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Link to SIGGRAPH PPT presentation
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Link to SIGGRAPH PPT presentation
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Link to SIGGRAPH PPT presentation
Link to SIGGRAPH PPT presentation
Link to SIGGRAPH PPT presentation
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Link to SIGGRAPH PPT presentation
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Link to SIGGRAPH PPT presentation

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  • 1. Ramesh Raskar, Paul Beardsley, Jeroen van Baar, Yao Wang, Paul Dietz, Johnny Lee, Darren Leigh, Thomas Willwacher Mitsubishi Electric Research Labs (MERL), Cambridge, MA R F I G Lamps : Interacting with a Self-describing World via Photosensing Wireless Tags and Projectors
  • 2. Radio Frequency Identification Tags (RFID) microchip Antenna No batteries, Small size, Cost few cents
  • 3. Warehousing Routing Library Baggage handling Currency Livestock tracking
  • 4. Conventional Passive RFID
  • 5. Tagged Books in a Library <ul><li>Id </li></ul><ul><li>List of books in RF range </li></ul><ul><li>No Precise Location Data </li></ul><ul><li>Are books in sorted order ? </li></ul><ul><li>Which book is upside down ? </li></ul>
  • 6. Where are boxes with Products close to Expiry Date ?
  • 7. Conventional RF tag Photo-sensing RF tag
  • 8. Photosensor ? Compatible with RFID size and power needs Projector ? Directional transfer, AR with Image overlay
  • 9. b . Tags respond with date and precise (x,y) pixel location, Projector beams ‘Ok’ at that location a . Photosensing RFID tags are queried via RF c . Multiple users can simultaneously work from a distance without RF collision
  • 10.  
  • 11. RFID (Radio Frequency Identification) RFI G (Radio Frequency Id and Geometry )
  • 12. Prototype Tag RF tag + photosensor
  • 13. Outline <ul><li>Photosensing RF tags </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Location sensing </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Geometric Operations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Multi-view analysis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Deformation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Interactive Projection </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mouse-like interaction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Image stabilization </li></ul></ul>
  • 14. Outline <ul><li>Photosensing RF tags </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Location sensing </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Geometric Operations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Multi-view analysis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Deformation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Interactive Projection </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mouse-like interaction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Image stabilization </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Applications </li></ul>
  • 15. Pattern MSB Pattern MSB-1 Pattern LSB Projected Sequential Frames <ul><li>Handheld Projector beams binary coded stripes </li></ul><ul><li>Tags decode temporal code </li></ul>
  • 16. Pattern MSB Pattern MSB-1 Pattern LSB Projected Sequential Frames <ul><li>Handheld Projector beams binary coded stripes </li></ul><ul><li>Tags decode temporal code </li></ul>
  • 17. Pattern MSB Pattern MSB-1 Pattern LSB Projected Sequential Frames <ul><li>Handheld Projector beams binary coded stripes </li></ul><ul><li>Tags decode temporal code </li></ul>
  • 18. Pattern MSB Pattern MSB-1 Pattern LSB Projected Sequential Frames <ul><li>Handheld Projector beams binary coded stripes </li></ul><ul><li>Tags decode temporal code </li></ul>
  • 19. Pattern MSB Pattern MSB-1 Pattern LSB Projected Sequential Frames <ul><li>Handheld Projector beams binary coded stripes </li></ul><ul><li>Tags decode temporal code </li></ul>
  • 20. Pattern MSB Pattern MSB-1 Pattern LSB <ul><li>For each tag </li></ul><ul><li>From light sequence, decode x and y coordinate </li></ul><ul><li>Transmit back to RF reader ( Id , x, y ) </li></ul>0 1 1 0 0 X=12
  • 21. Visual feedback of 2D position <ul><li>Receive via RF {( x 1 ,y 1 ), ( x 2 ,y 2 ), …} pixels </li></ul><ul><li>Illuminate those positions </li></ul>
  • 22. Limitations <ul><li>Line of sight </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Surface patches </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Multiple tags per object </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Ambient light </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Modulated infrared </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Surface reflectance and shadows </li></ul>
  • 23. Outline <ul><li>Photosensing RF tags </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Location sensing </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Geometric Operations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Multi-view analysis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Deformation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Interactive Projection </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mouse-like interaction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Image stabilization </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Applications </li></ul>
  • 24. Find 3D coordinates <ul><li>Observe structured patterns via Camera </li></ul><ul><li>Triangulate cam/proj view </li></ul>
  • 25. 3D from 2 Projector Views (Structure from Motion) <ul><li>Two+ unknown projector views </li></ul><ul><li>Correspondence is trivial </li></ul><ul><li>Applications </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Detect 3D deformations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Trajectory grouping </li></ul></ul>
  • 26. Change Detection without fixed camera, in any lighting condition Compare with new coordinates from a different view Record coordinates of tags from one view Before After
  • 27. Texture Adaptation
  • 28. Outline <ul><li>Photosensing RF tags </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Location sensing </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Geometric Operations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Multi-view analysis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Deformation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Interactive Projection </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Desktop-like interaction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Image stabilization </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Applications </li></ul>
  • 29. Desktop-like Interaction Selecting tags
  • 30. Support for handheld projection
  • 31. Mouse Simulation <ul><li>Cursor follows handheld projector motion </li></ul><ul><li>Pre-warped image remains stable </li></ul>
  • 32. Image Quasi-Stabilization Eliminate hand jitter using inertial sensors+camera
  • 33. Absolute Stabilization Image stays registered with world features
  • 34. Image Stabilization
  • 35. Interactive Projection (Also in Emerging Technologies Booth)
  • 36. Adaptive Projection ‘ Paste’ : Geometric and Photometric compensation
  • 37. Prototype Handheld Projector
