EXPLORING RFID’S USE IN SHIPPING
Kennesaw State University’s
Information Technology Students and Staff
November 21, 2005
Executive Summary iv
Industry Leaders for RFID 3
Cost and Security 5
Today’s Business 8
Competition in Shipping 9
Letter of Transmittal 12
Operating Agreement 13
Figure 1 1
Figure 2 6
Figure 3 7
Figure 4 9
Figure 5 10
Table 1 3
This report analyzes the pros and cons of RFID and presents recommendations
on improving The Shipping Crews share of the industry.
RFID an Untapped Market
Although RFID, radio frequency identification, has been around since the 1970’s
the progression has been slow in implementing it into businesses. The cost or
risk factor has always deterred business from using RFID as the everyday
procedure. So even though all major corporations were aware of what was at
their fingertips not everyone looked to improve it. Today’s technology is
becoming so advanced that it is the natural next step to take. The companies
who have the most investment in RFID research labs are bound to be the new
leaders in this young market. Implementing the new systems into daily operation
will be essential to The Shipping Crew’s success. Currently we are conducting
trial runs as well as test pilots to ensure that RFID is capable to handle such a
large task. Our analysis of these tests, and pilots done by other shipping
companies will enable The Shipping Crew to develop a strong, RFID centered
The Shipping Crew’s Objectives
Even though RFID’s development is still young, we feel it will put us above the
competition. We have a proactive approach in our marketing but also taking
control of the near future market for RFID. By contacting the major suppliers
which will be forced to move to RFID tracking and notifying them of our systems,
it gives us a competitive edge over every other shipping company. Wal-Mart, the
largest retail marketer, will be our main focus to solidify the business. After which,
we will contact smaller retail chains, and notify them of the emerging technology.
Our continued development of RFID will be supported by investment in leading
RFID labs. Our investment in these labs is very important to our success in the
future. To be in the business you must think big picture.
The Shipping Crew’s implementation of RFID technology into future shipping
markets is an industry largely untapped. RFID or radio frequency identification
could be a tool used in multiple markets. These markets include shipping,
product management, retail, health care, government operations, pet
identification, passport identification, and multiple other commercial uses. In
postal and courier services alone, market projections slate RFID as a 3 billion
dollar a year industry by 2016. IDTechEx, a respected technology company,
predicts that by 2020 there could be nearly one trillion packages in circulation
with an RFID tag on them. Although RFID development is still in its early stages,
here at The Shipping Crew we have set a strong focus on progressing RFID into
a mature product. Our future development plans include but are not limited to
investments in RFID technology labs, a series of thorough shipping tests, as well
an analysis of The Shipping Crew’s immediate competition.
RFID transmits information from a chip into a computer where it is processed and
can be used on almost anything. One way to use RFID is for shipping and
inventory management in retail sites such as Wal-Mart. The tag will also be used
in postal courier mail (the second largest market for RFID) services. It will
improve security for packages as well as the trucks that ship them. RFID can
give real time information as to where the package is while also detecting cargo
door intrusions and security breaches of shipping crates.
Fig 1. RFID tag
The purpose of our report is to advance knowledge of RFID in The Shipping
Crew’s future product management. RFID as it is commonly known, is rapidly
revolutionizing the way we can collect data. One leader in RFID awareness
states, “We see a strong move toward revamping total postal systems to make it
easier to send and receive the correct package more promptly with better cost
and security control” (Sullivan, p1). Solutions include equipment tracking, tool
tracking, file/document tracking, pallet tracking, and process control. Wal-Mart, a
leader in the progression of RFID development, is currently doing in store testing
of RFID’s practicality on a day to day basis. These pilot tests have shown a 16%
reduction of out of stock product in their stores. Implementation of these labels
on to our packages should improve our shipping quality by a percentage
comparable to Wal-Mart’s. To better understand the future development of RFID
in The Shipping Crew, we will run our own series of tests. The success of these
test runs will significantly impact the amount of capital we choose to invest in
RFID product progression.
Radio frequency identification is technology that uses radio waves to
automatically identify people/objects. Although there are many methods for
identification, the most commonly used is a serial number that identifies a
person/object on a microchip that is attached to an antenna. The antenna
enables the chip to transmit the identification data to a reader. An RFID system
contains a tag, which consists of a microchip with an antenna, and an
interrogator or reader with an antenna. The reader sends out electromagnetic
waves and the tag decodes these waves. A passive RFID tag draws power from
the field produced by the reader and uses the energy to power the microchip’s
circuits. The chip then transforms the waves that the tag sends back to the
reader and the reader translates the new waves into digital data.
