Fall Design Review:

Fitness Identification Tracking (FIT) System




                  Submitted to
           Professor ...
Abstract

Statistics from the National Center for Health show that 30% of U.S. adults (over 60 million people) are
obese a...
Heart Rate Monitor

The FIT System will track heart rate using active electrodes with circuitry that will filter and sampl...
prototype will be designed for the Milwaukee School of Engineering’s newest fitness facility, the Kern
Center, the product...
system several days a week; about 30% stated they would use it one day a week; and only 17% responded
that they would not ...
Features Respondents Indicated they would desire in the FIT System

                          35

                        ...
•   Heart Rate Zone Calculator- Determines the target heart rate range for a given age and resting
       heart rate
   • ...
FIT System House of Quality Diagram




                                                                                  ...
Concluding Thoughts

The FIT System is the future of fitness monitoring; it is a single system to keep track of multiple p...
There are several types of modulation techniques that are used to transmit signals including several
different variations ...
own set of RFID standards, which is an Electronic Product Code standard called Class One, Generation
Two, or C1, G2. Wal-M...
Analysis



Block Diagram



                ECG electrodes         Heart Rate Monitor                Signal Conditioning ...
FIT System Software
                                                       Start LabVIEW
     Flow Chart                  ...
Programming & Simulations

Even without owning the RFID or heart rate hardware, the programming can begin using simulation...
c) Stop Workout Tab Option




                                      d) Generate Report Tab Option

  FIGURE 6: Front Pane...
The next step of the programming is to use the buttons in the upper right hand corner of the screen to
simulate when a run...
Timeline




           FIGURE 7: Timeline for the completion of the FIT System design project




Budget
                ...
FIGURE 8: Predicted budget requirements for the FIT System design project




                                            ...
Works Cited

1.     YMCA. 23 Sept. 2005. <http://www.ymca.com/>.

2.     Division of Nutrition and Physical Activity. Nati...
Aim, Inc. (1998/99). Radio frequency identification – RFID a basic primer. Retrieved September 30,
       2004.
       htt...
-. "Suunto t6 Team Pack.” Suunto. 29 April 2005. <http://www.suunto.com>.

-. "Suunto X6HR Wristtop Computer Review.” Feed...
WEIGHT REFERENCES:

Mackenzie, Brian. "Facts about Fat.” Sports Coach. 5 Nov. 2004
             <http://www.brianmac.demon...
Grant Applications

-.“Grant Application Basics.” National Institute of Health. 11 May 2005 13 May 2005.
       <http://ww...
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FINAL_Fall Design Review Report_9-14-2006.doc

