College of Engineering
ECE U792 Electrical and Computer Engineering
Capstone Design 2
Advisor: Professor Meleis
According to the BADTansit report, although the vast majority of trains are on time,
more than 14,400 subway riders a day are inconvenienced by a delay or a mechanical
problem that forces them off broken trains. With these predicaments, purchasing a fare to
travel should be unnecessary worry.
In the current transportation system in order for commuters to use the subway, users are
made to purchase their Charlie Tickets from a machine. During rush hour, thousands of
commuters take the subway. This sudden overflow of users can cause a huge congestion
in the system. The last thing commuters would like to do is wait in long lines only to be
inflicted with a confusing purchasing system, in order to purchase their entry fare unto
the subway. The process of purchasing a Charlie card is seemingly simple and without
flaw to those of which it has become a customary interaction. Yet to those who are
unfamiliar with using this new system, a lack of simplicity and straightforwardness, has
added extended time to a process designed to reduce overall time. With our newly
composed system, commuters will find it very convenient to no longer have to wait in
long queues, but instead have the ability to simply walk through the turnstile and be
charged as they go.
Commuters who regularly travel during rush hour or at the conclusion of a large event
know about the frustration that comes with waiting in extended lines for prolonged
periods of time. The commute can become quite hectic and exceedingly time consuming.
Keeping this situation in mind, we created the FASTPASS system. This system takes its
inspiration from the EZ-pass system which is used in an automatic electronic toll
collection system for tolls. In contrast, the FASTPASS system is a system that provides
the public with an automatic electronic fare collection system for public transportation,
through the use of transponder tags (RFID tag). This system will reduce the wait time for
commuters and provide a more convenient way for paying and entering the subway.
The system consists of an RFID tag that is embedded in a transit card that a customer can
order online. As the customer passes through a designated system, a light will flash to
verify that the transaction is being approved and recorded to the user’s “FASTPASS”
account. The FASTPASS account then bills the users according to their payment option
of either a credit card or automatic deduction from a checking account, which can be
done with the help of any banking system.
Our system will also have an online web client that will allow users to create and update
their FASTPASS account through the use of any computer. This will mean that
consumers will no longer have to wait in lines to purchase a token or a Charlie Card. The
current systems that are in place require the purchase of Charlie tickets prior to entry in to
the subway. Since our system will no longer require consumers to stop and purchase a
Charlie card or ticket, it will prove to be much faster and more efficient than the system
presently in place. The FASTPASS system facilitates a faster, more efficient and a secure
The FASTPASS system will allow
for consumers to walk through a
turnstile without the need to of
adding value to their CharlieCard
or purchasing a CharlieTicket.
During rush hour the lines at
Automated Fare Machine become
extremely long and can cause long
time delays . With the FASTPASS
system , users will go online apply
for a FASTPASS card,
select the price plan and payment
option of their choice. The two price plans that Figure 1:
FASTPASS provides are “Price Plan” and “Pay As You Picture of FASTPASS
Go”. Figure 2 illustrates what a typical “Price Plan”
would look like. “Pay As You Go” plan would be more Price Plans
for the in-frequent user or someone that does not want to
pay for the $40 “Price Plan”. For the “Pay As You Go Cost ($) # of Fares
Plan”, the user will just add a monetary amount of their 40 25
choice. For example if the user decided to fund his/her 60 45
“Pay As You Go” account with $20, he/she will receive
10 fares, when fares are priced at $2. 80 70
As you can see “Pay As You Go” gives a user an equal 120 140
exchange, while “Price Plan” provides users a discounted
fare rate. Applying for a FASTPASS is a one time setup Figure 2:
and users will never have to come back to the FASTPASS Price Plans Chart
web-client if they chose1. Now the customers can avoid the
long line at the automated fare machine and simply walk through the turnstile with their
FASTPASS. The current prototype is setup to only detect a FASTPASS when it is
located on the right side of the person’s body when entering the turnstile. The
prototype is now configured that when the turnstile receives a single to unlock the
turnstile via a solenoid, it will remain unlock for three seconds or until a person walks
through the turnstile; whichever one that comes first. If an account is charged and the
person does not walk through the turnstile within the three seconds, the user will need to
have their FASTPASS re-recognized by the RFID Reader. This will result in the person
being charged again. After collecting and analyzing data collected on the current systems
in place in the MBTA, it was concluded that our system was much faster when it came to
walking through the turnstile.