The usage of RFID in The Shipping Crew as opposed to the barcode label will
not only reduce the frequency of lost packages, but it will also decrease the
amount of time packages are traveling. The new tags will make identification of
packages must quicker and more reliable. This middle stage of shipment, where
the package usually sits in a warehouse for check in will be completely negated.
Customers will have the opportunity to be provided with “more-detailed real-time
information on where a package is any given time (Dunn, p2)”. The use of an
RFID labeled package will give us and our customers the ability to access the
exact location of each package at any given time. This radio technology will be
the force to empower the identification revolution. RFID will continue to advance
in its current capabilities as well as employ a new innovation into the global
Shipping and receiving go hand and hand with the consumer and supplier
relationship. RFID encourages
o Automated processing of loading and unloading
o Reduced labor requirements
o Faster processing
o Automatic cross-docking
o Automatic generation of 100 percent accurate electronic manifests.
In correlation to a better and more pleased consumer basis is,
o Correct product storage locations
o Faster product retrieval
o Fewer order errors
o Reduced losses
o Shrinkage of assets
o Improved order fill
o Rating times
o Less safety stock required.
The compromise of both assets in consumer relations and improved shipping
sources (RFID) can only lead to a revised shipping industry and an increased
awareness of consumer’s satisfaction in shipment processes. The authority given
to RFID is immense but extremely capable of producing faster and easier access
to the shipping industry.
o Lack of hand scanner o Currently less expensive
o More secure packaging o Barcode system already in
o Instant identification capabilities place
o More efficient shipping methods o Direct contact with scanner
o Decrease in amount of lost o More human hands on labor,
packages which does increase cost
o Fewer off route deliveries o Inferior tracking capabilities
because of vehicle tracking o Outdated technology
Industry Leaders for RFID
Several leading shipping companies believe that RFID is the key to creating a
competitive advantage in the industry. UPS, our primary competitor has already
set up a 4 pillared strategy to their RFID execution. Albert Wright, VP of UPS
engineering, is an advocate for customers in the shipping business. Wright
states, “Being ahead of the curve in planning and preparation is part of keeping
the customer satisfied”. Some aspects that can identify with RFID and its profit
improvement program are: increasing the distribution center in productivity,
increasing yield per end user (customer or site), creating a flexible, adaptive
supply chain and creating a cost advantage in logistics. Goods that can be
delivered to the place and time when consumers are ready to purchase defines
an efficient supply chain operation. To help UPS gain insight as to how the
growth of RFID will encourage better consumer relations there have been two
small leading investments.
The RFID technology was tested by UPS in two pilot programs near the greater
Atlanta area. Engaging these programs justifies the corporation’s incentives in
ensuring customer satisfaction. Wright concludes, “It’s the kind of thing that helps
you to be recognized as a leader not just as a logistics or transportation
company, but as a technology company as well (Dunn).” Albert Wright is just one
of the many leaders’ who are increasing public awareness about the advantages
of RFID in the shipping industry.
Two RFID companies lead the way into the RFID distribution market. Impinj Inc.
Who is an RFID chip and tag supplier, and Savi Technology Inc., another
provider of software used in creating RFID supply-chain networks. These two
technology suppliers are collaborating with UPS, who was a primary investor, in
order to be ready for RFID technology as it moves into mainstream operations.
As producers of RFID stroll their way into the shipping market, major retail
chains, like Wal-Mart have begun to set mandates on all suppliers having RFID
labels. These mandates have been set because of the success that Wal-Mart
had in their test pilots. Wal-Mart has already tested the RFID tags on packages in
12 select stores, and experienced a 16% reduction in out of stocks. Manual
orders were tested in twelve pilot stores and equipped with RFID technology and
twelve control stores without the technology researchers at the University of
Arkansas found a 16% reduction in out-of-stocks, the 29-week study analyzed
the out-of-stock merchandise at the pilot stores establishing a firm, pre-study
baseline. To measure the impact of RFID, out-of-stock items were scanned
every day throughout the study period, at the twenty-four stores. After analyzing
the baseline and comparing the performance between the two pilot stores the
study provide RFID effective and ready for retail purchase. The RFID enabled
stores, “were 63% more effective in replenishing out-of-stocks than the control
stores”(Dillman, ID tech Ex). Executive vice president and CEO for Wal-Mart
promoted the RFID to enhance the program as well as expand the Wal-Mart
As of 2005, Wal-Mart has tripled the amount of stores where RFID has been
installed. These tags will be in mainstream operation in over 1000 Wal-Mart
stores by the end of 2006. During this time frame Wal-Mart has also set a
preliminary mandate on over 200 suppliers to have RFID tags.