  1. 1. Fall Design Review: Fitness Identification Tracking (FIT) System Submitted to Professor Larry Fennigkoh Milwaukee School of Engineering Milwaukee, Wisconsin Submitted by Design Team 04001: Scott Bugenhagen – Engineer Pamela Duda – Assistant Project Manager Nicole Gregor – Project Manager Dan Shefchik – Engineer BE 404 Section 001 September 15, 2006
  2. 2. Abstract Statistics from the National Center for Health show that 30% of U.S. adults (over 60 million people) are obese and 16% of U.S. children and teens (over 9 million people) are overweight. Being overweight increases the risk of diseases and health conditions such as hypertension, type II diabetes, coronary heart disease, stroke, gallbladder disease, osteoarthritis, sleep apnea, respiratory problems, and some cancers. The development of a system that would encourage people to exercise regularly and in a healthy, controlled manner would help to reduce obesity. To be effective, the system must be easy to use, and kept in an accessible area. The Fitness Identification Tracking (FIT) System will be one of the best ways for novice and professional athletes alike to track and record their exercise advancements, and ensure that exercise is not only effective, but also controlled and healthy. The Fitness Identification Tracking (FIT) System will count and record the number of laps, lap times, energy expenditures and heart rates of runners on an indoor track. Radio frequency identification (RFID) will be used to accurately record the time of each lap. Heart rate data will be obtained via a custom built chest strap and the data will be sent continuously via wireless to a nearby laptop which will then store it for later calculations. The heart rate will also be continuously updated on the large display as the runner is working out. Since the distance of each lap is predetermined, average velocity will also be calculated using the time of each lap. A large display will show the time, heart rate and distance run for each athlete. The data on the display will be kept confidential by displaying only the confidential user names created by the athletes upon their first use of the system. Physiological and performance data will be available on the laptop for easy access upon entrance of the correct confidential user name and password. Upon completion of the workout, users may view their data in graphical and tabular form. A survey confirmed an interest in the product among potential users. The use of radio frequency identification distinguishes the FIT System from other similar systems which use pedometers. The advantage of radio frequency identification is that it is more accurate than pedometers which rely on stride length which varies with speed, steepness, etc. The goal of the FIT System is to encourage exercise by monitoring performance and physiology. The energy expenditure display will help users to eliminate obesity, which increases the risk of hypertension, Type II Diabetes, and coronary heart disease. Implementation of the FIT System, will afford users the ability to exercise in a controlled and healthy manner. Project Description A radio-frequency-identification (RFID) -based system, the Fitness Identification Tracking (FIT) System, will be developed and tested in order to provide performance trending and an increased awareness of the physiological effects of running. It will be implemented in indoor running tracks to count/record athlete laps, lap times, energy expenditures and heart rates. In order to monitor the physiological constituents of a track runner, the FIT System will be composed of four unique elements: a large display, a chest strap, RFID system, and computer software. Lap times will be monitored by the RFID reader, which controls the antennas to detect the tags. When the reader detects a tag crossing the antenna it sends the tag ID to the computer through a serial cable. Once the laptop has this information it will calculate the lap number and time. The laptop will then send the lap number and time to the large display. RFID technology will create an accurate means of monitoring the exact velocity of the runner based on the known distance of the track and the extremely accurate account of the moment the runner crosses a fixed RFID antenna mat, which is the competitive feature of our product. 2
  3. 3. Heart Rate Monitor The FIT System will track heart rate using active electrodes with circuitry that will filter and sample the ECG signal. This circuitry will be connected to a RF system that will wirelessly transmit only the heart rate of the user to the laptop. This wireless system will allow the FIT System to continuously monitor the heart rate of the runner throughout the entire workout. The program will then save this information into the runner’s file for later calculations. RFID Component The RFID tag will be encoded with it own identification number, so that the each time the runner crosses the mat the specific tag identification will be recorded. Passive tags will be implemented since they are cost effective, light weight and can easily be read by the readers. Furthermore, passive tags have a limited specific range dependent on the fixed location of the antenna and power of the reader. The passive tags will attach to the lower part of the body, such as on the ankle or foot via shoelaces or an ankle strap. Each tag will be encased in plastic to reduce sweat damage and allow easy sanitation. The antenna will be in the form of a floor mat so that it will be within the range of the tags. FIT System Database The final and most complex component of the FIT System is the computer software database. In the interest of user confidentiality, each FIT System user is required to create a unique, confidential user name and password. Each