The FAST PASS online tools (Web-client) provides many functions the will benefit both
the consumer and the transit authority. The web-client will allow consumers to obtain an
Linked payment options will replenish the FASTPASS account automatically. Prepay payment option
will require the user to log into their account and add value to their FASTPASS account once the account is
account history that tracks the time, date, station and turnstile where the FASTPASS has
been used. Consumers will also have the ability of changing payment plans and options
in addition to deactivating account in the case the FASTPASS is lost or stolen. For the
transit authority, the web-client provides the ability of changing fare prices and plans
with a click of a button. The web-client also provides the ability of producing reports
that will provide data that can be analyzed to improve train efficiency. The reports can
be complied up to the hour. With these reports, the transit authority will be able to derive
rush hour times for the different stations in addition to other important information. The
web-client also allows for the transit authority to deactivate and activate accounts for
their consumers in the case a FASTPASS is lost or found and/or then found. In our Parts
section later in the paper, you will find a cost break down of our working prototype and
cost of mass production of 1000 units.
The major components for our project are:
1. RFID Tag
2. RFID reader and Antenna
The first and major task was to select the appropriate RFID tag for our application. The tag was
chosen with respect to the optimum size, cost and frequency of the tag. Each tag contains a
specific identification number which distinguishes it from the other tags. Hence, when a person
carrying the tag passes through a designated system, the identification number of the tag is
detected by the reader’s antenna.
Tag Frequency Chart
The second important component was to select a RFID reader. Similar to the RFID tag, the RFID
reader was also chosen with respect to size and compatibility with the tag (i.e. reading the same
frequency). An antenna that is connected to the reader detects the signal from the tag and the
reader then interprets the analog signal from the tag and converts into a hexadecimal. This reader
is connected to a computer through a RS-232 port (serial port).
The RFID tag communicates with the reader via wireless RF signals. The data that is gathered by
the reader will be sent to the middleware by a RS-232 (serial cable) using one of the outputs on
The third aspect for our project was to design the middleware. The RFID Middleware is simply
comprised of the Visual Basic identification and computational program, LabView, and the
system database. The Middleware is the main component to our system. The main aspects of our
system like identification of users, processing of accounts and management of the toll system take
place in the middleware. This database will consist of several different tables and each of these
tables will contain different information such as the customers account information, balance on
the tag and the security codes.
The next major component was the turnstile which consisted of the DAQ board, turnstile
controller, Locking solenoid, LED’s and locking switch. We had originally planned to build our
own turnstile to replicate the system placed by MBTA at various transit locations. However since
we got a turnstile donated for, we decided to build our system based on the current turnstile. In
this, the reader sends the signal to Labview which then opens a connection to the database. While
in the database, Labview looks for appropriate account and evaluates the funds a person has in his
or her account. If the commuter has more than $ 10, the commuter walks through the turnstile
with a green LED turned on. If the commuter has funds between $2 and $10 , he walks through
the turnstile with a yellow light turned on; and if a commuter has less than the actual fare
designated by the MBTA, then the commuter cannot walk through and a red light turns on. This
indicates that the commuter does not have sufficient funds to commute.
According to our system, a commuter would almost never be in a situation where the red LED is
turned on. This is because once a commuter comes across a yellow light, he will act accordingly
to make sure that the funds are not running low. This is also the reason we decided to import as
yellow light for FASTPASS so that commuters get an opportunity to put money in their account
before being unable to commute.
