Northeastern University
        College of Engineering
ECE U792 Electrical and Computer Engineering
            Capstone D...
Table of Contents

Introduction………………………………………………………3

Design Specification………………………………………………4

Design Overview……………………………...
Introduction
According to the BADTansit report, although the vast majority of trains are on time,
more than 14,400 subway ...
Design Specifications

The FASTPASS system will allow
for consumers to walk through a
turnstile without the need to of
add...
account history that tracks the time, date, station and turnstile where the FASTPASS has
been used. Consumers will also ha...
The major components for our project are:
   1. RFID Tag
   2. RFID reader and Antenna
   3. Middleware
   4. Turnstile

T...
we got a turnstile donated for, we decided to build our system based on the current turnstile. In
this, the reader sends t...
The FASTPASS design is based on the use of passive RFID tags. These tags will allow
for lower costing and smaller capacity...
The next stage of the process is the transmittance of signal used to unlock the turnstile. If the
Results Table produces e...
Design evaluation

       10
Our approach to improving the current transit system in the Metropolitan Boston was
directed towards obtaining a solution ...
TESTS          Rush Hour          Non Rush Hour        FASTPASS
                    (Spring)           (Spring)           ...
PARTS
                                     Prototype                      Mass Production
      Components             Uni...
5) The Laptop and the MySQL database were supplied by our team members
   and. A similar Laptop system can be acquired for...
Bibliography/ references
ActiveWave, Incorporated., Accessed June 18th 2006,
http://www.activewaveinc.com/products_datasht...
Appendix




   16
Appendix A
Middleware Block diagram:




           17
Appendix B
                                                           Schedule
TASK                                       ...
Appendix C
Test Data Collected over the Summer




                19
RUSH HOUR                                                  NON-RUSH HOUR
          Ruggles from 6:30am to 7:30am          ...
STD       11.53      0.935261     12.9133273    4.78792        0.76489   7.43678339    4.78792      0.76489      7.4367834...
Average
 (secs)   92.833     4.3         87.4       39.2           4.4      60.8333333   40.8889   4.683333   59.148148
Me...
Sporting Event (After RedSox Game)
                Kenmore
                               Buying
                         ...
14.41188   13.688488   19.72683827




           24
Appendix D
Test Data Collected over the Spring




                25
Rush Hour                                    Non-Rush Hour
     Ruggles from 6:30am to 7:30 am Ruggles from 4:00pm to 6:00...
30     55       4         72        42        2          53        121         1.587      52
Average
 (sec) 47.2333    4.2...
Appendix E
                         FASTPASS Data Collection
         Timje to
         Walk
         Throught
         Tu...
Appendix D
                Letter to Director of Fast Lane
Denny Drewry
Director of Fast Line
115 Woodland Road
Southborou...
Questions

What is the average time for a car to pass through the Fast lane system? Is there a
difference in time between ...
Appendix E
                        Minutes from Meetings
Minutes from meeting are Forest Hills 6/2/06 11:00 am