user must log into the FIT System database with his/her unique user name and password prior to each workout to enter the number of the RFID tag and heart rate monitor he/she will be using, and at any time to access the final workout summary. The user name is also used to display the user’s data on the large display confidentially throughout the workout session. Coaches and/or personal trainers may have access to specific athletes’ data only upon the strict legal agreement of the athletes involved. At the time of a user’s first workout, after creating a user name and password, each user will be required to enter his/her height and weight for calculation purposes. A user is only prompted to enter his/her height and weight during the initial set-up of his/her account, but the height and weight of a user can be changed at any time by the user upon logging in to the FIT System. The data obtained from the specified heart rate monitor and RFID tag will be stored in the database during the workout under the user’s account. After a workout is complete, the user may log into the FIT System database and view his/her final workout summary. The FIT System completes calculations including: target heart rate, average heart rate per lap, number of laps, average time per lap, average speed per lap, mile time, energy expenditure and total distance run. The output data will be displayed in tabular format, with heart rate, and time per lap also displayed in graphical form. Market Analysis Project Market Potential The FIT System lends itself well to implementation in any exercise facility with a large amount of users such as middle school, high school and college training facilities or private and public health clubs such as YMCA facilities. There are over 2,400 YMCA facilities alone in the United States and 40 million youth and families worldwide take advantage of YMCA services.1 This large number of exercise facility users indicates the presence of a demand for access to sports fitness technology. While the FIT System 3
  4. 4. prototype will be designed for the Milwaukee School of Engineering’s newest fitness facility, the Kern Center, the product could easily be implemented in other facilities as well. Additionally, this downtown Milwaukee location will provide easy access to many other future areas of implementation. The ease of use of the product, and the valuable biometric data it provides, will undoubtedly spur many other training facilities to desire incorporation of the FIT System in their running tracks. Competitive Advantages The FIT System offers a novel approach to fitness monitoring that will quickly outshine the current competition. The majority of the current technology used for fitness monitoring is for single users only, and is most often self-contained in a watch. Companies such as Polar, Suunto, and Nike all currently have watches on the market that allow the user to track his/her progress via heart rate, calorie counters, and lap times. The two main downfalls of the current fitness monitoring products are that they are expensive and many are not computer compatible, which severely limits their ability to process and store data. One of the foremost advantages of the FIT System is that there will be almost no limit to the amount of data that can be stored for each runner. Also, our system will be able to support several runners at one time and will be capable of having room for hundreds of runners’ information on one computer. Other advantages to the system include wireless transfer of heart rate data and access to physiological data upon completion of the workout. This contrasts sharply with the software included with some of Suunto’s watches which require users to connect the watch to a computer after each workout to prevent information from being over-written during the next use. Other patents that are currently on the market use pedometers to track distance. The accuracy of distance recorded by pedometers can be negatively affected by the user’s stride which can vary. The FIT System uses RFID technology to obtain an accurate measurement of distance and time. Also, other patents use GPS in the watches to record distance accurately but users are required to buy the entire system and connect it to the computer in order to transfer the information. The GPS systems are as expensive as 350 dollars per watch, and most do not work indoors. Finally, there are other patents for wireless heart rate monitors built into treadmills, but they do not store any data. Patent Search To ensure the ingenuity of the FIT System, a thorough search of all existing patents was completed. The search was completed using the Milwaukee School of Engineering library resources, and was focused in two ways: one focus was on RFID monitoring of health/fitness; the other was on tracking patients and the like with RFID. Through this search, no patents were found that related to running tracks or lap counters/ timers. The patents that were found used pedometers or GPS technology for tracking the laps. No patents were found using RFID technology to track lap times on a running track. Patents were also found using RFID technology to track the location of patients and animals within facilities. Through this search, we are confident that the FIT System is a novel idea, and its creation will not result in any patent infringement. Survey of Potential Users In the spring of 2005, a survey was distributed in order to evaluate interest in the FIT System among a random sampling of the student body and athletic coaches at the Milwaukee School of Engineering (MSOE). The goal of the survey was to determine: if there was interest in the system; what features were most important to potential users; and if additional features would be beneficial to the user. Over 83% of the respondents said “yes” when asked “Would you be interested in using an exercise tracking system in the Kern Center?” About 53% of the respondents stated that they would use the 4