The final task of our project was to put together and test all our above tasks. Our project consists
of the following modules:
FASTPASS Top Level Block Diagram
The FASTPASS design is based on the use of passive RFID tags. These tags will allow
for lower costing and smaller capacity transit cards. Each tag is uniquely programmed
with its own specific identification tag number. This feature allows for distinguishing
between tags and establishing a database in which each tag is linked to its individual user
account. Hence, when a user with a FASTPASS card walks through the fare gate, the
RFID tag embedded within the FASTPASS card directly links to the users account within
the system database. After the user enters into the passageway of the turnstile, the
FASTPASS tag is then detected by the reader antenna mounted on the fare gate. The
reader antenna acts as a conduit between the tag and the RFID reader. The antenna
generates a Radio Frequency field, which covers an area within the approximate range of
one foot. Upon movement of the user within the antenna’s designated response field, the
RFID reader in connection to the antenna receives the signal and sends it to the system
middleware. This information is sent to a computer via a network cable that is connected
to the RFID reader. The hexadecimal code is then converted to a voltage output through
the use of software and a data acquisition board. The signal is then transmitted to the fare
gate in order to open and close the gate.
This signal is read by our Visual Basic software program then transferred and
crosschecked within the MySql database in order to confirm account validity and
sufficient funding within the account. Following the checking of the account a Results
Table is produced from which Labview determines what output function to perform in
response to the produced Results Table;
MIDDLEWARE FLOW CHART
The RFID MIDDLEWARE is the central component behind the FASTPASS system. It
processes and directs all information within the FASTPASS System. It is comprised of the
MySql software database in which all the account logic is accomplished through the use of our
Visual Basic coding. Incorporated into this structure is also a computer which acts as the host
server. The middleware system operates by acquiring the tag information from the reader. This
information is then relayed in hexadecimal format to our designed Visual Basic code. Visual
Basic then opens a connection to the MySQL Database and uses this acquired information to
crosscheck the following data within the MySql database; 1. Account validity 2. Payment
plan option and 3. Sufficient funding within the account. Following this check of the
account information a Results Table is produced within MySql with one of the following
results: 1. Green, 2. Yellow, 3. Red. This Results Table is then sent to our Labview
program. From this information Labview determines what output function to perform
The next stage of the process is the transmittance of signal used to unlock the turnstile. If the
Results Table produces either green or yellow, two high signals are sent from Labview to the
DAQ board. The DAQ then converts these two signal inputs into two independent 5V dc outputs.
The first output voltage is used to activate the corresponding LED indicators. The second output
voltage is used for unlocking the turnstile. If the result is RED, one high signal is sent to the
DAQ board which is converted to a 5V signal used to activate the RED LED only. The DAQ
board then waits for a return signal(a high signal of 1) from the turnstile indicating a user has
entered through the turnstile. This return signal is then sent from the DAQ to Labview. Once the
high signal is recognized by LabView, LabView will send a command to the DAQ board which
resets the board and then closes its serial connection to the DAQ board. Once the connection has
been closed the “Results” table is deleted. If the result is red, the DAQ sends out only one 5V
output to activate the red LED.
When looking up the funds within the database, two separate account types exist. One is
a Prepaid Account, in users place money into their account prior to usage. The second is a
Linked Account which allows users to link their FASTPASS accounts to their personal
credit card accounts. The Visual Basic coding then makes the deduction of the cost of the
fare from the user’s account. Once the system checks to see,if a deduction is possible, it
then goes on to verify if the statement “account funds is >= $10.00” after the deduction.
If the balance is greater than $10.00, Labview will send a signal to the gate that will
trigger a green light to unlock it. If the balance is between $2 and $9.99, Labview will
send a signal to trigger a yellow light. If the balance is less than $2 Labview will send a
signal to trigger a red light.
LED Indications Turnstile Action Account Value Standing After
1 Green Light Unlocks the turnstile Account value standing > $10
2 Yellow Light Unlocks the turnstile $2 < Account value standing < $10
3 Red Light Does not unlock turnstile Account value standing < $2
LED Indication Chart
In the case of a linked account, if the user specifies a “pay as you go” plan, the
FASTPASS system will charge the amount entered by the user to their credit cards
whenever the account reaches low. In the case of a price plan, the FASTPASS system
charges the amount of money according the price plan the user has choosen. Whenever a
signal is sent from the computer telling the fare gate to unlock, a record will be kept
within the database. It records the date, time, location, and fare gate number of passage.
