Microsoft PowerPoint - VDE-Darmstadt04c_plus app

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Microsoft PowerPoint - VDE-Darmstadt04c_plus app

  1. 1. ® UHF RFID protocols- Targeting increased application requirements Speaker: Ulrich Friedrich, Atmel
  2. 2. UHF RFID Protocols ® An application scenario Summary of different packaging sizes related to pallets A collection of tags containing an ID is moving on a pallet There are for example 2 pallet tags, up to 500 case tags, up to 2000 inner pack tags and up to 12000 item tags on a full pallet (one of the EPC scenarios) The pallet is moving with up to 20 km/h through a dock door There are many dock doors close together The fork lift is driving from door to door It is cold -20 degree Celsius The communication shall be wireless Time is money VDE RFID workshop, Darmstadt 2005 01.02.2005 2
  3. 3. UHF RFID Protocols ® What is required by (basic?) application(s)? A protocol shall enable cheap solutions The implementation shall enable an added value The protocol implementation shall work 100% every time and anywhere (it is a wish!!!) Read of an information (ID number,.,..) stored on a tag placed on a pallet, …. Program of an information on the chip over a long distance? Basic encryption possibility To hide forward transmitted information Interrupt level(s) within singulation procedures Hide function for tags (access) (required for drugs,…) Kill (it was defined in such a way) The protocol shall be public Open standard like a de facto standard (EAN/UCC, …) ISO registered standard VDE RFID workshop, Darmstadt 2005 01.02.2005 3
  4. 4. UHF RFID Protocols ® Top level questions related to the needed protocol Which kind of tags shall be identified ? Is it so important to get all tags? Priority: pallet -> case -> inner pack cases -> items Are there any limitations given by RF regulations? (A4) What is the required TX power for the reader which enables a 100 % possibility to power a tag for a certain time frame? (A4) The system shall be able to address the last tag in the middle of the pallet !!!! Is the allowed RFID system able to do this job? Is the protocol usable also in other countries? Because I want to send this pallet to .... They have to check the pallet, too. VDE RFID workshop, Darmstadt 2005 01.02.2005 4
  5. 5. UHF RFID Protocols ® Questions to the audience Required effective data rate????? ???????? VDE RFID workshop, Darmstadt 2005 01.02.2005 5
  6. 6. UHF RFID Protocols ® Main properties for a protocol targeting such applications ? A really world wide accepted protocol An open and public standard which defines the basics Open: Anyone can use it Enabling diversification to upper levels Public industrial standard A possibility to address a single tag out of several An arbitration which is able to detect “any” number of tags in a short time Interrupt level(s) A function enabling a multi dock door scenario A select mechanism to select the package level dynamic priority during arbitration A write and a read possibility for an ID or other data Which kind of ID? Programmable length of the ID Truncated read Nice to have: A possibility to write several tags at once (same data portion) Parts of the ID, like ID length, AFI, DSFID, manufacturer ID, …. VDE RFID workshop, Darmstadt 2005 01.02.2005 6
  7. 7. UHF RFID Protocols ® Requirement for an air interface description considering power effects (A6, A7) Due to power gaps moving tags are sometimes not powered by the field Therefore, a tag shall be able to hold the select status over a defined time to skip power gaps. This status info is stored as a persistent node on chip The information storage over time depends on Temperature (leakage current, 9 degree rule) Protocol solutions Not specified (ISO 18000-6) Between 500 ms @ 60 C and 2 sec @ - 40 C (Class1Gen2) ☺ VDE RFID workshop, Darmstadt 2005 01.02.2005 7