The Shipping Crew plans to infiltrate this market with packages already having
tags on them. In this manner we plan to work together with Wal-Mart and their
suppliers in a way that can benefit everyone. The efficiency that will be enabled
from these superior tracking devices will help to propel The Shipping Crew into
an already very competitive market. A major component in the experience of
RFID is easier access, tracking and security. During January 2006, Wal-Mart’s
next top 200 suppliers will be “live shipping EPC-tagged cases and pallets” (ID
Tech p.2). The wave of mainstream enhancement in RFID does not stop there;
Wal-Mart will be ready to accept RFID/EPC tags during this paramount
advancement. This will enable customers to continue the cycle in supply and
demand of Retail RFID tags. Wal-Mart will in effect have a sequential chain-
reaction of increased supply and more volume in consumer demand.
"Symbol has the potential to be not just a market player, but a thought leader in
RFID," said Michael J. Liard, senior RFID analyst for technology market research
firm Venture Development Corporation. "The immediate need is for infrastructure,
such as middleware solutions and fixed and handheld readers. By marrying its
existing supply chain solutions with RFID technology, Symbol can make a fast,
Certain questions will always be raised when updating new technologies, so it is
only natural for us to look for the best possible outcome. However RFID will only
be in our future if it is a profitable venture. Currently RFID labels are individually
costing us 10 cents each. Barcodes are not only significantly cheaper at this
given time, but they are also used by almost every shipping company. With out
the continued advancement of RFID technology it will be impossible for us to fully
devout our capital to RFID installation. Our biggest questions concerning RFID
are the costs and risks applied to implementing it into our daily operation. Not
only do we have the cost of putting the new tags on each package, but we also
have the cost of installing the new readers at our distribution hubs. These
devices are not expensive in the short term, but collectively they are a large
investment. Until profit margins increase into an acceptable level, we will keep
Our main problem with RFID is the question of just how much capital we want to
invest in the current market. With the existing rate of technological improvement,
it is a known that RFID will continue to be developed. Should we jump into it now,
or wait for a stable, more efficient product to be produced. With the current
barcode system we have a stable platform for mass shipments. Until the
technology is improved, and makes RFID cheaper we will have to passively enter
into the market.
Cost and Security
Compelling developments of RFID applicants are increasing user awareness.
The cost of RFID is also expected to drop significantly. RFID tag costs dropped
from $1 in 2002 to 20 cents in 2004 and are expected to fall to 5 cents by 2006.
In 2004 readers costs about $1,000 but are expected to fall to only $200 by 2006.
Consumer-producer relations are expanding and security on shipping items will
become more resolute. Statements by professionals presume that, “Coupling the
RFID technology with the electronic product code (EPC) will provide the
capability to locate and track items throughout the supply chain allowing
significantly more data to be attached to more items at case level”(UPS need
title). A strong asset to the pilots of RFID is through the healthcare system. The
security ensured in RFID will enhance technology while providing a certain
degree of privacy as well as security for customers and patients. New regulatory
requirements, such as the Florida Pedigree Act mandates, “that important
information accompany each drug throughout the supply chain” (UPS need title).
Using RFID will allow healthcare companies to capture required information such
o drug names
o numbers of containers
o lot/control numbers
Tampered on adulterated products entering the healthcare supply chain is a
growing concern. In light of 9-11 terrorist attacks and the anthrax-tainted mail
found in the United States, both consumers and manufacturers are looking for
new ways to keep drugs safe. Overall, healthcare companies need the types of
solution that RFID can provide. Numerous RFID applications for both hospitals
and pharmaceutical companies can benefit customers and patients.
The entire cycle of shipment would be better stabilized if RFID were encoded in
items shipped. Using the healthcare systems as another example is the outcome
of patient tracking and deterring of counterfeit drugs. The privacy that RFID offers
is an immense advancement in patient-doctor relations as well as shipping and
receiving relations. Counterfeit drugs adversely affect people’s lives by
preventing patients from receiving needed medication. Fortunately, RFID/EPC
tags can help detect products that are:
o Counterfeit or fake
o Tampered with, adulterated or substituted
o Unacceptable ( i.e. expired, discarded, returned, recalled, etc.)