  • 38. Related Work <ul><li>Smart objects </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Smart-its </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>FindIT Flashlight (Ma and Paradiso 2002) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Location sensing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Multiple readers, large antennas </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Olivetti Active Badge , Xerox PARCtab (Want 1995) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Interaction and Display </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Augmented Reality </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Projector-based AR, Shaderlamps </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>(Raskar 1998, Underkoffler 1999, Pinhanez 2001) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Handheld projector (Raskar 2003) </li></ul></ul>
  • 39. Applications <ul><li>Single Tags </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Authoring for AR, Store augmentation: display per object </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Multiple tags on objects </li></ul><ul><ul><li>3D Pose </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Packing and placement strategy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Robot navigation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Interaction between tagged objects </li></ul><ul><ul><li>History of geometric interaction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Orientation mismatch </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Distributed tags </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Deformation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Interpolated values for temperature sensors </li></ul></ul>
  • 40. Acknowledgements <ul><li>MERL </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cliff Forlines </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Joe Marks, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dick Waters, Kent Wittenburg </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vlad Branzoi </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rebecca Xiong, Debbi van Baar </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Mitsubishi Electric, Japan </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mamuro Kato, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Keiichi Shiotani </li></ul></ul>
  • 41. Interacting with a Self-Describing World <ul><li>Hybrid optical and RF communication </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Photosensing Wireless Tags + Projector illumination </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Geometric Analysis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Location, Selection, Augmentation At a distance </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Interactive Projection </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Desktop like interaction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stabilized images </li></ul></ul><ul><li>RFIG Applications beyond logistics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Identity, Geometry, History, Annotation </li></ul></ul>www.MERL.com
  • 42. Find tag location using handheld Projector Photosensing Wireless Tags Many geometric ops R F I R F I D Interactive stabilized projection (Radio Frequency Id & Geometry ) G
  • 43. (End of Presentation)
  • 44. Towards Passive RFID <ul><li>Photosensor </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Most compatible with passive batteryless RFID </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Power: near zero power for sensing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Size: Each photocell is tens of micrometer (smaller than RFID which are about 500 micrometer) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Very low cost, can be built with silicon of RFID microchip </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>RFID+Photosensor can be size of grain of rice </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>RFIG tag is ‘visible’ to projector but not to humans </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Current prototype uses battery because passive tags are difficult to program </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Other possibilities </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Adding a light emitting diode (LED) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Requires on board power </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Size has to be considerably large </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Size and power requirements are high </li></ul></ul></ul>
  • 45. Future Directions <ul><li>Sophisticated tags </li></ul><ul><li>Light modulation </li></ul><ul><li>Handheld projector </li></ul>
  • 46. Comparison with Bar-codes <ul><li>RFID </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Barcodes take up more space </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Long bit sequences </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Multiple tags can be simultaneously read </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Read distance is high </li></ul></ul><ul><li>RFIG </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Multiple barcodes per object is cumbersome </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Difficult to attach sensor (e.g. temperature) </li></ul></ul>
  • 47. Locate Tags Precisely using a handheld scanner/projector <ul><li>Handheld device </li></ul><ul><li>Eliminates multiple RF readers for triangulation or large antennas </li></ul><ul><li>Projector indicates location of tag </li></ul>Illuminate tags with binary coded stripes with projector
  • 48. <ul><li>Photosensor added to RFID tags </li></ul><ul><li>Hybrid communication via RF and via light </li></ul><ul><li>Solve 3 main issues with conventional RFIDs </li></ul><ul><li>Locate tags precisely </li></ul><ul><li>Select a subset of tags for operation </li></ul><ul><li>Long distance operation without collision </li></ul><ul><li>Applications beyond inventory management </li></ul><ul><li>Warehouse: locate objects for specific queries </li></ul><ul><li>Training and maintenance: interactive augmented reality </li></ul><ul><li>Surveillance: keep trail of object locations </li></ul>
  • 49. 2. Select subset of tags for operation <ul><li>Advantages </li></ul><ul><li>Only tags which are illuminated respond to queries </li></ul><ul><li>No RF collision between multiple tags </li></ul><ul><li>Projector also use as a display to indicate result of operation </li></ul><ul><li>Technique </li></ul><ul><li>Illuminate subset of tags with flashlight or projector </li></ul>3. Long distance operation without RF collision
  • 50. Futures <ul><li>We are used to fixed displays like desktops, laptops, and static projectors. </li></ul><ul><li>Handheld devices with screens have become common over the last decade – but the displays are small. </li></ul><ul><li>Handheld projectors offer a new display modality with its own characteristics - portable device size but with a large display. </li></ul><ul><li>Add interaction to achieve ‘the world as a desktop’… </li></ul>
  • 51. Interactive Projection <ul><li>Desktop like interaction </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cursor follows use motion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Center pixel is the pointer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rest of the image is stabilized </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Selection </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Image stabilization </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Absolute: camera and inertial sensor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Relative: world markers </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Copy-paste </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Camera captures texture during ‘copy’ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Projection after geometric/photometric adaptation </li></ul></ul>

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