  8. 8. UHF RFID Protocols ® Protocol requirements and solutions to address different RF regulations (A8, A9, A10) Requirement Possibility to tune the spectrum Solutions Traditional AM modulation (DSB-ASK)(ISO 18000-6 and class0, class0) Reduction of the modulation index • The feasibility of the tag to distinguish between noise and real signal decrease • Power of the side band decrease ☺ and power to the tag ok ☺ Modulation index = 1 • Power transport is worst case • Robustness against other services: top ☺ Other types of AM modulation DSBM (Palomar) = DSB-SC = PR-ASK (Class1Gen2) ☺ ☺ • Best power transport combined with m = 1 • Half of bandwidth relative to traditional AM “SSB” (Class1Gen2) • Advantage in bandwidth ☺ VDE RFID workshop, Darmstadt 2005 01.02.2005 8
  9. 9. UHF RFID Protocols ® Influence of the RF regulations and challenges for the backscatter stream (A11, A12,) Europe: In band is required Necessary bandwidth rule Not related to a power mask level In channel also required in Europe FCC “no” limitation as long as it is below the power mask Additional challenge long range means also low RX power on reader side 100 dB is a real challenge Monitors, neon light, electronic controlled neon light; they are backscattering a modulated carrier, too. Other noise sources (cell phone, etc.) Allowed spurious emissions in Europe -54 dBm (SRD’s) -36 dBm (phones) The power of the receivable backscatter stream can be less VDE RFID workshop, Darmstadt 2005 01.02.2005 9
  10. 10. UHF RFID Protocols ® Solution for the backscatter link within Class1Gen2 (A13, A14) Data rate 20 kbit/s to 640 kbit/s Enabling spectrum management (similar to Palomar) Former ISO and Auto-ID solutions around 40 kbit/s ASK or PSK ☺ Former only ASK Asynchronous backscatter link Half duplex communication is default communication style Base band encoding (FM0) (Europe) Close to the carrier (max 640 kHz) Class1Gen2: Miller encoded sub carrier ☺ The primitive contains 2 to 8 modulation swings per bit FFT ? Linear prediction method for detection is possible Close to the carrier (max 640 kHz) long and short preamble To enable different reader implementations ☺ If the environment is very noisy (synchronization) ☺ ☺ VDE RFID workshop, Darmstadt 2005 01.02.2005 10
  11. 11. UHF RFID Protocols ® Master slave arbitration types (A15) General Old: no restriction New: the ID shall never be transmitted by the reader ☺ Security (drugs, military goods) Aloha Time controlled Slot controlled (ISO 18000-6 A) Throughput: statistical maximum is 1/3 Speed depends mainly on feasibility to detect a collision or a free slot Deterministic types Throughput: 100% ☺ ☺ Enables dynamic hierarchy management (package level) ☺ To be very fast, full duplex is required, which is not standard yet Blind time of the RX path of the reader must be considered Current deterministic solutions (ISO 18000-6 B, Class0, Palomar) VDE RFID workshop, Darmstadt 2005 01.02.2005 11
  12. 12. UHF RFID Protocols ® Arbitration within Class1Gen2 Half duplex arbitration RSSI is disabled during return link Acknowledge mechanism after Query based on a 16 bit random value ☺ Not acknowledge (NAK) if the reader has seen an invalid ID stream ID length is programmable ☺ ☺ 18000-6A+B; fixed Tag ID ( /= item ID) length Arbitration timing is a function of the ID length Positive ACK of received ID was skipped It is possible to get more than one ID at once Truncated read is enabled (advantage in time) ☺ VDE RFID workshop, Darmstadt 2005 01.02.2005 12
  13. 13. UHF RFID Protocols ® The moving problem The pallet is scanned by a reader Each tag sets the select flag if it was recognized Acknowledged by receiving the backscattered random value What will happen if the pallet was scanned some seconds before, too? The reader can send a reset command Look at the picture!!! This will not work if the tags are moving Also a pre-selection for arbitration must be done several times VDE RFID workshop, Darmstadt 2005 01.02.2005 13
