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    Mapping the Landscape: How RFID is Revolutionising the World ... Mapping the Landscape: How RFID is Revolutionising the World ... Presentation Transcript

    • Mapping The Landscape How RFID is Revolutionising The World Around US Alfio Grasso Deputy Director Auto-ID Lab, ADELAIDE UNIVERSITY OF ADELAIDE
    • Objective
      • RFID Basics
      • History
        • Rising from the ashes!
      • Current Status
        • EPCglobal
        • ISO
        • Regulatory
      • Future
    • RFID Basics
    • Tag reading Reader Tx typically 1W, 6dB gain Antenna But propagation loss, resulting Rx at Tag typically µW On tag, RF energy used for DC power and modulation More loss back to Reader Rx Therefore a very weak reply is obtained The black spot
    • RFID Tags
      • Tags
        • Attached to objects or items
        • Contains electronics (chip), and antenna
        • Most are passive (no power source)
        • Active tags have a battery
    • Matrics (Symbol) Tags Class 0
    • Alien Technology Tags Class 1 Gen 1
    • Intermec Tags 18000-6TB
    • Gen 2
    • RFID Readers
      • Readers
        • Contains electronics, Tx, Rx and control
        • Connected to antenna(s)
          • mostly external
        • Energise tags (passive tags)
        • Commands tags (wake up active tags, enables management of the tag population)
        • Receive tag replies
    • RFID Readers
    • Gen 2 Compliant Readers
    • RFID Antenna(s)
    • Host CPU
        • Application
        • Do something with the tag information
        • Potential to generate massive amounts of data
        • Once installed it costs virtually NOTHING to read a tag!
        • Real time data => real time decisions
        • OHIO (Zero Human Involvement Operations)*
        • * Term defined by John Greaves, CHEP International
    • History
      • RFID concept in WWII
        • Steady development ever since
    • Early UHF work
      • 1979 Surface Acoustic Wave RFID
        • University of Adelaide, University of New South Wales
        • TABTEK, X-cyte (XCI)
        • MircroDesign
      • 1988 Modulated Backscatter Technology
        • Discrete diodes
        • ISD
        • Amtech
      • Late 90’s single chip UHF RFID
        • SCS
        • Philips
        • IBM=>Intermec
    • ISO
      • SC31 established in 1996
        • Automatic Identification and Data Capture Techniques
      • SC31/WG4
        • RFID for Item Management
        • 1st meeting 26-28 August 1998
      • SC31/WG4/SG3
        • Air Interface
        • 1 st meeting 12 th Jan 1999
      • UHF activity started in 2000
        • Ad-hoc meeting in September 2000
        • 18000-6 WD by Dec 2001
        • 18000-6 CD Sept 2002
        • FCD BRM Sept 2003
        • 18000-6 Published 2004
    • Key Events
      • Auto-ID Center, formation and EPC (2000)
      • RFID Chair at University of Adelaide, April 2001
      • Adelaide Auto-ID Lab, established 2002
      • Gillette purchase (2003)
      • WAL*MART mandate (2003)
    • Metamorphous
      • Auto-ID Center
        • Terminated 31/10/2003
      • Spawned two organisations
        • Auto-ID Labs
          • MIT, Cambridge (UK), Adelaide, Fudan (China), Keio (Japan), St Gallen/ETHZ (Switzerland) and in 2005 ICU (Korea)
        • EPCglobal
    • 2000+ Players
      • Matrics
        • Founded 1999
        • Product July 2002
      • Symbol
      • Alien
        • Founded 1995
        • Cheap Tag Program, 2001
        • Product Q1 2002
      • Impinj
        • Founded 2000
        • Auto-ID Center HAG 2003
        • C1G2 chip 8 Apr 2005
        • EPCglobal certified 14 Sep 2005
        • Partnered with Texas Instruments
    • Why Now!
      • Recent improvements in tag and reader technology
        • Better performance
        • Easier deployment and maintenance
        • Better use of existing infrastructure and technologies
      • Improvements in tag and reader manufacturing
        • Cheaper tags and readers
      • Industry standardisation
        • EPCglobal and ISO
    • RFID Market To Reach $7.26Bn In 2008 *
      • A new market research report covering RFID from 2005 to 2015, researched by IDTechEx.