When a customer purchases a FASTPASS through the web-interface, the customer has
the flexibility of using their credit card to purchase a linked account, or they can choose
to attain a prepaid account. Once the customer has an account, they can view their
FASTPASS account information, check transaction history, as well as make and modify
their payment plans. For the business side of the website, companies will have the ability
to modify options such as changing prices of the train fare, viewing traffic flow
information, and log time usage of tags throughout the duration of the day. These
beneficial features make FASTPASS a concept that proves valuable, not only to its public
users but also its corporate users as well.
Our approach to improving the current transit system in the Metropolitan Boston was
directed towards obtaining a solution for frequent transit delays due to long lines
resulting from purchasing the fare. The installation of electronic toll-collection systems in
the form of E-Z pass system has helped traffic move faster through the past years.
Keeping this in mind we produced the FASTPASS system.
Our system is very similar to the EZ-PASS system for tolls. In the FASTPASS system
commuters will carry an RFID tag embedded in a transit card. The card is automatically
detected by the reader in the system when a commuter walks through a turnstile. In our
opinion, with the use of this technology and system structure, the excessive amounts of
traffic caused in subway systems by the current existing systems can be greatly
To support our theory of a better and smoother system we decided to conduct three
different experiments to determine the time it takes to enter the subway. The first
experiment we conducted analyzed how long it took customers to purchase a Charlie card
or ticket. The second experiment we conducted analyzed how long it takes for a customer
to walk through a turnstile. The third experiment we conducted analyzed the time it takes
when purchasing a Charlie ticket or card and then entering the subway turnstile. This
process can be fairly quick depending whether or not there was a line at the Charlie ticket
machine. We gathered thirty data points for each of the experiment to get a good sample
of all the different times of the day (rush and non-rush hour). We collected this data last
summer when the Charlie card had just been launched and commuters were still very
much accustomed to the token system.
TESTS Rush Hour Non Rush Hour End of Red
(Summer) (Summer) Sox Game
CharlieTicket Token CharlieTicket Token Token
Purchasing Fare 66.1s 15.13s 40.8s 11.6s 21.43s
Walking Through 4.35s 3.28s 4.683s 3.13s 18.26s
Total Proces s 74.11s 20.26s 59.148s 18.26s 42.07s
Data obtain in summer
The following data table presents samples taken this spring. We decided to gather sample
data points for a second time because commuters now are comparatively aware of the
Charlie system. They know how to use the system better than they did the previous
TESTS Rush Hour Non Rush Hour FASTPASS
(Spring) (Spring) (Spring Actual)
CharlieCard/ CharlieCard/ FastPass Tag
Purchasing 47.96s 42.08s 210.91s*
Walking 3.86s 3.35s 2.42s
Total Process 64.8s 57.93s 213.33s
Data obtain spring
After gathering the data, we decided to focus on the turnstile that we received from the
MBTA. Our main objective was to design a circuit that would receive and send signals to
the turnstile. We had to duplicate the signal sent out by the coin comparator to the
solenoid in order for the turnstile to be open or closed. This was an important part in the
process because we were building our system based on the MBTA’s turnstile system
rather than developing our own unique turnstile structure.
When a reader reads the tag, a signal is sent to laptop which already has Labview in it.
Labview opens the connection to the database and looks for results table where it checks
the amount the commuter has in his or her account. Depending on the amount of funds in
the account the appropriate signal is sent out to a DAC board which lights the appropriate
LED. Our next task was to design the Labview schematic and transition it to work in
series with our DAQ board. The main database was being designed on MySql
simultaneously during the making of these two parts.