  14. 14. UHF RFID Protocols ® Solution for the shown moving problem Former solution for arbitration tag is selected -> set a persistent node flag Reset over time or by a reset command Such a reset command will not be received by all tags Solution: A / B symmetry If a tag is selected then it is A or B The select marker can be reset over time or by a command If a tag has been previously selected as A, it will shift to B or if it has been previously selected as B it will shift to A ☺ ☺ A command controlled reset is not necessary ☺ VDE RFID workshop, Darmstadt 2005 01.02.2005 14
  15. 15. UHF RFID Protocols ® The portal challenge There are several portals close to each other The tag shall be able to distinguish between the readers Solution Old: physical techniques (metal shields) New: physical techniques and/or addressing techniques The arbitration is controlled by a session parameter ☺ 4 sessions are supported ☺ This allows also an interrupt solution ☺ Portal reader, different hand held readers Dense reader mode (not practical/usable) in Europe!? Reader interferes with reader and tag with tags VDE RFID workshop, Darmstadt 2005 01.02.2005 15
  16. 16. UHF RFID Protocols ® How to program data to the tag Receipt mechanism Ok signaling only Tag backscatters the content of the memory as a receipt Normal read mechanism Margin read, telling something about quality of programming (Partial) global programming within class1Gen2 Not implemented in Class1Gen2 Requires error signaling and margin read possibility Partial global programming therefore also excluded from standard Atomic programming Implemented in all RDWR systems Simple 16 bit word encryption is implemented in Class1Gen2 ☺ Partial group programming not possible within Class1Gen2 VDE RFID workshop, Darmstadt 2005 01.02.2005 16
  17. 17. UHF RFID Protocols ® Which properties are addressable by Class1gen2? A really world wide accepted protocol An open and public standard which defines the basics Open: Enabling diversification to upper levels Public industrial standard A possibility to address a single tag out of several An arbitration which is able to detect “any” number of tags in a short time Interrupt level(s) A function enabling dock door scenarios A select mechanism to select the package level A dynamic priority solution during arbitration no loop1(x select query ack loop2: (query_rep ack)) A write and a read possibility for an ID or other data Which kind of ID? Length of the ID? Up to 512 bit Truncated read Nice to have: A possibility to write several tags at once (same data portion) no Parts of the ID, like ID length, AFI, DSFID, manufacturer ID, …. VDE RFID workshop, Darmstadt 2005 01.02.2005 17
  18. 18. UHF RFID Protocols ® Thanks for your attention Atmel homepage: www.atmel.com Presenter: Ulrich Friedrich, Atmel Email: Ulrich.friedrich@hno.atmel.com Date: February 2005 VDE RFID workshop, Darmstadt 2005 01.02.2005 18
  19. 19. UHF RFID Protocols ® Appendix VDE RFID workshop, Darmstadt 2005 01.02.2005 19
  20. 20. UHF RFID Protocols ® A0: Atmel Employees: 8700 Revenue: 1.6 B$ Business area: Advanced logic, mixed signal, non-volatile memory and RF semiconductors. Atmel Germany GmbH: Subsidiary of Atmel Corporation Previously known as: TELEFUNKEN and TEMIC Location: Headquarter in Heilbronn, Germany One business segment: Development of RFID ICs LF (125 kHz) : e5530, e555x series, e556x series, U2270 UHF: Palomar, ATA5590 One of the pioneers in RFID (since 1987) VDE RFID workshop, Darmstadt 2005 01.02.2005 20
  21. 21. UHF RFID Protocols ® A1: The link definition An RFID communication system is a master slave system An RFID protocol describes a wireless communication method A UHF RFID protocol shall Describe the synchronization method Define how the parameters for the forward and backscatter link are to be set Define which kind of encryption is supported (if needed) Define the supported commands Define how robustness can be achieved and error detection shall work Define what shall happened if a error occurs Define the MAC layer As long as the applications needs are changing we have to develop / upgrade protocols (A2, A3, A4) VDE RFID workshop, Darmstadt 2005 01.02.2005 21