   -   Obs...
-   Prof. Mousallei
    -   Mike McNeil


Meeting with MBTA Automatic Fare Collection Division 6/9/2006
2:00pm

Q: What tr...
33
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  1. 1. Northeastern University College of Engineering ECE U792 Electrical and Computer Engineering Capstone Design 2 Advisor: Professor Meleis Final Paper FASTPASS By Alex Diaz, Priyanka Pande, Amir Kahrim, James Souffrant, Tenzin Nyinjee, Justin Hermida
  2. 2. Table of Contents Introduction………………………………………………………3 Design Specification………………………………………………4 Design Overview……………………………………………….....6 Design Details…………………………………………………….8 Design evaluation………………………………………………...11 Parts……………………………………………………………...13 Bibliography……………………………………………………...15 Appendix………………………………………………………....16 2
  3. 3. Introduction According to the BADTansit report, although the vast majority of trains are on time, more than 14,400 subway riders a day are inconvenienced by a delay or a mechanical problem that forces them off broken trains. With these predicaments, purchasing a fare to travel should be unnecessary worry. In the current transportation system in order for commuters to use the subway, users are made to purchase their Charlie Tickets from a machine. During rush hour, thousands of commuters take the subway. This sudden overflow of users can cause a huge congestion in the system. The last thing commuters would like to do is wait in long lines only to be inflicted with a confusing purchasing system, in order to purchase their entry fare unto the subway. The process of purchasing a Charlie card is seemingly simple and without flaw to those of which it has become a customary interaction. Yet to those who are unfamiliar with using this new system, a lack of simplicity and straightforwardness, has added extended time to a process designed to reduce overall time. With our newly composed system, commuters will find it very convenient to no longer have to wait in long queues, but instead have the ability to simply walk through the turnstile and be charged as they go. Commuters who regularly travel during rush hour or at the conclusion of a large event know about the frustration that comes with waiting in extended lines for prolonged periods of time. The commute can become quite hectic and exceedingly time consuming. Keeping this situation in mind, we created the FASTPASS system. This system takes its inspiration from the EZ-pass system which is used in an automatic electronic toll collection system for tolls. In contrast, the FASTPASS system is a system that provides the public with an automatic electronic fare collection system for public transportation, through the use of transponder tags (RFID tag). This system will reduce the wait time for commuters and provide a more convenient way for paying and entering the subway. The system consists of an RFID tag that is embedded in a transit card that a customer can order online. As the customer passes through a designated system, a light will flash to verify that the transaction is being approved and recorded to the user’s “FASTPASS” account. The FASTPASS account then bills the users according to their payment option of either a credit card or automatic deduction from a checking account, which can be done with the help of any banking system. Our system will also have an online web client that will allow users to create and update their FASTPASS account through the use of any computer. This will mean that consumers will no longer have to wait in lines to purchase a token or a Charlie Card. The current systems that are in place require the purchase of Charlie tickets prior to entry in to the subway. Since our system will no longer require consumers to stop and purchase a Charlie card or ticket, it will prove to be much faster and more efficient than the system presently in place. The FASTPASS system facilitates a faster, more efficient and a secure service. 3
  4. 4. Design Specifications The FASTPASS system will allow for consumers to walk through a turnstile without the need to of adding value to their CharlieCard or purchasing a CharlieTicket. During rush hour the lines at Automated Fare Machine become extremely long and can cause long time delays . With the FASTPASS system , users will go online apply for a FASTPASS card, select the price plan and payment option of their choice. The two price plans that Figure 1: FASTPASS provides are “Price Plan” and “Pay As You Picture of FASTPASS Go”. Figure 2 illustrates what a typical “Price Plan” would look like. “Pay As You Go” plan would be more Price Plans for the in-frequent user or someone that does not want to pay for the $40 “Price Plan”. For the “Pay As You Go Cost ($) # of Fares Plan”, the user will just add a monetary amount of their 40 25 choice. For example if the user decided to fund his/her 60 45 “Pay As You Go” account with $20, he/she will receive 10 fares, when fares are priced at $2. 