        • Bottom line is that this year’s global market for RFID including tags, systems and services is $1.94 billion but it will be driven by demand and new laws to $26.90 billion in 2015.
      • 1.8 billion RFID tags have been sold to 2005.
        • Passive tags: 410 million (car clickers)
        • Active tags: 1390 million (cards)
      • Key volume applications for RFID technology
        • access cards for the financial, security and safety markets
        • automotive and passenger transport sector
        • smaller markets in leisure, libraries, laundry and healthcare.
      * As reported in IDTechEX 11 April 2005
    • More Trends *
      • 3.1 billion tags will be used for pallets and cases in 2006.
      • By 2008
        • 6.8 billion tags for Item level tagging (especially by pharmaceuticals) and tagging of baggage, animals, books, tickets and other non retail markets
        • But 15.3 billion tags for pallets/cases
      • The market for RFID interrogators will reach $1.14 billion in 2008 for EPC interrogators and $0.75 billion in the same year for other interrogators, such as Near Field Communication interrogators.
      • Forecasts by territorial region show that by 2010 48% of RFID tags by numbers will be sold in East Asia, followed by 32% to North America.
      * As reported in IDTechEX 11 April 2005
    • Current Status EPCglobal ISO Regulatory
    • EPCglobal Standards Development Process
    • EPCglobal structure
    • Membership Aug 2005
    • Standards Development Process
    • Working Groups
      • Business Steering Committee (BSC)
        • Fast Moving Consumer Goods (FMCG)
        • Healthcare and Life Sciences (HLS)
        • Transport and Logistics (TLS)
      • Technical Steering Committee (TSC)
        • Hardware Action Group (HAG)
        • Software Action Group (SAG)
    • FMCG – Working Groups
      • Data Exchange
      • European Adoption Programme (EAP)
      • Pilot and Implementation (P&I)
      • Reusable Transport Items (RTI)
      • Strategic Planning
      • Tag and Inlay Standards
      • Asian Adoption Program (AAP)
    • HLS – Working Groups
      • Strategy
      • Policy
      • Process
      • Information
      • Technology
      • Research
    • TLS - Working Groups
      • Transportation
      • “ Four walls”
      • Import Export Clearance
      • Integration
    • HAG – Working Groups
      • Class 1 Generation 2 (Work completed)
      • Gen 2 Testing & Certification
      • Joints Requirements Group for Item Level Tagging
      • Others planned
    • SAG Working Groups
      • Reader Protocol
      • Reader Management
      • Filtering and Collection
      • ONS
      • Security
      • Tag Data Translation
      • EPCIS Phase 2
      • Tag Data Standards
    • Future Working Groups ?
      • Automotive
      • Aerospace
      • Electronics
      • Biologics
    • EPCglobal Technical Standards Hardware Action Group Software Action Group
    • EPCglobal network: roles and interfaces
    • EPC Event Layers Reader RFID “Middleware” Palletizer (Operational App) Enterprise App Reader Protocol Reader ALE EPCIS dozens of individual tag read events from specific antenna “ between the time the case crossed the first beam and the second beam at location L, the following tag was read” “ at time T, the association of the following case tags to the following pallet tag was created at palletizer #3” R R
    • EPCIS Concepts
    • Capture Application EPCIS Events Operational Apps Palletizer Dock Portal Dock Portal Dock Portal Backroom Receipt Rack Commission Observe Observe Aggregate Observe Shipment Observe Receipt Observe Disaggregate Observe Restock Observe Putaway Impact Doorway Observe Shipment Manufacturer Retailer Dist Ctr Dist Ctr Store Tagging Station
    • Gen 2
    • Inlay Costs
      • Alien C1G1
        • US$0.129 Qty > 1m - 13 Sept 2005 *
      • Avery Dennison C1G2
        • US$0.079 Qty > 1m - 20 Sept 2005 *
      • Inlay is the functional part of the tag
        • Includes the integrated circuit and antenna
        • Usually "converted" to a tag
          • by being placed in a plastic sleeve, adhesive, or other housing that allows it to be stuck to items.