  5. 5. system several days a week; about 30% stated they would use it one day a week; and only 17% responded that they would not use the system at all (FIGURE 1). The survey confirmed that there would be support for such a system at MSOE. FIGURE 1: Pie Chart representations of the survey results indicating interest in the FIT System and its probable usage. There was also a section of the survey to explore the design options each respondent would like to see included in the FIT System. This section was very useful in our design because it helped dictate the aspects of the FIT System that we concentrated on. The responses from this section were tabulated for easy analysis (FIGURE 2) 5
  6. 6. Features Respondents Indicated they would desire in the FIT System 35 30 Number of Respondants 25 20 15 10 5 0 HR Distance Calories Speed/lap Weight Speed Avg. Heart Calorie Distance Lap Average Clock Blood Audible Performance Performance Charts Rate Counter Meter Counter Speed Pressure HR Graphs Monitor Zone FIGURE 2: Bar graph representation of the features survey respondents indicated they would desire in the FIT System Based only on the group of respondents that indicated they would use the FIT System, the most requested feature was a distance meter (86.67%), followed by the heart rate monitor (73.33%) and the clock (70.00%). The least favored feature was an audible heart rate zone alert (20.00%). The results were used to complete the process of quality function deployment (QFD), and to create a house of quality. Quality Function Deployment (QFD) / House of Quality Through the process of quality function deployment (QFD), a House of Quality was constructed using the survey data to compare the desires of the customer with the requirements of the design, and the cost of the design features. The house of quality was used as a feasibility and marketing tool for the design of the FIT System. The first step in determining the users’ expectations of the FIT System was the formation of a list of potential product attributes. The list of “user wants” was installed in a House of Quality diagram (FIGURE 3). The potential “user wants” are listed and developed below. • Lap Counter- Counts each instance when the runner crosses a designated position • Average Speed Calculator- Determines the average speed of each lap based on the time of each lap and a predetermined length of lap • Odometer- Measures the distance the runner traveled based on the number of laps and predetermined length per lap • Clock- Standard time • Running Timer- Measures the time elapsed since the runner began • Lap Timer- Measures time elapsed between crossing the designated position 6
  7. 7. • Heart Rate Zone Calculator- Determines the target heart rate range for a given age and resting heart rate • Blood Pressure Monitor- Measures blood pressure not during exercise • Heart Rate Monitor- Determines heart rate during exercise • Calorie Counter- Calculates the number of kilocalories burned during exercise • Weight Monitor- Allows user to obtain weight • Performance Analysis- Outputs evaluation of exercise • Compatibility with Other Equipment- Ability of system to be implemented with others • Low Cost- Price to manufacture, develop, test • Water/Sweat Proof- Ability to withstand humidity, spills, sweat, etc. • Safe to Use- No harmful effects to the user • Lightweight- How portable the system is and how light it weighs • Recyclable Materials- Effects on the environment The “user wants” listed above were given a priority rating based on the survey results. The “user wants” were related to the methods of the supplier listed below. • Chart • Graph • Beeper • Digital Display • Message Box • Wristwatch • RFID Tag • RFID Mat • Computer Software • Statistical Analysis • Metal Heart Rate Plate • Scale The following symbols relate the supplier methods to the user wants in the roof of the house of quality. + Strong Relationship o Weaker Relationship x Adverse Relationship The line labeled “Priority Importance” determines the importance of each method by adding designated values of the symbols, with (+ = 3), (o = 1), and (x = -1). 7
  8. 8. FIT System House of Quality Diagram Metal Heart Rate Plate Computer Softwate Statistical Analysis Digital Display Message Box Wrist Watch RFID Tag RFID Mat Beeper Printer Graph Scale Chart Lap Counter 12 Average Speed Calculator 13 Odometer 17 Clock 15 Running Timer 2 Lap Timer 3 Heart Rate Zone Calculator 4 Blood Pressure Monitor 10 Heart Rate Monitor 16 Calorie Counter 11 Weight Monitor 5 Performance Analysis 9 Low Cost 7 Water/Sweatproof 8 Safe to Use 18 Light Weight 14 Recyclable Materials 6 Compatibility with Other Equipment 1 Priority Importance 12 11 4 11 1 7 16 11 22 7 4 0 0 Weighted Importance 116 104 21 106 4 75 163 121 178 59 77 -6 2 FIGURE 3: FIT System House of Quality 8