Anyone who has been a victim of identity theft, the fastest growing crime in
America, knows what it feels like if someone knowing everything about you.
What about if someone knew about your whereabouts all the time? So, for
Americans who believe in conspiracy theories the new passport in 2006 will
cause them to panic.
The new passports, mandated by State Department regulations, will feature a 64
KB chip containing a duplicate of the information featured on the passport's
physical page, which the government hopes will strengthen national security.
From the Wisconsin Technology Center website comes this quote, “"It provides
one additional way to verify that the person who's presenting this passport at a
port of entry is the person represented on the passport"(Wisconsin Technology
The shipping crew knows privacy and protecting our customer’s identities and
items are major concerns for a consumer nowadays. Being able to provide “a
reliable and cost-effective packaging solution for medication tracking exists in
using RFID technology to record patient usage when the tablet is expelled from
the packaging, enabling accurate capture of clinical date without manual data
entry”(Medic-ECM). To make the implementation of RFID successful is
customers being receptive to the change and willing to use the service. Knowing
their privacy will be protected will help this transition go a lot smoother and more
lucrative in the long run.
Today there are dozens of RFID deployments and pilots around the world. RFID
addresses a global array of business applications. A short list of examples
o Retail supply chain
o Military supply chain
o Container tracking and management
o Pharmaceutical management and tracking
o Automated payment solutions
o Baggage tracking and management
o Vehicle, paper and aircraft assembly
o Asset tracking
o Document tracking
o Reusable pallet and container management
As new drugs go through the clinical trial phase accurately tracking patient usage
is crucial. RFID will also help on a larger scheme. Improved tracking and
accountability can improve the reliability and speed of the United States Food
and Drug Administration (FDA) drug approval process. Although RFID’s
advantages have increased productivity and raised consumer awareness, RFID
will probably not replace barcodes any time soon. However, the advantages of
RFID are distinct when compared to a barcode. For example,
o Human intervention is required to scan a barcode, whereas in most
applicants an RFID tag can be detected “hands off”.
o Barcodes must be visible on the outside of product packaging. RFID tags
can be placed inside the packaging on even the product itself.
o Through movement barcodes fade and become unreadable by scanners.
o You must have “Life of sight” to read a barcode. RFID tagged items can
be read even if they are behind other items.
In the end by revamping the barcode system RFID will make it much easier to
send and receive the correct packages more promptly, with better costs and
security control. Figure 1 shows the packing of a truck using RFID.
and RFID tag
item with RFID
Starts with the Pallet that crate
item and an placed on, also
RFID tag with contains RFID
Lastly placed in
container with a
placed on all
Competition in Shipping
Competition in the shipping industry is increasingly getting more and more
crowded. With the emergence of businesses like DHL into this very cutthroat
market, most shipping companies are looking for a competitive advantage. RFID
is creating a new market which is almost completely undeveloped. The
companies that research, invest and analysis this new technology the most will
most likely be the same businesses that control it.
Advancement of operating efficiency’s has continued to become a primary goal
for the United Parcel Service, otherwise known as UPS. The RFID tag has
essentially created a revolutionary tool enabling the shipping market to soar
never before seen profits. One of UPS’s main focuses is their investment in four
leading RFID research labs. Additional explorations into the RFID development
of pilot programs consist of, The UPS Supply Chain Solutions Fulfillment
Services or using the Consultant Services of UPS Professional Services. UPS’s
vision into the future is one that includes the use of RFID in its daily operations.
With all areas systematically analyzed, the UPS chain supply store will continue
to grow as the leader in market competition for shipping and the RFID tag.
Another main competitor to The Shipping Crew is the global shipping company
DHL. Although not as straightforward about their RFID development plans, it is
assumed that DHL will be increasing their efforts to produce productive RFID
Figure 5-logos for competitors
The 4 pillared strategies that UPS has created are setting a standard for RFID
operations in the shipping industry. The Shipping Crew will monitor UPS’s
development and implementation of RFID in their daily business. The success
that UPS and other major shipping companies have will determine whether or not
it is practical for The Shipping Crew to develop a similar RFID system.