80 70 100 110 As you can see “Pay As You Go” gives a user an equal 120 140 exchange, while “Price Plan” provides users a discounted fare rate. Applying for a FASTPASS is a one time setup Figure 2: and users will never have to come back to the FASTPASS Price Plans Chart web-client if they chose1. Now the customers can avoid the long line at the automated fare machine and simply walk through the turnstile with their FASTPASS. The current prototype is setup to only detect a FASTPASS when it is located on the right side of the person’s body when entering the turnstile. The prototype is now configured that when the turnstile receives a single to unlock the turnstile via a solenoid, it will remain unlock for three seconds or until a person walks through the turnstile; whichever one that comes first. If an account is charged and the person does not walk through the turnstile within the three seconds, the user will need to have their FASTPASS re-recognized by the RFID Reader. This will result in the person being charged again. After collecting and analyzing data collected on the current systems in place in the MBTA, it was concluded that our system was much faster when it came to walking through the turnstile. The FAST PASS online tools (Web-client) provides many functions the will benefit both the consumer and the transit authority. The web-client will allow consumers to obtain an 1 Linked payment options will replenish the FASTPASS account automatically. Prepay payment option will require the user to log into their account and add value to their FASTPASS account once the account is running low. 4
  5. 5. account history that tracks the time, date, station and turnstile where the FASTPASS has been used. Consumers will also have the ability of changing payment plans and options in addition to deactivating account in the case the FASTPASS is lost or stolen. For the transit authority, the web-client provides the ability of changing fare prices and plans with a click of a button. The web-client also provides the ability of producing reports that will provide data that can be analyzed to improve train efficiency. The reports can be complied up to the hour. With these reports, the transit authority will be able to derive rush hour times for the different stations in addition to other important information. The web-client also allows for the transit authority to deactivate and activate accounts for their consumers in the case a FASTPASS is lost or found and/or then found. In our Parts section later in the paper, you will find a cost break down of our working prototype and cost of mass production of 1000 units. Design overview 5
  6. 6. The major components for our project are: 1. RFID Tag 2. RFID reader and Antenna 3. Middleware 4. Turnstile The first and major task was to select the appropriate RFID tag for our application. The tag was chosen with respect to the optimum size, cost and frequency of the tag. Each tag contains a specific identification number which distinguishes it from the other tags. Hence, when a person carrying the tag passes through a designated system, the identification number of the tag is detected by the reader’s antenna. Figure 3: Tag Frequency Chart The second important component was to select a RFID reader. Similar to the RFID tag, the RFID reader was also chosen with respect to size and compatibility with the tag (i.e. reading the same frequency). An antenna that is connected to the reader detects the signal from the tag and the reader then interprets the analog signal from the tag and converts into a hexadecimal. This reader is connected to a computer through a RS-232 port (serial port). The RFID tag communicates with the reader via wireless RF signals. The data that is gathered by the reader will be sent to the middleware by a RS-232 (serial cable) using one of the outputs on the reader. The third aspect for our project was to design the middleware. The RFID Middleware is simply comprised of the Visual Basic identification and computational program, LabView, and the system database. The Middleware is the main component to our system. The main aspects of our system like identification of users, processing of accounts and management of the toll system take place in the middleware. This database will consist of several different tables and each of these tables will contain different information such as the customers account information, balance on the tag and the security codes. The next major component was the turnstile which consisted of the DAQ board, turnstile controller, Locking solenoid, LED’s and locking switch. We had originally planned to build our own turnstile to replicate the system placed by MBTA at various transit locations. However since 6