  9. 9. Concluding Thoughts The FIT System is the future of fitness monitoring; it is a single system to keep track of multiple people’s activity while allowing individual use. Also, the information will be stored entirely on a computer, increasing storage capacity. The FIT System’s user-oriented intuitive design contrasts sharply with many watches that are currently available which have small screens and include user manuals that must be read to understand and operate all of the functions. Also, other companies currently offer only single-user watches complete with software. This means that the cost for a heart rate monitoring system is very high for each individual. The FIT System, being an integrated system, will allow individual users to use the system for little or no cost aside from membership to the facility in which it was implemented. Social and Environmental Impact The FIT System will encourage healthy lifestyles by monitoring performance and reducing obesity. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, data from the National Center for Health Statistics shows that 30 percent of U.S. adults (over 60 million people) are obese and 16 percent of U.S. children and teens (over 9 million young people) are overweight. Being overweight increases the risk of diseases and health conditions such as hypertension, dyslipidemia, Type II Diabetes, coronary heart disease, stroke, gallbladder disease, osteoarthritis, sleep apnea and respiratory problems, and some cancers.2 Additionally, the increasing number of overweight and obese individuals has adverse economic effects on individual, state and national levels. A study indicated that 9.1 percent of the total U.S. medical expenditures in 1998, reaching as high as $78.5 billion were due to weight problems. Approximately half of the costs were paid by Medicaid and Medicare.3 By providing an output of calorie expenditure, the FIT System will aid users who wish to lose weight, thereby simultaneously increasing the health of users and potentially lowering medical costs. If the FIT System is implemented at an early age, young people will become aware of the direct correlations between energy expenditure, heart rate, and exercise, which will lead to healthy lifestyle choices. This increased insight could ultimately reduce childhood, teenage and adult overweight and obesity problems. Current statistics show that 33 percent of all high school students are not engaging in recommended amounts of physical activity.4 By implementing the FIT System, people of all ages will enjoy the benefits of a healthy active lifestyle. Background Research Radio Frequency (RF) Technology A critical component of our system involves the transfer of heart rate (HR) data from the ECG heart rate monitor (HRM) to our database. Preferably, this data transfer would have been implemented as an extension of our RFID reader, but realistically this would not be possible due to limitations with the technology. The only practical way to transfer HR data to the database would be to implement a discrete RF wireless system. Wireless transmission of HR data would allow lap number and lap time data to be synchronized to HR data. Also, most wireless RF modules are able to transmit data through ranges of several hundred meters. This would be sufficient to cover the area of the Kern Center running track. Many commercially available RF wireless modules provide high performance with minimal testing and development. Once the heart rate signal is properly conditioned, it would be a simple matter of connecting the output of our HRM to the RF module via a serial connection. 9
  10. 10. There are several types of modulation techniques that are used to transmit signals including several different variations of analog and digital techniques. Digital modulation is currently the most popular among commercial RF modules due its absence of distortion. Of the different variations of digital modulation, frequency-shift-keying (FSK) is most common because of its simplicity and because it is robust to interference. Phase-shift-keying (PSK) is also commonly used, but tends to be more complicated and expensive. There are also several different operating frequencies from which to choose. Many of the available wireless standards, including WiFi and Bluetooth, operate at frequencies of 2.4 GHz or 5.8 GHz to allow for maximum data transmission rates. However, the HR signal that would be transmitted in our system does not contain a large amount of information which means that the slower transmission rates provided by modules operating in the 902 – 928 MHz unlicensed band would be adequate for our needs. An advantage of modules operating in this band is that they tend to have longer ranges and are generally less expensive -- two desirable characteristics for this application. RFID Technology Lap times will be recorded and sent to the FIT System computer database using RFID technology. The RFID reader will be connected to the computer via a serial cord. The reader is the “brains” of the entire RFID system. Passive RFID readers are based off of a technology that utilizes backscatter modulation to transmit the data. The reader generates a high power magnetic field (on the order of a watt) that is able to provide power to the passive tag. The tag antenna picks up this field and induces a voltage causing it to wake up. The tag then alternately shorts and opens the antenna causing the backscatter modulation that carries the data to the reader. Because the coupling is essentially near field, the read range is much shorter than RF systems. The more powerful the reader the greater the power it provides to the antennas, which will increase the range of the antennas. The readers come in multiple operating frequencies, the most common being 125 kHz and 13.56 MHz. Systems operating at lower frequencies offer a significant cost advantage, but lack critical features including anti-collision capability and long range performance. Higher frequency systems offer these features, but are considerably more expensive. Second only to the readers, the antenna is the most critical component of a functional RFID system. Antennas will be connected to the reader and placed on the track for the runner to run across. Range can be further enhanced through the use of high speed multiplexers that allow multiple antennas to be used at the same time. Antennas can be custom made to the size that is desired, however, extra or larger antennas require more powerful readers to run. In