize EPC & RFID technology </li></ul></ul><ul><li>ISO </li></ul><ul><ul><li>International Standards Organization </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Electronic compatibility between tag and reader </li></ul></ul><ul><li>ISO 15693 & ISO 18000 </li></ul><ul><li>SIP1 & SIP2 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Standard Interchange Protocols </li></ul></ul><ul><li>NCIP </li></ul>
    6. 6. Who’s using it? <ul><li>Toll collections, security, remote keyless entry, baggage tracking, pets </li></ul><ul><li>Boston Marathon </li></ul><ul><li>Legoland </li></ul><ul><li>The Vatican </li></ul><ul><li>Hong Kong Airport </li></ul><ul><li>Wal-Mart/Target/DOD </li></ul><ul><li>And Libraries! </li></ul>
    7. 7. (Typical) Components of an RFID system <ul><li>Conversion Station </li></ul><ul><li>Tags or Transponders </li></ul><ul><li>Readers </li></ul><ul><li>Server or Docking Station </li></ul>
    8. 8. Conversion Station <ul><li>Where tag is programmed </li></ul><ul><li>Portable - Fit in aisles between stacks </li></ul><ul><li>Easy to operate </li></ul><ul><li>Fast - 27,000 items tagged in 2 months </li></ul>
    9. 9. Tags <ul><li>$.50 to $1.50 </li></ul><ul><li>Passive or active </li></ul><ul><li>Frequency - 13.56 MHz </li></ul><ul><li>Anti collision/Anti theft </li></ul><ul><li>WORM/Read/Read & Write </li></ul><ul><li>Metal and water </li></ul><ul><li>100,000 transactions </li></ul>
    10. 10. Tags vs. Barcodes <ul><li>Does not require line of sight </li></ul><ul><li>Single label for circulation and security </li></ul><ul><li>Process more than one item at a time </li></ul><ul><li>Does require line of sight </li></ul><ul><li>Barcode is strictly for item information </li></ul><ul><li>Process one item at a time </li></ul>
    11. 11. Inventory Readers <ul><li>Inventory </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Weed collection </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Locate lost material </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Identify out of order materials </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Less handling of delicate items </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inventory collections </li></ul></ul>
    12. 12. Self-checkout, Exit Sensors, etc. Staff station reader Exit Sensors Patron self-checkout station
    13. 13. Book Return <ul><li>Reduces repetitive tasks </li></ul><ul><li>Automatic check in, anti-theft, reactivated, catalog updated </li></ul><ul><li>Materials back on shelf faster </li></ul><ul><li>Automated sorting system can be added </li></ul>
    14. 14. Security <ul><li>Security gates </li></ul><ul><ul><li>You’ll know what went out the door * </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sounds alert only </li></ul></ul>*Depending on system
    15. 15. Advantages <ul><li>Theft control </li></ul><ul><li>Reduces repetitive-motion injuries for staff </li></ul><ul><li>Rapid charging and discharging </li></ul><ul><li>Simplified patron self-charging </li></ul><ul><li>High reliability </li></ul><ul><li>High-speed inventory control </li></ul><ul><li>Automated materials handling </li></ul><ul><li>Long life for tags </li></ul><ul><li>Increased Patron Privacy </li></ul>
    16. 16. Disadvantages <ul><li>High (initial) cost </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tags cost from $.50-$1.50 each </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>$70,000-300,000 investment </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Media tags - higher priced </li></ul><ul><li>Vulnerability to compromise </li></ul><ul><li>Removal of exposed tags </li></ul><ul><li>Exit sensor problems </li></ul><ul><li>Privacy & Standard issues </li></ul><ul><li>Proprietary tags </li></ul>
    17. 17. Sample Costs Associated with Implementing RFID a lot (not including staff time!) Total $15,000 (optional) Server $2,500 - $4,500 Portable scanner/inventory reader $45,000 - $200,000 Bookdrop with sorter $2,500 (optional) Bookdrop readers $.50 - $1.50 ea Tags $3,500 - $6,000 Exit sensors/readers $2,500 Staff workstations $18,000 - $22,000 Patron self-checkout station $2,500 to $5,000 (or $250/wk) Retrospective conversion station
    18. 18. Privacy Concerns -Perceptions <ul><li>Patron privacy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Real time tracking </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Satellite reading of tags </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Patron information on tags </li></ul></ul>
    19. 19. Privacy Concerns - Reality <ul><li>Readers have to be close to “read” tags </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tags do not contain patron information </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Link between patron and item is maintained in library circulation system & is broken when item returned to library </li></ul></ul>
    20. 20. Return on Investment (ROI) <ul><li>Benchmark functions around circulation and inventory </li></ul><ul><li>RFID Implementation costs </li></ul><ul><li>Customer satisfaction </li></ul><ul><li>Contact existing customers </li></ul>
    21. 21. Thank you! <ul><li>Max Anderson </li></ul><ul><li>Educational Services Librarian </li></ul><ul><li>SOLINET </li></ul><ul><li>1443 W. Peachtree St. NW </li></ul><ul><li>Atlanta, GA 30309 </li></ul><ul><li>1.800.999.8558 </li></ul><ul><li>[email_address] </li></ul>