  7. 7. we got a turnstile donated for, we decided to build our system based on the current turnstile. In this, the reader sends the signal to Labview which then opens a connection to the database. While in the database, Labview looks for appropriate account and evaluates the funds a person has in his or her account. If the commuter has more than $ 10, the commuter walks through the turnstile with a green LED turned on. If the commuter has funds between $2 and $10 , he walks through the turnstile with a yellow light turned on; and if a commuter has less than the actual fare designated by the MBTA, then the commuter cannot walk through and a red light turns on. This indicates that the commuter does not have sufficient funds to commute. According to our system, a commuter would almost never be in a situation where the red LED is turned on. This is because once a commuter comes across a yellow light, he will act accordingly to make sure that the funds are not running low. This is also the reason we decided to import as yellow light for FASTPASS so that commuters get an opportunity to put money in their account before being unable to commute. The final task of our project was to put together and test all our above tasks. Our project consists of the following modules: Figure 4: FASTPASS Top Level Block Diagram Design details 7
  8. 8. The FASTPASS design is based on the use of passive RFID tags. These tags will allow for lower costing and smaller capacity transit cards. Each tag is uniquely programmed with its own specific identification tag number. This feature allows for distinguishing between tags and establishing a database in which each tag is linked to its individual user account. Hence, when a user with a FASTPASS card walks through the fare gate, the RFID tag embedded within the FASTPASS card directly links to the users account within the system database. After the user enters into the passageway of the turnstile, the FASTPASS tag is then detected by the reader antenna mounted on the fare gate. The reader antenna acts as a conduit between the tag and the RFID reader. The antenna generates a Radio Frequency field, which covers an area within the approximate range of one foot. Upon movement of the user within the antenna’s designated response field, the RFID reader in connection to the antenna receives the signal and sends it to the system middleware. This information is sent to a computer via a network cable that is connected to the RFID reader. The hexadecimal code is then converted to a voltage output through the use of software and a data acquisition board. The signal is then transmitted to the fare gate in order to open and close the gate. This signal is read by our Visual Basic software program then transferred and crosschecked within the MySql database in order to confirm account validity and sufficient funding within the account. Following the checking of the account a Results Table is produced from which Labview determines what output function to perform in response to the produced Results Table; Figure 5 MIDDLEWARE FLOW CHART The RFID MIDDLEWARE is the central component behind the FASTPASS system. It processes and directs all information within the FASTPASS System. It is comprised of the MySql software database in which all the account logic is accomplished through the use of our Visual Basic coding. Incorporated into this structure is also a computer which acts as the host server. The middleware system operates by acquiring the tag information from the reader. This information is then relayed in hexadecimal format to our designed Visual Basic code. Visual Basic then opens a connection to the MySQL Database and uses this acquired information to crosscheck the following data within the MySql database; 1. Account validity 2. Payment plan option and 3. Sufficient funding within the account. Following this check of the account information a Results Table is produced within MySql with one of the following results: 1. Green, 2. Yellow, 3. Red. This Results Table is then sent to our Labview program. From this information Labview determines what output function to perform 8
  9. 9. The next stage of the process is the transmittance of signal used to unlock the turnstile. If the Results Table produces either green or yellow, two high signals are sent from Labview to the DAQ board. The DAQ then converts these two signal inputs into two independent 5V dc outputs. The first output voltage is used to activate the corresponding LED indicators. The second output voltage is used for unlocking the turnstile. If the result is RED, one high signal is sent to the DAQ board which is converted to a 5V signal used to activate the RED LED only. The DAQ board then waits for a return signal(a high signal of 1) from the turnstile indicating a user has entered through the turnstile. This return signal is then sent from the DAQ to Labview. Once the high signal is recognized by LabView, LabView will send a command to the DAQ board which resets the board and then closes its serial connection to the DAQ board. Once the connection has been closed the “Results” table