Overview of RFID Alliance Lab Dr. Daniel D. Deavours RFID Alliance Lab [email_address] http:// www.rfidalliancelab.org
RFID vs. Barcode <ul><li>Simultaneous identification </li></ul><ul><li>Non line-of-Sight </li></ul><ul><li>Data storage </...
The EPC Mandates
About RFID Alliance Lab <ul><li>Provide useful, timely, credible, and unbiased data to end users of RFID products </li></u...
What is passive RFID (in 1 slide or less) <ul><li>Reader and Tag </li></ul><ul><li>Tag powered from RF </li></ul><ul><li>R...
Why us, why now? <ul><li>RFID Revolution is under way; the train has left the station (are you on board?) </li></ul><ul><u...
Sampling of Results
Tags Analyzed <ul><li>Partial list of tags: </li></ul><ul><li>Matrics X2040 </li></ul><ul><li>Avery Triflex </li></ul><ul>...
Tag Performance vs. Distance <ul><li>Typical Class 0, 1 percent reads vs. attenuation (distance) </li></ul><ul><li>Strong ...
Tag Variation  — The Bad News <ul><li>Tags vary in performance </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Model to model </li></ul></ul><ul><ul...
Performance of Class 1 Tags near Water <ul><li>Differences readily apparent </li></ul><ul><li>Pink best close, but shallow...
Performance of Tagged Cases on Conveyor <ul><li>Least scientific test conducted </li></ul><ul><ul><li>2400 measurements ta...
Tag Read Rate in Isolation <ul><li>Two “classes” of Class 1 tags:  Fast and Slow </li></ul><ul><li>New, 96 bit Class 1 tag...
Read Rates in Populations
Time to First Read <ul><li>~140 Class 1 tags </li></ul><ul><li>Perform experiment 10 times; show worst, median, best </li>...
Claims and Strategy <ul><li>Claims </li></ul><ul><ul><li>First unbiased third party to put measured quantities to products...
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"Overview of RFID Alliance Lab"

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  • Simultaneous Identification Unlike other auto ID methods where items must be physically separated or read individually, numerous RFID smart label transponders can be read simultaneously identifying multiple labels, containers or items all at the same time as they pass a reading location or are read with a handheld scanner. This need is critical in supply chain logistics, especially at the item-tagging level, where there could be 25 different items in a box traveling on a pallet with 30 other boxes passing through a tunnel reader or portal all at the same time. RFID is the only technology that can read individual items simultaneously. Non Line-Of-Sight RFID provides a contactless data link without the need for line-of-sight. With this technology, labels can be hidden or embedded in items, but still read. This isn’t possible with other auto ID methods such as bar codes. Data Storage RFID can store upwards of 30 times more data than bar codes, allowing the tag to carry a range of real-time information about an item at multiple points in the supply chain. Mass serialization or the ability to store a unique serial number for each and every item is something that cannot be accomplished with bar codes. Read/Write RFID tags act as data carriers. Information can be written to and updated on the tag, which is specific to an item, container or pallet in the supply chain. This information is then held with that item, acting as a traveling item history or self-contained database. Read/write tags could also potentially provide a migration path to the EPC Network once is has been built to support electronic track and trace using networked databases. Durability Without concerns about harsh or dirty environments that restrict other auto ID technologies, the durability of RFID technology is especially suited to fit the needs of supply chain and warehousing applications. In warehouses where harsh environments are the norm, RFID smart labels can be read through dirt, soiled packaging or other materials. Difficult To Replicate While linear or 2-D bar codes can easily be replicated by counterfeiters by simply scanning and printing them, the RFID tag manufacturing process would require a great deal more expertise, investment, and time to copy. Counterfeiters would potentially have to build or have access to a semiconductor wafer fabrication facility in order to manufacture the chips and assemble them to inlays or labels. It would also require significantly more time to replicate the individual EPC serial numbers.
  • "Overview of RFID Alliance Lab"