        • The final tag cost is therefore considerably more than that of the bare inlay, often by two or three times.
      *Source RFID Update
    • Tag Costs
      • RSI ID Technologies
        • Finished, fully-validated, ready-to-use Gen2 RFID labels
        • Under US$0.149, Qty > 1m 22 Sept 2005 *
      *Source RFID Journal 23 Sept
    • Gen 2 - Reader Costs
      • Applied Wireless Identifications (AWID)
        • MPR-3014
          • EPCglobal Gen 2 certified
          • 4 antenna port reader WITH 4 antennas
          • US$1,000 each *.
      * Source RFID Update 26 Sept 2005
    • Gen 2 Compliance Certificates
      • Reader Vendors
        • Alien Technology
        • Applied Wireless Devices (2)
        • Impinj
        • Intermec Technologies (2)
        • MaxID Group
        • Symbol Technologies
        • ThingMagic
    • Gen 2 Compliance Certificates
      • Chip Vendors
        • Impinj Inc.
          • Monza
    • Gen 2 Compliance Certificates
      • Test Centres
        • Pacific RFID Performance Solutions; Hsinchu, Taiwan
        • Kimberly-Clark Corp. Auto-ID Sensing Technologies Performance Test Center; USA
        • METRO Group AG/GS1 Germany RFID Test Center, Germany
        • RFID Research Center, University of Arkansas, USA
    • Gen 2 Chip Suppliers
      • Impinj
        • Monza
        • 96 epc
      • ST Microelectronics
        • XRAG2
        • Supports KILL
        • 432-bit memory (2 offerings)
          • Three memory banks (64 bits TID, 304 bits for EPC code and 64 bits reserved)
          • Four memory banks (128 bits user, 64 bits TID, 176 bits for EPC code and 64 bits reserved).
          • US$0.07, Qty > 100,000
      • Philips
      • Texas Instruments
    • ISO Standards
    • RF Regulations
      • Regulators
        • Classify RFID as Industrial, Scientific and Medical use
      • ISM bands
        • 125-134 kHz (ISO 18000-2)
        • 13.56 MHz or HF (ISO 18000-3)
        • 433 MHz (ISO 18000-7)
        • 860 to 960 MHz or UHF (ISO 18000-6)
        • 2.45 GHz (ISO 18000-4)
        • 5.8 GHz (no ISO standard)
    •  
    • Other RFID Standards
      • ISO_IEC_18000-1
        • Reference architecture and definition of parameters to be standardized
      • ISO_IEC_TR_18001
        • Application requirements profiles
      • ISO_IEC_18046
        • RFID Tag and Interrogator Performance Test Methods
      • ISO_IEC_TR_18047-2
        • Test methods for air interface communications below 135 kHz
      • ISO_IEC_TR_18047-3
        • Test methods for air interface communications at 13,56 MHz
      • ISO_IEC_TR_18047-4
        • Test methods for air interface communications at 2.45 GHz
      • ISO_IEC_TR_18047-6
        • Test methods for air interface communications at 860 to 960 MHz
      • ISO_IEC_TR_18047-7
        • Test methods for air interface communications at 433 MHz
      • ISO_IEC_19762
        • Harmonised Vocabulary
      • ISO_IEC_24710
        • Elementary Tag Licence Plate functionality, for 18000-2 to 18000-7
    • Other Relevant ISO Standards
      • ISO_IEC_15418
        • EAN/UCC Application Identifiers and Fact Data Identifiers and Maintenance
      • ISO_IEC_15424
        • Data Carrier Identifiers (including Symbology Identifiers)
      • ISO_IEC_15434
        • Transfer syntax for high capacity ADC media
      • ISO_IEC_15459-Parts 1 & 2
        • Unique identification of transport units
          • Part 1: General
          • Part 2: Registration procedures
      • ISO_IEC_15961
        • Data protocol: application interface
      • ISO_IEC_15962
        • Data protocol: data encoding rules and logical memory functions
      • ISO_IEC_15963
        • Unique identification for RF tags
    • Regulatory
    •  
    • ITU Region 1 (EU and Africa) EN300-220 & EN302-208
      • CEPT countries
        • 869.4 - 869.65 MHz : 500mW erp : DC<10%
        • 865.6 - 867.6 MHz : 2W erp : LBT
      • South Africa
        • 869.4 - 869.65 MHz : 500mW erp
        • 915.2 - 915.4 MHz : 8 W eirp
      • Note: all of the above operate in < 250kHz channels
    • ITU Region 2 (Americas) FCC Part 15.247
      • USA, Canada and Mexico
        • 902 - 928 MHz : 4W EIRP FHSS, 500kHz wide channels permitted – relaxed emission requirements within the whole band.