is deleted. If the result is red, the DAQ sends out only one 5V output to activate the red LED. When looking up the funds within the database, two separate account types exist. One is a Prepaid Account, in users place money into their account prior to usage. The second is a Linked Account which allows users to link their FASTPASS accounts to their personal credit card accounts. The Visual Basic coding then makes the deduction of the cost of the fare from the user’s account. Once the system checks to see,if a deduction is possible, it then goes on to verify if the statement “account funds is >= $10.00” after the deduction. If the balance is greater than $10.00, Labview will send a signal to the gate that will trigger a green light to unlock it. If the balance is between $2 and $9.99, Labview will send a signal to trigger a yellow light. If the balance is less than $2 Labview will send a signal to trigger a red light. LED Indications Turnstile Action Account Value Standing After Transaction 1 Green Light Unlocks the turnstile Account value standing > $10 2 Yellow Light Unlocks the turnstile $2 < Account value standing < $10 3 Red Light Does not unlock turnstile Account value standing < $2 Figure 6: LED Indication Chart In the case of a linked account, if the user specifies a “pay as you go” plan, the FASTPASS system will charge the amount entered by the user to their credit cards whenever the account reaches low. In the case of a price plan, the FASTPASS system charges the amount of money according the price plan the user has choosen. Whenever a signal is sent from the computer telling the fare gate to unlock, a record will be kept within the database. It records the date, time, location, and fare gate number of passage. When a customer purchases a FASTPASS through the web-interface, the customer has the flexibility of using their credit card to purchase a linked account, or they can choose to attain a prepaid account. Once the customer has an account, they can view their FASTPASS account information, check transaction history, as well as make and modify their payment plans. For the business side of the website, companies will have the ability to modify options such as changing prices of the train fare, viewing traffic flow information, and log time usage of tags throughout the duration of the day. These beneficial features make FASTPASS a concept that proves valuable, not only to its public users but also its corporate users as well. 9
  10. 10. Design evaluation 10
  11. 11. Our approach to improving the current transit system in the Metropolitan Boston was directed towards obtaining a solution for frequent transit delays due to long lines resulting from purchasing the fare. The installation of electronic toll-collection systems in the form of E-Z pass system has helped traffic move faster through the past years. Keeping this in mind we produced the FASTPASS system. Our system is very similar to the EZ-PASS system for tolls. In the FASTPASS system commuters will carry an RFID tag embedded in a transit card. The card is automatically detected by the reader in the system when a commuter walks through a turnstile. In our opinion, with the use of this technology and system structure, the excessive amounts of traffic caused in subway systems by the current existing systems can be greatly decreased. To support our theory of a better and smoother system we decided to conduct three different experiments to determine the time it takes to enter the subway. The first experiment we conducted analyzed how long it took customers to purchase a Charlie card or ticket. The second experiment we conducted analyzed how long it takes for a customer to walk through a turnstile. The third experiment we conducted analyzed the time it takes when purchasing a Charlie ticket or card and then entering the subway turnstile. This process can be fairly quick depending whether or not there was a line at the Charlie ticket machine. We gathered thirty data points for each of the experiment to get a good sample of all the different times of the day (rush and non-rush hour). We collected this data last summer when the Charlie card had just been launched and commuters were still very much accustomed to the token system. TESTS Rush Hour Non Rush Hour End of Red (Summer) (Summer) Sox Game (Summer) CharlieTicket Token CharlieTicket Token Token Purchasing Fare 66.1s 15.13s 40.8s 11.6s 21.43s Walking Through 4.35s 3.28s 4.683s 3.13s 18.26s Turnstile/Fare Gate Total Proces s 74.11s 20.26s 59.148s 18.26s 42.07s Figure 7: Data obtain in summer The following data table presents samples taken this spring. We decided to gather sample data points for a second time because commuters now are comparatively aware of the Charlie system. They know how to use the system better than they did the previous summer. 11