Our project is exactly where we had planned it to be. However there are some aspects of
the design that we would have liked to improve. Due to financial constraints we weren’t
able to purchase a reader with a higher frequency. The higher the frequency the more
expensive a reader and its tag are. We would have liked to utilize active tags instead of
passive tags allowing for a larger reading range. Another aspect of our design that we
could have improved was to increase the range of the reader by building an external
antenna for it. The external antenna would have made the detection by the reader very
precise. Currently the system makes sure that the tag is read as long as the tag is stored
anywhere on the right side of the body. This is because the in-built antenna on the reader
is placed on the right side of the turnstile. The external antenna would have made
detection possible if the tag were to be carried on any part of the body.
Prototype Mass Production
Components Units Cost Total Cost Units Cost Total Cost
RFID (Passive) TAG 5 Free Free 1000 0.38 $380
RFID Reader and Antenna 1 $499 $499 1000 $499 $499,990
Relay DSI -M_DC 1 $4 $4 1000 $2.769 $2,769
LED 3 $5 $15 1000 $0.72 $720
LED Covers 3 $5 $15 1000 $0.99 $990
555 Timer 1 Free $0 1000 $0.15 $150
Webserver 1 Free $0 1 Free $0
DAQ Board 1 Free $0 1000 $137.75 $137,750
Labview 8.0 1 Free $0 1 1200.00 $1200
Sub Total $533 $643,949
Turnstile $644/Tu rnstile
Visual Basic 1 Free $0 station Free $0
(Laptop for protoype; Dell 1 per
power edge for production) 1 Free $0 station 345.00 345.00
MySQL 5.0 1 Free $0 1 Free $0
Turnstile 2 Free $0 N/A N/A N.A
Cost Breakdown Chart
1) We used RFID tags from GAO RFID Inc. The tags used were given to us in
tandem with our RFID package consisting of the RFID Antennae and Reader,
at no charge. For large scale production these tags would incur a cost of $0.70
cents when purchased individually and $0.38 when purchased in quantities of
2) The RFID Reader and Antennae package cost $499 per individual unit and is
not sold at a discounted price for bulk purchases.. This reader was with
respect to its compatible with the RFID tags. Also its added capability to read
Multi-protocol identification codes without cross-interference, meaning it has
the ability read all protocols independently regardless of their position relation
to other tags (anti-colliding).
3) The Relay was purchased from Panasonic Corp at an individual cost of $4.25
and a unit cost of $2.79 per 1000. This was used to convert the 5V dc input
into a 15V dc output
4) The 555 Timer we received free from the ECE laboratory. This component
can be purchased from National SemiConductor for a price of $0.15 per
1000units. Here our timer is used to help capture and extend the return signal
sent by the turnstile in order to allow for effective response by the DAQ
5) The Laptop and the MySQL database were supplied by our team members
and. A similar Laptop system can be acquired for $345 from DELL, where as
the MySQL software is free to the public.
6) The Data Acquisition board was supplied to us through a third party for free.
It can be purchased by its manufactures RMV ELECTRONICS. The cost per
unit is $137.50 per units of 1000.
7) The LABVIEW 8.0 software was supplied to us by a team member and thus
was free. It can be purchased from National Instruments for $1200 per
8) The Turnstiles were donated to our group by the MBTA. The actual cost
would be dependent upon what make and model the user chooses to
implement into their system
ActiveWave, Incorporated., Accessed June 18th 2006,
Bad Transit, Accessed March 8, 2007, http://www.badtransit.com/index.php?/P1830/
Chipsilicon 2004, Accessed June 20th 2006,
Dowla, Farid. Handbook of RF and wireless technologies . Amsterdam; Boston:
Fastlane, Accessed June 1st, 2006.
How It Works, EZ Pass. Accessed May 21st 2006.
How It Works, SpeedPass. 2006, Accessed May 21st, 2006.