      • Central & South America
        • Generally similar to North America but varies from country to country.
    • ITU Region 3 (Asia)
      • Australia
        • 918 - 926 MHz : 1W EIRP
        • 920 – 926 MHz : 4W EIRP
          • Experimental
          • Strict conditions apply
      • New Zealand
        • 864 - 868 MHz : 4W EIRP
      • Elsewhere in Asia
        • Generally follow CEPT some exceptions below
        • China 917 to 922 2W ERP
        • Hong Kong 865-868 2W ERP & 920-925 4W EIRP
        • Japan 952 - 954 MHz : 4W EIRP (licensed)
        • Malaysia 919-923 MHz, 2W ERP
        • Singapore 866-869 MHz 0.5W ERP & 923-925 2W ERP (licence)
        • South-Korea 910 – 914 MHz
        • Taiwan 922-928 1W ERP (indoor) 0.5W (outdoor)
    • Australian 4W RFID licence
    • Experimental Licence
      • The original licence for RFID
        • 1W EIRP, 918 to 926 MHz
      • Experimental 4W EIRP Licence
        • Granted to GS1 Australia
        • 12 July 2005
        • Operates from 920 to 926 MHz
        • Only licence that will be granted
      • Statistics needed to determine possible interference to Vodaphone
        • Receiver base station at 915 MHz
    • GS1 Contact
      • For details contact Fiona Wilson
      • [email_address]
    • Future?
    • Future
      • RFID deployed in supply chains
      • Anything that is mobile is a candidate
      • RFID used for item management
        • Retail, Pharmaceutical, Asset Management, Access, Airline Baggage, Credit Cards, Money, Food Traceability, Security, Authentication, etc.
      • Integrated Mobile Phone
        • Connected to internet
        • RFID reader
    • RFID and Sensors
      • RFID with sensors
        • Ubiquitous Sensors
      • Bio-sensors and RFID
        • VeriChip
        • Ubiquitous Health
    • Intelligent Speed Adaptation (ISA)
      • ISA combines three systems:
      • GPS for location
      • Video recognition of speed signs
      • RFID devices in speed signs which transmit information to passing cars.
      25 th Sept 2005
    • New Technologies
      • MEMS (Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems )
      • Printed & Organic Electronics
      • Atomic Electronics
    • New Technologies - 2
      • Smart Dust or eGrains (Smart Stones)
        • Tiny smart processors
        • Wirelessly connected to each
        • Invisible network, ad-hoc
        • Sharing data
        • Reporting sensor information
    • Conclusions
    • Conclusions
      • RFID is NOW
        • Gen 2 available, inlays less than 10 cents
      • Many RFID related Standards Published
        • Many people working on those standards
          • > 1500 people within EPCglobal workgroups
        • Multi-vendor support for the standards
        • Conformance documents being published/developed
      • UHF band opening up
        • Many GS1 countries already have band allocations
        • Australia well placed (2 nd best in the world)
          • 4W EIRP
          • 12 by 500 kHz wide channels
      • Future RFID
        • Limited by Imagination
    • Further Information
      • Alfio Grasso
      • Deputy Director
      • Auto-ID Lab, Adelaide
      • General Manager
      • RFID Automation
      • University of Adelaide
      • Web: www.rfidautomation.org
      • Email : [email_address]
      • Ph: (08) 8303 6473
      • Mob: 0402 037 968