  12. 12. TESTS Rush Hour Non Rush Hour FASTPASS (Spring) (Spring) (Spring Actual) CharlieCard/ CharlieCard/ FastPass Tag CharlieTicket CharlieTicket Purchasing 47.96s 42.08s 210.91s* Fare Walking 3.86s 3.35s 2.42s Thought Turnstile Total Process 64.8s 57.93s 213.33s Figure 8: Data obtain spring After gathering the data, we decided to focus on the turnstile that we received from the MBTA. Our main objective was to design a circuit that would receive and send signals to the turnstile. We had to duplicate the signal sent out by the coin comparator to the solenoid in order for the turnstile to be open or closed. This was an important part in the process because we were building our system based on the MBTA’s turnstile system rather than developing our own unique turnstile structure. When a reader reads the tag, a signal is sent to laptop which already has Labview in it. Labview opens the connection to the database and looks for results table where it checks the amount the commuter has in his or her account. Depending on the amount of funds in the account the appropriate signal is sent out to a DAC board which lights the appropriate LED. Our next task was to design the Labview schematic and transition it to work in series with our DAQ board. The main database was being designed on MySql simultaneously during the making of these two parts. Our project is exactly where we had planned it to be. However there are some aspects of the design that we would have liked to improve. Due to financial constraints we weren’t able to purchase a reader with a higher frequency. The higher the frequency the more expensive a reader and its tag are. We would have liked to utilize active tags instead of passive tags allowing for a larger reading range. Another aspect of our design that we could have improved was to increase the range of the reader by building an external antenna for it. The external antenna would have made the detection by the reader very precise. Currently the system makes sure that the tag is read as long as the tag is stored anywhere on the right side of the body. This is because the in-built antenna on the reader is placed on the right side of the turnstile. The external antenna would have made detection possible if the tag were to be carried on any part of the body. 12
  13. 13. PARTS Prototype Mass Production Components Units Cost Total Cost Units Cost Total Cost RFID (Passive) TAG 5 Free Free 1000 0.38 $380 RFID Reader and Antenna 1 $499 $499 1000 $499 $499,990 Relay DSI -M_DC 1 $4 $4 1000 $2.769 $2,769 LED 3 $5 $15 1000 $0.72 $720 LED Covers 3 $5 $15 1000 $0.99 $990 555 Timer 1 Free $0 1000 $0.15 $150 Webserver 1 Free $0 1 Free $0 DAQ Board 1 Free $0 1000 $137.75 $137,750 Labview 8.0 1 Free $0 1 1200.00 $1200 Sub Total $533 $643,949 $533/ Turnstile $644/Tu rnstile Additional Items 1 per Visual Basic 1 Free $0 station Free $0 Station Sever (Laptop for protoype; Dell 1 per power edge for production) 1 Free $0 station 345.00 345.00 MySQL 5.0 1 Free $0 1 Free $0 Turnstile 2 Free $0 N/A N/A N.A Total Figure ### $533 Parts cost Figure 9: Cost Breakdown Chart 1) We used RFID tags from GAO RFID Inc. The tags used were given to us in tandem with our RFID package consisting of the RFID Antennae and Reader, at no charge. For large scale production these tags would incur a cost of $0.70 cents when purchased individually and $0.38 when purchased in quantities of 1000, 2) The RFID Reader and Antennae package cost $499 per individual unit and is not sold at a discounted price for bulk purchases.. This reader was with respect to its compatible with the RFID tags. Also its added capability to read Multi-protocol identification codes without cross-interference, meaning it has the ability read all protocols independently regardless of their position relation to other tags (anti-colliding). 3) The Relay was purchased from Panasonic Corp at an individual cost of $4.25 and a unit cost of $2.79 per 1000. This was used to convert the 5V dc input into a 15V dc output 4) The 555 Timer we received free from the ECE laboratory. This component can be purchased from National SemiConductor for a price of $0.15 per 1000units. Here our timer is used to help capture and extend the return signal sent by the turnstile in order to allow for effective response by the DAQ board. 13
  14. 14. 5) The Laptop and the MySQL database were supplied by our team members and. A similar Laptop system can be acquired for $345 from DELL, where as the MySQL software is free to the public. 6) The Data Acquisition board was supplied to us through a third party for free. It can be purchased by its manufactures RMV ELECTRONICS. The cost per unit is $137.50 per units of 1000. 7) The LABVIEW 8.0 software was supplied to us by a team member and thus was free. It can be purchased from National Instruments for $1200 per individual unit 8) The Turnstiles were donated to our group by the MBTA. The actual cost would be dependent upon what make and model the user chooses to implement into their system 14