Our RFID strategy will be largely based on what our customer’s primary needs
are. RFID will be implemented in a process that is beneficial to us but also to our
customers. We will start planting RFID chips onto packages in select markets.
The future success of our RFID coverage will be based largely on the success of
our test shipments. These shipments will include mainly large packages, as well
as irregularly shaped ones. However these tests will also include a series of
shipments containing packages we receive on a daily basis. Our RFID testing
would not be complete without a thorough analysis of the results. Understanding
and putting the information we learn from each test into our standard operation is
a primary concern for The Shipping Crew.
The Shipping Crew’s potential business plans will have a strong influence in
RFID development. We see RFID as the identification system of the future, for
not only the shipping industry, but for many other markets as well. We will have a
continued presence in multiple RFID labs throughout the country. Our investment
in these firms will be a significant part of future product planning. Although we will
have a passive approach to the current RFID market, our business plans in the
long term will include a major emphasis on RFID. Such an approach should give
us a better idea of how RFID technology can be used in the most beneficial way.
Our main focus will always be the customer; their experience with The Shipping
Crew is the number one priority. By introducing new technologies to this loyal
customer base, we should be able to improve their shipping experience.
Developing these technologies will make The Shipping Crew run at a level that is
not only more efficient but also more secure.
Another major market The Shipping Crew plans to enter into is the Interaction
between suppliers and major retail stores. Wal-Mart a leading retailer will be
setting mandates to all suppliers to have RFID labels on all packages being
shipped into their stores. This is where The Shipping Crew comes into play. We
plan to enter this market with RFID labeled shipping containers, which should
improve security of all deliveries. If we can run a fail proof shipping business,
demand for our services will increase. The amount of commercial retailers in just
the United States alone is a massive market. The RFID market in just shipping is
projected to be worth three billion dollars by the year 2016.
Not only will all deliveries have packages that contain RFID labels, but our
transportation vehicles will all be RFID enabled as well. The Shipping Crew will
have the ability to monitor all routes of each individual delivery vehicle. For
example, if an RFID enabled semi-truck just happened to make a wrong turn on
a delivery, we would have the ability to locate the vehicle as well as give him
proper instruction on his successful return to the delivery route. This technology
will increase the success of deliveries and will decrease the amount of lost and
missing packages. We will place RFID devices on all transportation vehicles
including vans, trucks, all train cargo, airplanes, and sea shipments. One of our
first implementations of RFID will be installing it onto these shipping vehicles.
With the success of our pilot tests as well as the continued development of RFID
technology we plan to expand our RFID capabilities into a daily operation.
IdTechEx predicts that in the year 2020, the postal/courier service industry will
have over one trillion packages labeled with RFID capabilities. During this same
time frame The Shipping Crew will work with the RFID labs into developing an
affordable device that can be used in mass quantities. Our growth as a company
will be largely based on the success of RFID’s future development. Another one
of our primary competitors, DHL, has talked of plans of up to ten years to tagging
one billion packages annually. At The Shipping Crew our strategy is similar to
DHL’s, with an ever increasing presence of RFID in daily operations.
Letter of Transmittal
November 21, 2005
Information Technology Students and Staff,
Here is the report you requested for November 21, 2005 on the uses of RFID and
how it fits into our emerging technology as a society.
After viewing all angles of RFID’s potentials in our shipping industry,
implementation of the RFID/EPC tags will create a stronger market in the
shipping-reviewing supply system. The idea of a faster and easier tracking
system for you, the customer, creates an advancement into future identification
The careful analysis of our business solution to overcoming the problems that
exists in barcode tracking are examined in the above report. Included in the
analysis is evidence confirming our determination to revamp the commercial and
retail markets. Especially in Wal-Mart’s shipping industry.
Recommendations and leaders in the active pursuit of RFID advancement have
promoted a growing forefront of investments. You should be sure to review our
plans for a national supply of RFID in Wal-Mart stores. Although our plans for
RFIDs future have taken on some critical steps to thinking “ahead of the curve,”
RFID will soon become a popular phrase in technology.
Results of the business report have continued to strengthen our ideas. I would
like to take this time to take this time to thank all the leaders in the forefront of
RFID technology, such as UPS and Wal-Mart. The strength of our team’s
different skills has created a recommendation that will be hard to turn down.
Investments should continue to increase awareness of RFID’s and result in a
solid customer baseline.
The Shipping Crew
“When one door closes another door opens; but we so often look so long and so
regretfully upon the closed door, that we do not see the ones which open for us.”