conclusion, the way the RFID portion of the FIT System will work is that the runner will have a tag on his/her shoe. When the shoe passes the antennas, which are connected to the reader, the tag will be read and the reader will tell the computer through a serial cable which tag has just gone over the antennas. STANDARDS RFID Standards There is no single universally accepted set of standards for RFID technology. There are, however, quite a few standards that an RFID system can utilize. Compilation of the different standards into one universal system that can be used and shared has not yet been completed which is why most of the current RFID systems are closed systems. The different types of standards that are currently in place have been set by the ISO (International Standards Organization) and the Universal Code council has also been a leading figure in this debate. Although, they are not the single authority, it could even be said that Wal-Mart has come up with their 10
  11. 11. own set of RFID standards, which is an Electronic Product Code standard called Class One, Generation Two, or C1, G2. Wal-Mart’s use of this technology is so large that their demands on the market have encouraged companies to build to their specifications. The main standard that is followed for RFID is the electronic product code (EPC) which is a standard that deals with the tracking of goods by placing RFID tags on vehicles carrying the goods. There are currently many different classes of tags that fall under the EPC global umbrella. The difference between Class 0 and 1 is in the data structure and the operation of the tags. Class 0 tags are read only which means they can not transmit the information that is on them. The only thing that is done with these tags is that the reader reads the information that is on them and then it knows what is going in and out of the stores or warehouses. A Class 1 tag is a one-time writable. This means that you could put information on the tag only once and cannot write over the tag. The tag is passive and holds a minimum of 96 bits. The zero class tags have 64 bits of memory, but come with the bits already permanently encoded and unable to be changed. The class two tags are read/write tags meaning they can have information written to them, and the same information read off of the tag by the user. Class two tags are still passive tags with a 96 bit minimum memory. The class three tag is a read/ write tag with battery power to enhance its range. The class three tag type is semi-active, meaning it cycles between being on and off, allowing it to transmit information, but still conserve battery power. Class four is a read/ write active transmitter. It is constantly on, and therefore is constantly transmitting data and never conserving battery power. Class four tags are also larger and more expensive than the other RFID tags. While the standards for RFID technology were researched for this project, all of the components used in the FIT System will be bought from companies that manufacture RFID components, and will therefore automatically already meet the necessary specifications. Heart Rate Monitor Standards The original design for the FIT System included incorporating an off-the-market heart rate monitor into the system. Research has shown that obtaining a heart rate monitor that only provides heart rate data (without any additional calculations of calories etc) will be nearly impossible. Therefore, research on the standards required for building the heart rate monitor will be conducted during the Fall of 2006, as the idea of building the heart rate monitor is relatively new to the project design. 11
  12. 12. Analysis Block Diagram ECG electrodes Heart Rate Monitor Signal Conditioning Wireless Transmission PC database Excel spreadsheet and 13.65 MHz Transponder 50Ω Gate Antenna Receiver LabVIEW program Microsoft Data Link graphs Serial Data Interface LED Display μ-Controller UART Interface RF Transmitter Antenna RF Receiver UART to USB interface Filtering Amplification Comparitor (interference & drift filtering) FIGURE 4: Preliminary block diagram for the FIT System 12
  13. 13. FIT System Software Start LabVIEW Flow Chart program Main Menu Begin Workout Stop Workout Generate Report If New User is Y Verify password Verify password pressed Retrieve data and display in table Y Pop-up to obtain Pop-up to instruct Query DB height, weight, user to transmit according to user age HR data and date range Y Y If Forward is N pressed Send New User Y HR calculations Create maximized data to DB performed Excel report N Y Y Y N If Back is pressed Y If Past User is User data sent to If Forward is pressed DB pressed N Y N If End is pressed Pop-up to collect If Forward is If back is RFID number pressed pressed N N N If Forward is If Back is If End is Wait pressed pressed pressed N N N If Back is If End is pressed pressed Wait 1 min. N N If End is Wait 1 min. pressed Y N Wait 1 min Y Y Y End Program FIGURE 5: Flow chart for the FIT System Database Software 13
  14. 14. Programming & Simulations Even without owning the RFID or heart rate hardware, the programming can begin using simulations. The front panel of the program has been created and is shown in FIGURE 6. This front panel organizes the users’ options in a clear and concise manner. A tab control will be used to organize the options. Selection of the main tab displays what would be seen on a large display if the necessary funding were available. When the user presses the forward arrow, the Begin Workout tab displays allowing the user to register his/her RFID tag and update personal information such as weight, height, and age. Once the user completes the workout, he/she can scroll to Stop Workout in order to stop timing after the last lap. Finally, the user may choose Generate Report in order to create an Excel report showing all data stored within the selected range of dates. After one minute of no activity, the program will display Main so that other users may view their updated information. a) Main Tab Option b) Begin Workout Tab Option 14