HowStuffWorks Inc., “How EZ Pass Works” 2002, Accessed May 23rd 2006,
I.T. WORKS - Radio Frequency Identification Info, Accessed May 25th 2006,
Jameco, 2006, Accessed June 6th 2006,
"New ISO 15693 compliant ICODE Smart Label IC." Philips Semiconductors. Accessed June
20th 2006 http://www.semiconductors.philips.com/news/identification/articles/articles/a16/
"RFID JOURNAL; RFID Tags and Readers." RFID Journal
LLC. 20 June 2006 http://www.rfidjournal.com/article/articleview/512/1/1/
"RFID applications." Accessed June 20th 2006,
System ID RFID, 2006, Accessed May 29th 2006, http://www.systemid.com/RFID/index.asp
Shepard, Steven. RFID : radio frequency identification / Steven Shepard. New
York: McGraw-Hill, 2005.
TI RFID, 2006, Accessed June 5th 2006, http://www.ti.com/tiris/default.htm?
TASK DATE WHO IS IN CHARGE
ORDER RFID TAG AND READER July 30 2006 Tenzin
GET RFID TAG AND READER TO WORK TOGETHER October 15 2006 Tenzin
TEST AND DEBUG RFID TAG WORKING WITH READER October 29 2006 Tenzin
FINISH DEVELOPMENT OF MIDDLEWEAR DATABASE September 4 2006 Justin
TEST AND DEBUG MIDDLEWARE DATABASE September 17 2006 Justin
INTREGRATE READER WITH MIDDLEWARE INCLUDING PROGRAMING November 19 2006 Tenzin & Justin
TEST AND DEBUG FROM RFID TAG TO MIDDLEWARE INCLUDING PROGRAMING Decmember 3 2006 Amir, James, Alex, Priyanka, Justin, Tenzin
SELECTION AND PURCHASE PROTOTYPE FAREGATE MATERIALS July 30 2006 Amir
BUILD PROTOTYPE FAREGATE Decemeber 3 2006 James & Amir
TEST AND DEBUG FAREGATE December 17 2006 James & Amir
DEVELOP FAREGATE PROGRAM December 31 2006 Priyanka, Alex, Amir, & James
TEST AND DEBUG FAREGATE PROGRAM January 7 2006 Priyanka, Alex, Amir, & James
DEVELOP WEBCLIENT FOR CUSTOMER AND BUSINESS USE December 31 2006 Justin
TEST AND DEBUG WEBCLIENT FOR CUSTOMER AND BUSINESS USE January 7 2006 Justin & Tenzin
INTREGRATE MIDDLEWARE WITH FAREGATE PROGRAM January 21 2006 Amir, James, Alex, Priyanka, Justin, Tenzin
TEST AND DEBUG MIDDLEWARE WITH FAREGATE PROGRAM Jaunary 28 2006 Amir, James, Alex, Priyanka, Justin, Tenzin
TEST AND DEBUG ENTIRE PROJECT FROM RFID TAG TO FARE GATE Feburary 25 2006 Amir, James, Alex, Priyanka, Justin, Tenzin
INTERGRATATION WEBCLINT WITH PROJECT FROM RFID TAG TO FAREGATE March 11 2006 Amir, James, Alex, Priyanka, Justin, Tenzin
TEST AND DEBUG WEBCLINT AND PROJECT TOGETHER March 25 2006 Justin, Tenzin, & Alex
COMPLETE FINAL PAPER AND POWERPOINT PRESENTATION April 1 2006 Amir, James, Alex, Priyanka, Justin, Tenzin
COMPLETE PROJECT AND MAKE LAST MINUNTE TOUCHES April 1 2006 Amir, James, Alex, Priyanka, Justin, Tenzin
PROJECT READY TO PRESENT April 6 2006 Amir, James, Alex, Priyanka, Justin, Tenzin
ADD ADDDITION FEATURES TO DATABASE ANALISES OF INFORMATION If time permits Justin
TEST AND DEBUG PROJECT AND ADDITION FEATURES ADD TO PROJECT If time permits Amir, James, Alex, Priyanka, Justin, Tenzin
Test Data Collected over the Summer
Letter to Director of Fast Lane
Director of Fast Line
115 Woodland Road
Southborough Ma, 01772
Hello Mr. Drewry
I am a Senior engineering student at Northeastern University. As part of the
curriculum, Seniors must complete the Capstone Project. For our Capstone Project,
my team and I have selected to develop a simulation sized system that is similar to
Fast Lane. The difference will be that instead of using an RFID tag to pay for a toll,
the consumer will use an RFID tag to pay for their train fare at stations where
turnstiles are in use. Like Fast Lane, we plan to develop a system that will allow for
the consumer to walk up to the turnstile with an RFID tag without stopping to insert a
coin or swipe a Charlie card. It will be one smooth motion since the consumer
walking towards the turnstile will not have to slow down or stop, which is similar to
how it works for a vehicle approaching a toll. My group would like to set up meetings
and interviews to ask questions with key personnel within the Engineering department
and/or other related departments and possibly obtain a behind the scenes view of how
the Fast Lane systems works.