Alexander Graham Bell
I. Purpose of Project
1. To research RFID in the shipping world
2. Provide a detailed report on the advancements, achievements,
concerns and issues pressing the issue of RFID.
II. Decision Making
1. All members have a voice and will be listened to.
2. Everyone will be entitled and encouraged to give ideas because
five heads are better than one.
3. Decisions will be made by consensus within group
III. Team Leader and Structure
1. A team leader and secretary will be chosen for each meeting
2. The team leader is expected to be prepared to discuss
assignments due, progress of project, and everyone still on task.
3. The secretary is responsible for taking notes.
4. After a meeting a e-mail will be sent out giving an overview of
meeting and what the next step will be.
IV. Meeting Attendance Policy
1. After class on Monday and Wednesday, we will meet to discuss
2. Attendance is mandatory unless given prior notification member will
be unable to meet.
V. Preparation and Performance
1. The American Heritage Dictionary defines quality as “having a high
degree of excellence.” This is expected from all members.
2. We are all adults and should act like one. Every member is
responsible for the task assigned and is expected to be prepared
and on time with assignments.
3. Everyone is responsible for their own actions but without 100%
participation it will reflect on all other members.
4. Each member is expected to be honest with themselves as well as
the rest of the group. Trust is a key element in any good working
5. Each member must work towards facilitating a positive learning
experience for all members of the group while keeping a good
sense of humor and keeping the group fun.
VI. Non-performance and Peer Review
1. Remember we are on the same team and need to work together
because we all are working towards the same goal.
2. We are all humans and sometimes can get carried away but also
everyone has feelings. So please be consensus of others opinions
3. Review of each product by an associate other than its creator to
insure an objective analysis
4. Accompany any product with source documentation and references
to verify accuracy
5. Check all quantitative data/analysis for accuracy
6. Incorporate feedback into products after the peer review process
VII. Project Requirements
1. System Analysis and Peer Evaluation
2. Web Page
3. System Presentation
4. All members will review the work and make sure the standard has
been upheld. All members are aware participation is mandatory for
5. Each member must also complete an Individual Assignment
VIII. Future Planning and Scheduling
1. Review materials periodically to determine next steps
2. Evaluate team at each meeting to ensure all associates are clear
on objectives and assignments
3. The team will review class notes and assignments together to
insure all associates have a thorough understanding of all material
IX. Meeting Schedule
X. Team Signatures
I, the undersigned, do agree to abide by the above mission statement and
team guidelines. I understand that the Team Operating Agreement may be
changed at any time by a consensus of team members and notification of Mr.
1. Access Possibilities. (2005). HID Unveils Industry-leading Corporate
Principles & Practices to enhance RFID privacy. Retreived Nov. 13, 2005
2. EETIMESUK. (2005). Global Mail Services Seen as new Frontier for RFID.
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3. ID Tech Ex Article. (2005). RFID Update from Wal-Mart. Retrieved Nov. 13,
2005 from http://www.idtech.com/products/en/articles/00000313.aspx
4. Information Week. (2004). UPS Puts RFID To The Test. Retreived Nov. 13,
2005 from http://www.informationweek.com/story/ShowArticle.jhtml?
5. Supply & Chain: Manufacturing & Logistics Solutions. (2005). RFID Shipping-
Seal Test a Success. Retrieved Nov. 13, 2005 from http://www.scs-
1. RFID Industry Solutions. (2004). RFID Frequencies Tutorial. Retrieved on
Nov. 10, 2005 from http://www.symbol.com/category.php?category=719
2. RFID UHF Tag Inlays. (2005). RFID Tag Inlays. Retreived on Nov. 13, 2005
3. RFID Industry Solutions. (2004). RFID in Warehouse Distribution in the
Supply Chain. Retrieved on Nov. 10, 2005 from
4. United Parcel Service (UPS). (2005). The Four Pillars of UPS RFID Strategy.
Retrieved Nov. 9, 2005 from
5. United Parcel Service (UPS). (2005). Business Benefits from Radio
Frequency Identification. Retreived Nov. 9, 2005 from
6. United Parcel Service (UPS). (2005). RFID Information. Retreived Nov. 9,
2005 from http://www.barcodebook.com/html/rfid_information.html
7. United Parcel Service (UPS). (2005). RFID: The Next Generation of
Enterprise Mobility. Retreived Nov. 9 2005 from