  15. 15. c) Stop Workout Tab Option d) Generate Report Tab Option FIGURE 6: Front Panel Screenshots Showing Tab Options: a)Main b)Begin Workout c)Stop Workout d)Generate Report Some of the basic features have already been programmed. For instance, the blue arrows in the upper right hand corner of each tab will navigate through the tab control such that pressing the forward arrow in the Main menu will show Begin Workout. The End Program button in the lower right hand corner will abort the program when it is run in LabVIEW and it will close the application when in the stand-alone executable format. On the Begin Workout tab, the New User option creates a username and password that will be stored in the database. After pressing Create New User, a pop-up allows the user to enter their height, weight, and age to be stored in the database. Subsequently, a second pop-up allows the user to input his RFID tag number which gets inserted into a shift array that will store the data for later use within the program itself. When a user presses Submit Password on the Past Users option, the password is compared to the stored password. If it is not valid, the user is notified and must re-enter the proper password before continuing. If the password is valid, a pop-up allows the user to enter his RFID tag number which will be stored in the array. 15
  16. 16. The next step of the programming is to use the buttons in the upper right hand corner of the screen to simulate when a runner crosses the RFID mat. This will cause the username, date, lap number, lap time, and running time to be clustered and sent to a second shift array simulating a runner crossing the RFID reader. Upon completion of the workout, the user will re-enter his/her password and the data in the shift arrays will be removed from the arrays and sent to the database. The Generate Report option must also be completed using the Report Generation functions provided by LabVIEW. Once the heart rate hardware is obtained, code will be added to instruct the user how to transmit the data and the information will be analyzed and sent to the database in a separate table. 16
  17. 17. Timeline FIGURE 7: Timeline for the completion of the FIT System design project Budget 17
  18. 18. FIGURE 8: Predicted budget requirements for the FIT System design project 18
  19. 19. Works Cited 1. YMCA. 23 Sept. 2005. <http://www.ymca.com/>. 2. Division of Nutrition and Physical Activity. National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion. 23 Sept. 2005. <http://www.cdc.gov/nccdphp/bb_nutrition/index.htm>. 3. Overweight and Obesity: Economic Considerations. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 23 Sept. 2005. <http://www.cdc.gov/nccdphp/dnpa/obesity/economic_consequences.htm>. 4. Exercise/Physical Activity. National Center for Health Statistics. 24 Sept. 2005. <http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/fastats/exercise.htm>. All References RFID ARTICLES REFERENCES Heim, K. (2004, Oct). Razing the bar code; Radio frequency identification, or RFID, devices have the potential to transform business and sow the seeds of the next technology wave; [Fourth Edition- Electronic Version]. Seattle Times, C.1. Melcer, R. (2003, Mar). New security system combines biometrics with radio-frequency identification [Electronic Version]. Knight Rider Tribune News Service, pg. 1. World’s first smart RFID medication bottle [Electronic Version]. (2004, Mar). Canada Newswire, pg.1. Jerney, J. (2004, Apr). Tag me: The world of radio frequency identification [Electronic Version]. The Daily Yomiuri, pg. 1. Deleney, K.J. (2002, Sep). Beyond bar codes: Radio id tags may soon be placed in every product imaginable [Electronic Version]. Wall Street Journal (Europe), R.3. Seattle marathon runners tracked in real time with Texas Instruments’ RFID technology [Electronic Version]. (2000, Nov). Business Wire, pg. 1. RFID INFORMATIVE REFERENCES Savi Technologies. Active and passive RFID: Two distinct, but complimentary, technologies for real-time supply chain visibility (Part 1). Retrieved September 30,2004. http://search.globalspec.com/goto/PDFViewer?pdfURL=http%3A%2F%2Fwww%2Eautoid%2Eo rg%2F2002%5FDocuments%2Fsc31%5Fwg4%2Fdocs%5F501%2D520%2F520%5F18000%2D7 %5FWhitePaper%2Epdf Savi Technologies. Active RFID: Selecting the optimal frequency for global applications (Part 2). Retrieved September 30, 2004. http://search.globalspec.com/goto/PDFViewer?pdfURL=http%3A%2F%2Fwww%2Eautoid %2Eorg%2F2002%5FDocuments%2Fsc31%5Fwg4%2Fdocs %5F501%2D520%2F520%5F18000%2D7%5FWhitePaper%2Epdf 19
  20. 20. Aim, Inc. (1998/99). Radio frequency identification – RFID a basic primer. Retrieved September 30, 2004. http://www.aimglobal.org/technologies/rfid/resources/papers/rfid_basics_primer.asp Aim, Inc. (2000, July). Draft paper on the characteristics of RFID-systems. Retrieved September 30, 2004. http://www.aimglobal.org/technologies/rfid/resources/RFIDCharacteristics.pdf Aim, Inc. What is radio frequency identification (RFID)? Retrieved September 30, 2004. http://www.aimglobal.org/technologies/rfid/what_is_rfid.asp Existing Products Booth-Thomas, Cathy. “The See-It-All Chip.” Time.com. 9/22/03. Time, Inc. 10/5/04. <http://www.time.com/time/globalbusiness/article/0,9171,1101030922-485764,00.html>. ChampionChip. ChampionChip. 10/5/04. <http://www.championchip.com/home/index.php>. “RFID Race Timing Systems Pamphlet.” 11/02. RFID Race Timing Systems. 10/5/04. < http://www.rfidtiming.com/RFID_Race_Timing_Systems.pdf>. RFIDtalk.com. 10/5/04. Jelsoft Enterprises, Limited. 