Attached you will find a list of some of the questions we have in regards to the Fast
Lane system and an official letter from my team’s advisor describing the details of the
Capstone Project course.
I can be contacted at DalexDiaz@gmail.com or 978-804-2635. Thank you for your
time. I hope to hear from you soon.
Diogenes Alex Diaz
What is the average time for a car to pass through the Fast lane system? Is there a
difference in time between rush hour and non rush hours?
Once the RFID reader obtains a security code from the RFID tag, how does that
information transfer to the computer/database? What is the format in which the security is
received by the computer?
How is the information sent from the database back to the toll gate and signaling the
driver to “go”?
What type of RFID tags are used in the Fast Lane system? Who is the manufacturer of
How are the directions of the readable zones controlled in the Fast Lane System?
Minutes from Meetings
Minutes from meeting are Forest Hills 6/2/06 11:00 am
- Observed that new turnstiles has a 3 ft. rule
- Need to find out what Card ticket black box is
- There is and sensor on the out side (mostly likely for exit sensor)
Tried to speak to Elroy and was a not very friendly!!!!!!!!!!
Minutes form meeting with Professor Rappaport 6/2/06 12:30 pm
We should possible think about implementing our system on non-turnstile systems also
(for example bus door way)
- Possibly track when a person comes into a station and then track when they leave
station (will be good in tracking safe of people coming in and out, but down fall
will be that it can not be used by one card can not be used by multi people at one
entrance. Possible solution it to have outside sensor shut system down when
people are exiting)
- Need to think of constructive and destructive areas (emag) for antennas situation.
Prof. Rappaport mentioned that easy way to fix distance detection problem is to
- Should use wire at easy antenna
- The higher that freq. The easier to direct the bean of reader
Possible limitations of RFID tags to consider
- The more conducive that worst it is for RFID
- Air = 1
- Blood = 60
- Water =80
- Need to be mindful of body and water (but also keep in mind that signal will
eventually wrap around body)
- Body = 50
- Fatty tissue = 6 – 7
- Should go to train station and observe how people are getting pass turnstile
Possible other people to contact
- Engineering Tech
- Prof. Mousallei
- Mike McNeil
Meeting with MBTA Automatic Fare Collection Division 6/9/2006
Q: What traffic monitoring systems are currently in place?
A: The fare gates have 9 sensors. They work off different algorithms to determine the
people along with successful payments. Each fare gate has a unique identifier. It tracks
cards with no money and how many people are in the station
Q: Is there any additional features that you would like?
A: More flexible reporting capabilities. Statistical queries
Q: Is data transmitted in real time?
A: Yes data is transmitted in real time on the subway using a secure WAN.
- Amount of Debit/Credit transactions on machines is important
- Payment options should be monitored
- Would like some fare evasion system, the fare evasion system should be self
monitoring and the stations with bad levels of fare evasion would have added
- Charlie cards have a chip inside them that stores account info.
- They did a cost benefit analysis to determine if system should be implemented.
$200 million system.
- They believe the new system will increase rider-ship and decrease fare evasion.
- GENPLUS (Smart card producers)
- S&B located in Burlington
- Aggregate info – any info that doesn’t identify you as a person
- Just serial number is stored on the chip inside the smart card.
- Smart card should be implemented by January 2007
- Smart card has a security encryption key.