  22. 22. UHF RFID Protocols ® A2: What has happened since 2000 Cheap Class1 Further developments based on Class1Gen2 Auto ID center Class0 Class 3 Class2 EAN/UCC ePCglobal Class1Gen2 GTAG Typ A Typ B ISO (18000-6) Typ C Mode3 (Palomar) Cheap/robust/secure/ High performance considering RF regulations/speed/distance RF regulations in Europe year 2000 2004 VDE RFID workshop, Darmstadt 2005 01.02.2005 22
  23. 23. UHF RFID Protocols ® A3: Standards Standard protocols are driven and/ or controlled by Needs of applications The application itself The environment conditions Pressure of the market and the added value behind RF regulations Europe, US, Asia (Japan, Korea, China, …), Australia Politics Dinner sessions Standards are under development, every time ☺ Standards are not offering the best technical solution They are based on compromises They are describing a common ground for diversification strategies ☺ ☺ VDE RFID workshop, Darmstadt 2005 01.02.2005 23
  24. 24. UHF RFID Protocols ® A4: Some basics of UHF RFID λ d> Q= 1 ⋅ L s (t ) = cos(2 ⋅ π ⋅ f carrier ⋅ t ) ⋅ cos(2 ⋅ π ⋅ f mod ⋅ t ) 2π R C ⎛ λ ⎞ P distance max = ⎜ ⎟ n η ⋅ Greader ⋅ Gtransponder ⋅ reader ⎝ 4 ⋅π ⎠ Ptransponder ⎛ λ2 ⋅ Gtag _ antenna ⋅ ∆Z tag _ IC ⎞ 2 ∆RCS = ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ 4 ⋅ π ⋅ Rtag _ ic ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ ⎛ ∆ Imtransponder − IC ⎞ ∆phase _ angle = 2 ⋅ arctan⎜ ⎟ ⎜ 4 ⋅ Re ⎟ ⎝ transponder − IC ⎠ λ Ptag _ IC = Preader ⋅ Gtag ⋅ Greader ⋅ ( )2 4 ⋅ π ⋅ distance − j ⋅2π ⋅( x + 2 n (l1 + l2 )) − j ⋅2π ( 2 l1 − x + 2 n (l1 + l2 )) ⎛ ⎛ N ⎞⎞ ⎜ ⎜ λ ⋅e λ N λ ⋅e λ ⎟⎟ Ptag = Preader + 20 log⎜10, Abs⎜ ∑ +∑ ⎟⎟ ⎜ ⎜ N =0 4π ( x + 2n(l1 + l2 )) N =0 4π (2l1 − x + 2n(l1 + l2 )) ⎟ ⎟ ⎝ ⎝ ⎠⎠ VDE RFID workshop, Darmstadt 2005 01.02.2005 24
  25. 25. UHF RFID Protocols ® A5: A simplified UHF RFID system SCM unit rectifier tag power supply PSK modulator digital FSM and frontend memory unit clock reader control extractor bus Transponder IC mod D/A converter rectifier tag power supply PSK F1 modulator VCO1 digital FSM and frontend memory unit clock uC extractor F2 mux PA VCO2 Transponder IC frequency switch rectifier tag power supply PSK modulator digital FSM and frontend memory unit clock extractor Transponder IC signal I processing 0° unit LNA Q rectifier tag power supply 90° PSK modulator digital FSM and frontend memory unit Reader clock extractor VDE RFID workshop, Darmstadt 2005 01.02.2005 25 Transponder IC
  26. 26. UHF RFID Protocols ® A6: Physics of UHF RFID Why UHF? Communication distance for inductive coupled systems is limited to λ d< 2π Practical limitations for sizing and by RF regulations Increased data rates relative to LF The field strength is influenced by reflections Constructive and destructive interference of the carrier signal Losses Free space attenuation 86 dB free space attenuation @ 868 MHz and a distance of 4 m (reader (TX) -> tag -> reader (RX) In practice 100 dB and more between TX and RX is a real challenge Tag attenuation because the tag needs also power for operation Attenuation given by the goods VDE RFID workshop, Darmstadt 2005 01.02.2005 26
  27. 27. UHF RFID Protocols ® A7: Example for the receivable power (Tag) as a function of distance and reflections distance Start 27 dBm @ 0 m 1m 3m 10 dBm 10 1 2 3 4 - 10 dBm -10 Tag sensitivity -20 power - 30 dBm -30 VDE RFID workshop, Darmstadt 2005 01.02.2005 27
  28. 28. UHF RFID Protocols ® A8: RF Regulations for UHF based SRD’s America Frequency: 902…928 MHz (915 MHz band) Transmitted power: 37 dBm EIRP (4 W) Up to 50 channels; channel bandwidth: up to 1 MHz Europe Old and new Frequency: 869.4 - 869.65 MHz Transmitted power: 27 dBm ERP (500 mW) One channel; channel bandwidth: 250 kHz Or up to 10 channels; channel bandwidth: min 25 kHz New Frequency: 865 ... 868 MHz Transmitted power: 34 dBm ERP (2 W) (listen before talk) 15 channels; channel bandwidth: 200 kHz Asia (Japan/Korea/China under development) In ISO they have voted against each UHF based RFID system in 2002 Frequency (Japan) close to 950 MHz VDE RFID workshop, Darmstadt 2005 01.02.2005 28
