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Nalini.ppt Nalini.ppt Presentation Transcript

  • RFID Technology… Trends and Challenges April 2006 By Nalini Mahadeo RFID Technology… Opportunities and challenges
  • Objectives
    • To educate, inform and share information on a rapidly growing technology.
    • To create a forum for discussion.
    • To facilitate development of a network amongst RFID stakeholders.
  • Overview
    • RFID History
    • RFID system components
      • Tags, Readers, Spectrum, Antennas
    • RFID Models
    • Regulatory Considerations
    • Market Trends
    • Challenges
      • Standards, Security, Privacy, Societal impact
  • What is RFID?
    • Radio Frequency Identification or RFID refers to the set of technologies that use radio waves for identifying objects or people.
    Identification System Wireless Link ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( Item to identify
  • RFID Characteristics
    • Does not require line of sight
    • Can withstand harsh environments
    • Can be reused
    • Can be read in groups
    • Allows for data security
  • RFID History
    • Three Main Components:
    • Tags (or transponders) - carry identifying data
    • Readers (or transceivers) - read/write tag data & interfaces with system
    • Back-end infrastructures - process the data
    RFID Basics RS485 Serial Interface Computer ID Tag Reader
  • RFID System: Components
  • Readers
    • Communicate with RFID tags.
    • Also called an interrogator because it “interrogates" the tag.
  • Radio Modules and Readers
  • Tags
    • Passive Tags
    • Semi-Passive Tags
    • Active Tags
  • Tag Types > 7 TTD > 0.7 TTD > 37 TTD Price < 150 ft 4” - 15ft ~ 300ft Distance Yes (not used for communication) No Yes (used for communication) Battery Semi-Passive Passive 67% (2004) Active 33% (2004)
  • Tags- Passive
  • Tags- Active
  • Smallest Tag
    • World smallest RFID chip
      • 2.45 GHz
      • Passive transponder
      • 30 cm reading distance
      • Battery-less
      • Secure (ROM)
      • Simplicity
    0.4 mm x 0.4mm x 0.15mm approx. 50mm
  • Spectrum Plan
    • Radio Spectrum -limited Resource for RFID
    • FCC Part 15 (NA)- 902-928 MHz (50 channels)
    • ETSI 208 (EU)- 865.6-867.6 MHz (10 channels)
    • Reader signal and Tag signal need to be separate
  • Spectrum 100% 2004 125 KHz 6.78 MHz 13.56 MHz 433 MHz 868/915 MHz 2.45 GHz LF HF VHF UHF μ wave Card key, access control Baggage handling, tracking hospital equip Supply chain, materials management
  • Frequency, Antenna & Range
  • Networked RFID
  • Regulatory Considerations
    • Usage of channel
      • Industrial, Scientific, & Medical (ISM) Bands
      • Primary service
      • Secondary service
    • Narrowband or Spread Spectrum
    • Power limits
    • Equipment certification
  • Market trend
  • RFID Cost trend
  • Miniaturization and declining prices
  • Korea’s Roadmap
  • Future trends
  • Challenges
    • Governance of resources
      • Control of UIDs
    • Standards-setting and interoperability
      • ITU to coordinate
    • Data Protection and Consumer Privacy
      • Integrity of data and its use
  • RFID Standards
    • Animal
      • ISO 11784, ISO 11785,ISO 14223
    • Smart card
      • ISO 10536, ISO 14443, ISO 15693
    • Item management
      • ISO 18000 series, EPC Global, GTAG initiative
    • Test methods
      • ISO 10373 (Smart Card)
  • Standards Organisations International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) IEEE INCITS International Organization for Standardization (ISO) International Telecommunications Union (ITU) (United Nations) TC 122/104 JWG SC Apps RFID TC 8 Ships & Marine Tech SC 31 Automatic Data Capture ISO/IEC Joint Technical Committee 1 (JTC 1) ITU-T (fka CCITT) Telecommunications ITU-R (fka CCIR & IFBR) Radio-frequency Issues ITU-D (fka BDT) Telecommunications Development ECMA Comité Européen Normalisation (CEN) Comité Européen Normalisation Electrotechnique (CENELEC) Comité Européen Postal & Telegraph (CEPT) TC 104 Freight Containers International Regional National Standards Assoc of China (SAC) AFNOR Deutches Institut fur Normung (DIN) JISC ANSI British Standards Institution (BSI) AIM MHI GS 1 CEA Industry Other DoD ATA CEA AIA HIBCC AIAG GS 1 Other WG 1 - Symbology WG 2 - Data Content WG 3 - Conformance WG 4 - RFID Universal Postal Union (UPU) (United Nations) T6 B10 SC 17 IC Cards VDA ODETTE WG 5 - RTLS TC 122 Packaging SC 6 Telcom & info exch btwn systems
  • Types of Standards
    • Technology
    • Data Content
    • Conformance
    • Network
    • Application Standards
    • Unauthorized disabling tags
    • Spoofing and Impersonation
    • Passive signal interception of signals from the RFID tag or Reader
    • Unauthorized reading of RFID tag
    • Hacking tool for RFID tag is available on Internet
    • More elaborate cases of attacking RFID tags
    • Privacy infringement
    Data Protection
  • Privacy
    • Impact of consumer concerns over Privacy
    • Is being addressed
    • Lack of clarity
      • How to avoid divide
      • How to convince users to progress
    PRIVATE
  • Privacy
    • Socio-ethical
    • Consumer rights
    • Public Awareness
    • Disclosure
    • Consumer advocacy
    • Economic/Market
    • Self Regulation
    • Codes of Conduct
    • Privacy certification
    • Consumer education
    • Technical
    • Encryption
    • ID Management
    • Privacy-enhancing technologies (PETs)
    • Legal/Regulatory
    • Consumer consent
    • Collection limitation
    • Use limitation
    • Openness
    • Accountability
    Privacy Protection
  • Business Life Infrastructure Potential to change lifestyles ( Physical distribution, Inventory control ) ( Guidance for handicapped people or tourists ) ( Food safety, Products traceability ) Potential Impact of RFID
  • Summary
    • Expected to be most dense, customer installed radio network
    • Data deluge- another internet/cellular communication system
    • Sensors and item level tagging may take us from mission critical retail to revolutionary lifestyles
  •  
  • Thank You!
      • Ms. Nalini Mahadeo
      • Wireless Engineer
    • Telecommunications Authority of Trinidad and Tobago
    • Phone: 675-8288
    • Fax: 674-1055
    • Email: rfid@tatt.org.tt