10/5/04. <http://www.rfidtalk.com>. Maney, Kevin "Club Health Integrated Personal System." USA Today. 9 May 2005. <http://www.usatoday.com/printedition/money/20041222/5b_maney_22.art.htm>. -. "Physi-Cal Mio Select Heart Rate Monitor." REI. 29 April 2005. <http://www.rei.com>. -. "Physi-Cal Mio Sport Heart Rate Monitor Watch." REI. 29 April 2005. <http://www.rei.com/product/47860832.htm?>. -. "Physi-Cal Mio Wave Heart Rate Monitor Watch." REI. 29 April 2005. <http://www.rei.com>. -. "Polar F1 Heart Rate Monitor." REI. 29 April 2005. <http://www.rei.com>. -. "Polar S120.” mapworld. 29 April 2005. <http://www.mapworld.co.nz/s120.html>. -. "Polar S410.” mapworld. 29 April 2005. <http://www.mapworld.co.nz/s410.html>. -. "Polar S610.” mapworld. 29 April 2005. <http://www.mapworld.co.nz/s610.html>. -. "RFID White Paper." Coridian Technologies. 5 May 2005. <http://www.coridian.com>. -. "Suunto Foot Pod.” Suunto. 29 April 2005. <http://www.suunto.com>. -. "Suunto n6HR.” Suunto. 29 April 2005. <http://www.suunto.com>. -. "Suunto t6.” Suunto. 29 April 2005. <http://www.suunto.com>. 20
  21. 21. -. "Suunto t6 Team Pack.” Suunto. 29 April 2005. <http://www.suunto.com>. -. "Suunto X6HR Wristtop Computer Review.” Feedthehabit.com. 29 April 2005. <http://www.feedthehabit.com/gear_reviews/suunto_x6hr.htm>. -.“Technology Development for Biomedical Applications.” National Institute of Health. 13 May 2005. <http://grants.nih.gov/grants/rfa-files/RFA-05-001.html>. Summary of Conference Proceedings: Concerns of RFID in Industry McGraw Hill Construction. E-Construction: Innovation. 2004. 18 Oct. 2004. <http://enr.construction.com/features/technologyEconst/archives/040621n.asp.> McGraw Hill Construction. Next Phase of Baggage Screening Goes In-line, Out of View. 2004. 18 Oct. 2004. <http://www.construction.com/NewsCenter/Headlines/ENR/20031215e.asp>. ProQuest. Precision Dynamics Corporation to Showcase Multi-Function RFID and Bar Code Reader at the smart Healthcare Conference. 2004. 4 Oct. 2004. <http://proquest.umi.com/pqdweb>. ProQuest. SeeBeyond and SBK Labs Announce Alliance Agreement to Develop on demand Composite Applications for RFID. 2004. 4 Oct. 2004. <http://proquest.umi.com/pqdweb>. RFID Journal. Frequently Asked Questions. 2004. 6 Nov. 2004. <http://www.rfidjournal.com/article/articleview/207>. Medical/Clinical Foundations and Discipline-Specific Literature HEART REFERENCES: -. "Aerobic Training." Netfit. 5 Nov. 2004 <http://www.netfit.co.uk/wkaer.htm>. Crupi, Jeffreyl. "Strengthening Your Heart." Teaching Pre K-8. Norwalk: Feb 2004.Vol. 34, Iss. 5; pg. 12. 18 October 2004. <http://gateway.proquest.com/openurl? url_ver=Z39.882004&res_dat=xri:pqd&rft_val_fmt=info:ofi/fmt:kev:mtx:journal&genre=article& rft_dat=xri:pqd:did=000000534825551&svc_dat=xri:pqil:fmt=html&req_dat=xri:pqil:pq_clntid=9 090>. Mackenzie, Brian. "Heart Rate Training Zones." Sports Coach. 5 Nov. 2004 <http://www.brianmac.demon.co.uk/hrm1.htm>. Mackenzie, Brian. "Maximum Heart Rate." Sports Coach. 5 Nov. 2004 <http://www.brianmac.demon.co.uk/maxhr.htm>. 21
  22. 22. WEIGHT REFERENCES: Mackenzie, Brian. "Facts about Fat.” Sports Coach. 5 Nov. 2004 <http://www.brianmac.demon.co.uk/fat.htm>. Mackenzie, Brian. “Fat Burning Zone." Sports Coach. 5 Nov. 2004 <http://www.brianmac.demon.co.uk/fatburn.htm>. Waehner, Page. "The Truth About the Fat Burning Zone." About. 5 Nov.2004 <http://exercise.about.com/cs/cardioworkouts/1/aa022601a.htm>. BLOOD PRESSURE REFERENCES: -. "Blood Pressure Chart." Netfit. 5 Nov. 2004 <http://www.netfit.co.uk/ty4.htm>. -. "Definition of Blood Pressure." 5 Nov. 2004 <http://www.icomm.ca/geneinfo/glos-b.htm>. -. "Definition of Blood Pressure." 5 Nov. 2004 <http://www.neurolab.jsc.nasa.gov/glossab.htm>. -. "Definition of Blood Pressure." 5 Nov. 2004 <http://www.niddk.nih.gov/health/diabetes/pubs/dmdict/A-E.htm>. Bulloch, John. "Workout Pressures." 365Gay. 5 Nov. 2004 <http://www.365gay.com/health/tech/110504tech.htm>. ENERGY USAGE REFERENCES: Mackenzie, Brian. "Energy Expenditure.” Sports Coach. 5 Nov. 2004 <http://www.brianmac.demon.co.uk/energyexp.htm>. Mackenzie, Brian. "Energy Pathways.” Sports Coach. 5 Nov. 2004 <http://www.brianmac.demon.co.uk/energy.htm>. Mackenzie, Brian. "Exercise Intensity & Energy Source.” Sports Coach. 5 Nov. 2004 <http://www.brianmac.demon.co.uk/ensource.htm>. Mackenzie, Brian. "Lactic Acid.” Sports Coach. 5 Nov. 2004 <http://www.brianmac.demon.co.uk/lactic.htm>. Mackenzie, Brian. "Muscle Types.” Sports Coach. 5 Nov. 2004 <http://www.brianmac.demon.co.uk/muscle.htm>. Mackenzie, Brian. "Oxygen Debt.” Sports Coach. 5 Nov. 2004 <http://www.brianmac.demon.co.uk/oxdebit.htm>. Mackenzie, Brian. "VO2 Max.” Sports Coach. 5 Nov. 2004 <http://www.brianmac.demon.co.uk/vo2max.htm>. 22
  23. 23. Grant Applications -.“Grant Application Basics.” National Institute of Health. 11 May 2005 13 May 2005. <http://www.niaid.nih.gov/ncn/grants/basics/basics_pf.htm>. RF/Wireless Technology LXE, Inc. (2003). RF/Wireless basics: An intro to wireless data collection networks, products, standards and solutions. Retrieved May 5, 2005. http://www.rmsomega.com/documents/White_Paper_RF_Basics.pdf#search='RF/Wireless %20Basics' McConnell, E. A. (2000). Wireless technology: Freedom to roam [electronic version]. Retrieved May 5, 2005.<http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qa3689/is_200009/ai_n8903946>. Montgomery, S. (2004). Wireless 101: Components of an embedded wireless link. Retrieved May 5, 2005. http://www.radiotronix.com/datasheets/W101-CEWL.pdf Montgomery, S. (2004). Wireless 101: Designing robust embedded wireless systems. Retrieved May 5, 2005. http://www.radiotronix.com/datasheets/W101-DREWS.pdf 23

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