  29. 29. UHF RFID Protocols ® DSB- or SSB-ASK Baseband Data: 010 PR-ASK Baseband Data: 010 1 1 A9: AM modulation types Amplitude Amplitude 0 0 0 1 2 3 0 1 2 3 Data Symbols Data Symbols DSB- or SSB-ASK Modulating Waveform PR-ASK Modulating Waveform DSB-ASK requires 1 1 more bandwidth than Amplitude Amplitude - ASK-SSB or 0 –1 - PR-ASK (DSBM) 0 1 2 3 0 1 2 3 Data Symbols Data Symbols DSB- or SSB-ASK Modulated RF PR-ASK Modulated RF Power transport A is optimized by using B PR-ASK (DSBM) RF Envelope Unmodulated Modulated Field with Phase Field with Modulation A B Field Field Phase φ Transition Phase – φ Depth = A DSB- or SSB-ASK Detected Waveform PR-ASK Detected Waveform 1 1 Amplitude Amplitude 0 0 0 1 2 3 0 1 2 3 Data Symbols Data Symbols VDE RFID workshop, Darmstadt 2005 01.02.2005 29
  30. 30. UHF RFID Protocols ® A10: Spectrum challenges (Europe, EN 302 208) 100 kb/s DSBM 60 kb/s AM VDE RFID workshop, Darmstadt 2005 01.02.2005 30
  31. 31. UHF RFID Protocols ® A11: Possible solutions for the backscatter link Half duplex or full duplex communication FD to enable higher robustness in forward link FD requires that the RSSI is not disabled ASK or (real) PSK modulation ASK is the traditional solution (class0, class1, ISO 18000) PSK offers higher sensitivity, “no” power supply ripple PSK enables full duplex Spectrum management Enables better SNR; a shift around noise is possible Similar to Palomar Synchronous and / or asynchronous backscatter link Synchronous link has the highest SNR Synchronous requires full duplex if the timing is variable Asynchronous link is ISO 18000 conform VDE RFID workshop, Darmstadt 2005 01.02.2005 31
  32. 32. UHF RFID Protocols ® A12: Differences ASK vs. PSK Q Q state1 state 2 high reflectivity (tag) low reflectivity (tag) state1 I backscatter I signal state 2 Modulator Modulator control signal control signal power supply power voltage supply voltage time time VDE RFID workshop, Darmstadt 2005 01.02.2005 32
  33. 33. UHF RFID Protocols ® A13: Timing and spectrum adjustment within Class1Gen2 Forward threshold is defined Primitive timing for backscatter by this timing reference symbols is encoded by a timing reference R=>T Preamble 1 Tari 2.5 Tari ≤ RTcal ≤ 3.0 Tari 1.1RTcal ≤ TRcal ≤ 3 RTcal 12.5µs +/– 5% PW PW PW delimiter data-0 R=>T calibration (RTcal) T=>R calibration (TRcal) R=>T Frame-Sync 1 Tari 2.5 Tari ≤ RTcal ≤ 3.0 Tari 12.5µs +/– 5% PW PW delimiter data-0 R=>T calibration (RTcal) VDE RFID workshop, Darmstadt 2005 01.02.2005 33
  34. 34. UHF RFID Protocols ® A14: Sub carrier encoding within Class1Gen2 Miller Preamble (TRext = 0) M=2 M=4 4 M/LF 0 1 0 1 1 1 4 M/LF 0 1 0 1 1 1 M=8 4 M/LF 0 1 0 1 1 1 Miller Preamble (TRext = 1) M=2 16 M/LF 0 1 0 1 1 1 M=4 16 M/LF 0 1 0 1 1 1 M=8 16 M/LF 0 1 0 1 1 1 VDE RFID workshop, Darmstadt 2005 01.02.2005 34
  35. 35. UHF RFID Protocols ® A15: Questions regarding current solutions for arbitration Deterministic Depends on the data stream for arbitration (ID, other data fields, random value) Over ID is now forbidden Arbitration has to be made over an n-bit random stream Aloha Is it possible to detect hidden tags (different distances!)? Is there a receipt mechanism based on a random value? Aloha implemented in ISO 18000-6 A Next slot mechanism is based on a 4 bit signature Tag backscatters the whole Tag ID (not the Item ID) No interrupt possibility if there is a collision (half duplex!) 4 bit signature is not always a random number • But in praxis a 4 bit is a nice joke, birthday phenomenon !!! Truncated read not implemented VDE RFID workshop, Darmstadt 2005 01.02.2005 35
  36. 36. UHF RFID Protocols ® A16: The implementation of the arbitration within Class1Gen2 Single Tag Reply QueryRep or Interrogator Select CW Query CW Ack CW QueryRep QueryAdjust if EPC is valid NAK NAK if EPC is invalid Tag RN16 PC + EPC + CRC16 T4 T1 T2 T1 T2 Collided Reply No Reply Invalid ACK Interrogator Query CW QueryRep CW QueryRep CW Ack CW QueryRep Collision No No Detected Reply Reply Tag RN16 RN16 T1 T2 T1 T3 T1 T2 T1 T3 VDE RFID workshop, Darmstadt 2005 01.02.2005 36

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