    1. 1. Overview of RFID Alliance Lab Dr. Daniel D. Deavours RFID Alliance Lab [email_address] http:// www.rfidalliancelab.org
    2. 2. RFID vs. Barcode <ul><li>Simultaneous identification </li></ul><ul><li>Non line-of-Sight </li></ul><ul><li>Data storage </li></ul><ul><li>Read/write </li></ul><ul><li>Durability </li></ul><ul><li>Difficult to replicate </li></ul>
    3. 3. The EPC Mandates
    4. 4. About RFID Alliance Lab <ul><li>Provide useful, timely, credible, and unbiased data to end users of RFID products </li></ul><ul><li>Current focus: Passive UHF tags (subset of universe) </li></ul><ul><li>Constituents </li></ul><ul><ul><li>University of Kansas / ITTC : Primary research contributor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>RFID Journal : Initial funding, distributor, advertisement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rush Tracking Systems : Initiator, subject expert, industry lesion </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Business model </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sell reports (~$1,000 / report) to finance future reports </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Advisory Board </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Site license to reports </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Use facilities, products </li></ul></ul></ul>
    5. 5. What is passive RFID (in 1 slide or less) <ul><li>Reader and Tag </li></ul><ul><li>Tag powered from RF </li></ul><ul><li>Reader -> tag comm: BPSK </li></ul><ul><li>DTag -> reader comm: </li></ul><ul><li>Modulate RCS </li></ul><ul><li>ASK, FSK, etc. </li></ul>
    6. 6. Why us, why now? <ul><li>RFID Revolution is under way; the train has left the station (are you on board?) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Disruptive technology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“Black magic?” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Need to separate facts from hype </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Educate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Press releases don’t present all relevant facts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Problems / issues not exposed, little or no data </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Focus on technology: what do you (end users) need to know? </li></ul>
    7. 7. Sampling of Results
    8. 8. Tags Analyzed <ul><li>Partial list of tags: </li></ul><ul><li>Matrics X2040 </li></ul><ul><li>Avery Triflex </li></ul><ul><li>Matrics Pharma </li></ul><ul><li>Rafsec 457 </li></ul><ul><li>Rafsec 458 (d) </li></ul><ul><li>Alien 9250 </li></ul><ul><li>Alien 9338 </li></ul><ul><li>Alien 9254 </li></ul><ul><li>Avery U1014 (d) </li></ul><ul><li>Matrics I2010 </li></ul><ul><li>Avery DS1 </li></ul>
    9. 9. Tag Performance vs. Distance <ul><li>Typical Class 0, 1 percent reads vs. attenuation (distance) </li></ul><ul><li>Strong in-field </li></ul><ul><ul><li>100% vs 85-99% </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Weak in-field </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bumpy ride down </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Out of field </li></ul><ul><ul><li>0 vs 0.13% “phantom” reads </li></ul></ul>
    10. 10. Tag Variation — The Bad News <ul><li>Tags vary in performance </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Model to model </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tag to tag </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Narrow bands = high quality </li></ul><ul><li>Far right = high performance </li></ul>100% 100% 0% Lightest 98% 99% 1% 87% 93.5% 6.5% 70% 85% 15% 40% 70% 30% Darkest 1 tag 50% 50% Black % Included Upper Bound Lower Bound Range
    11. 11. Performance of Class 1 Tags near Water <ul><li>Differences readily apparent </li></ul><ul><li>Pink best close, but shallow slope </li></ul><ul><li>Purple good close, but best further </li></ul><ul><li>Best tag: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>150% more efficient than worst </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>60% further distance </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Some tags are tuned for applications </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Free air perf. not always fair metric </li></ul></ul>
    12. 12. Performance of Tagged Cases on Conveyor <ul><li>Least scientific test conducted </li></ul><ul><ul><li>2400 measurements taken </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Interesting experiment — objective is to get as far away from metal/water as possible </li></ul><ul><li>Size of tag plays large role </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Smaller tags work better with small air gaps </li></ul></ul>
    13. 13. Tag Read Rate in Isolation <ul><li>Two “classes” of Class 1 tags: Fast and Slow </li></ul><ul><li>New, 96 bit Class 1 tags similar to “Slow” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>May need to tune reader (timeout parameter) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Class 0 tags steady </li></ul><ul><li>Pharma Class 0 tag only slightly slower than other Class 0 </li></ul>7.6 6.1 Class 0 Pharma 8.8 6.5 Typical Class 0 4.5 7.0 “ Slow” Class 1 61.4 24.1 “ Fast” Class 1 Reader 3 Reader 2 Reader 1
    14. 14. Read Rates in Populations
    15. 15. Time to First Read <ul><li>~140 Class 1 tags </li></ul><ul><li>Perform experiment 10 times; show worst, median, best </li></ul><ul><li>Note: Log Y axis </li></ul><ul><li>Linear TTFR until about 85-90 tags, then exponential </li></ul><ul><li>Last few tags unreadable </li></ul><ul><li>~115 Class 0 tags </li></ul><ul><li>Exponential past ~70 tags </li></ul><ul><li>Much faster than Class 1 </li></ul>
    16. 16. Claims and Strategy <ul><li>Claims </li></ul><ul><ul><li>First unbiased third party to put measured quantities to products </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Some surprises, but mostly quantifying rumors and “word on the street.” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Educating while informing </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Strategy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Advisory board </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>OpenRFID </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Your ideas </li></ul></ul>

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