  15. 15. Bibliography/ references ActiveWave, Incorporated., Accessed June 18th 2006, http://www.activewaveinc.com/products_datasht_cardtag.html Bad Transit, Accessed March 8, 2007, http://www.badtransit.com/index.php?/P1830/ Chipsilicon 2004, Accessed June 20th 2006, http://www.automaticidentificationsystems.com/products.html. Dowla, Farid. Handbook of RF and wireless technologies . Amsterdam; Boston: Newnes, 2004. Fastlane, Accessed June 1st, 2006. http://www.massturnpike.com/travel/fastlane/index.html How It Works, EZ Pass. Accessed May 21st 2006. http://www.ezpass.com/static/info/howit.shtml How It Works, SpeedPass. 2006, Accessed May 21st, 2006. https://www.speedpass.com/forms/frmHowItWorks.aspx?pgHeader=how HowStuffWorks Inc., “How EZ Pass Works” 2002, Accessed May 23rd 2006, http://auto.howstuffworks.com/e-zpass2.html I.T. WORKS - Radio Frequency Identification Info, Accessed May 25th 2006, http://www.itworks.be/rescenter.php?topic=RFID&tab=info Jameco, 2006, Accessed June 6th 2006, http://www.jameco.com/webapp/wcs/stores/servlet/CategoryDisplay? storeId=10001&catalogId=10001&langId=-1&categoryId=351550 "New ISO 15693 compliant ICODE Smart Label IC." Philips Semiconductors. Accessed June 20th 2006 http://www.semiconductors.philips.com/news/identification/articles/articles/a16/ "RFID JOURNAL; RFID Tags and Readers." RFID Journal LLC. 20 June 2006 http://www.rfidjournal.com/article/articleview/512/1/1/ "RFID applications." Accessed June 20th 2006, http://www.semiconductors.philips.com/acrobat_download/other/identification/sl2ics0-fact- sheet.pdf. System ID RFID, 2006, Accessed May 29th 2006, http://www.systemid.com/RFID/index.asp Shepard, Steven. RFID : radio frequency identification / Steven Shepard. New York: McGraw-Hill, 2005. TI RFID, 2006, Accessed June 5th 2006, http://www.ti.com/tiris/default.htm? DCMP=TIHomeTracking&HQS=Other+OT+home_p_tirfid 15
  16. 16. Appendix 16
  17. 17. Appendix A Middleware Block diagram: 17
  18. 18. Appendix B Schedule TASK DATE WHO IS IN CHARGE ORDER RFID TAG AND READER July 30 2006 Tenzin GET RFID TAG AND READER TO WORK TOGETHER October 15 2006 Tenzin TEST AND DEBUG RFID TAG WORKING WITH READER October 29 2006 Tenzin FINISH DEVELOPMENT OF MIDDLEWEAR DATABASE September 4 2006 Justin TEST AND DEBUG MIDDLEWARE DATABASE September 17 2006 Justin INTREGRATE READER WITH MIDDLEWARE INCLUDING PROGRAMING November 19 2006 Tenzin & Justin TEST AND DEBUG FROM RFID TAG TO MIDDLEWARE INCLUDING PROGRAMING Decmember 3 2006 Amir, James, Alex, Priyanka, Justin, Tenzin SELECTION AND PURCHASE PROTOTYPE FAREGATE MATERIALS July 30 2006 Amir BUILD PROTOTYPE FAREGATE Decemeber 3 2006 James & Amir TEST AND DEBUG FAREGATE December 17 2006 James & Amir DEVELOP FAREGATE PROGRAM December 31 2006 Priyanka, Alex, Amir, & James TEST AND DEBUG FAREGATE PROGRAM January 7 2006 Priyanka, Alex, Amir, & James DEVELOP WEBCLIENT FOR CUSTOMER AND BUSINESS USE December 31 2006 Justin TEST AND DEBUG WEBCLIENT FOR CUSTOMER AND BUSINESS USE January 7 2006 Justin & Tenzin INTREGRATE MIDDLEWARE WITH FAREGATE PROGRAM January 21 2006 Amir, James, Alex, Priyanka, Justin, Tenzin TEST AND DEBUG MIDDLEWARE WITH FAREGATE PROGRAM Jaunary 28 2006 Amir, James, Alex, Priyanka, Justin, Tenzin TEST AND DEBUG ENTIRE PROJECT FROM RFID TAG TO FARE GATE Feburary 25 2006 Amir, James, Alex, Priyanka, Justin, Tenzin INTERGRATATION WEBCLINT WITH PROJECT FROM RFID TAG TO FAREGATE March 11 2006 Amir, James, Alex, Priyanka, Justin, Tenzin TEST AND DEBUG WEBCLINT AND PROJECT TOGETHER March 25 2006 Justin, Tenzin, & Alex COMPLETE FINAL PAPER AND POWERPOINT PRESENTATION April 1 2006 Amir, James, Alex, Priyanka, Justin, Tenzin COMPLETE PROJECT AND MAKE LAST MINUNTE TOUCHES April 1 2006 Amir, James, Alex, Priyanka, Justin, Tenzin PROJECT READY TO PRESENT April 6 2006 Amir, James, Alex, Priyanka, Justin, Tenzin ADD ADDDITION FEATURES TO DATABASE ANALISES OF INFORMATION If time permits Justin TEST AND DEBUG PROJECT AND ADDITION FEATURES ADD TO PROJECT If time permits Amir, James, Alex, Priyanka, Justin, Tenzin 18
  19. 19. Appendix C Test Data Collected over the Summer 19
  20. 20. RUSH HOUR NON-RUSH HOUR Ruggles from 6:30am to 7:30am Ruggles from 3pm to 6pm Ruggles from 7pm to 8pm Buying Buying Buying Token/CC Token/CC Token/CC Time To and Time To and Time To and Purchase Walk Through Walking Purchase Walk Through Walking Purchase Walk Through Walking Token Turnstile/Fare Through Token Turnstile/Fare Through Token Turnstile/Fare Through (secs) Gate (secs) (sec) (secs) Gate (secs) (sec) (secs) Gate (secs) (sec) 1 13 3 32 8 4 17 8 4 17 2 14 2 65 10 4 12 10 4 12 3 16 2 15 13 3 17 13 3 17 4 5 3 9 5 3.5 9 5 3.5 9 5 20 4 13 23 3 23 23 3 23 6 7 2 10 10 3 37 10 3 37 7 21 3 21 8 3 9 8 3 9 8 4 4 33 18 4.5 24 18 4.5 24 9 9 3 21 27 3 15 27 3 15 10 11 4 53 9 1.5 10 9 1.5 10 11 15 5 40 11 2 29 11 2 29 12 25 4 28 10 3 11 10 3 11 13 6 3 10 10 3 26 10 3 26 14 16 3 17 15 2 27 15 2 27 15 26 2 22 13 2.5 19 13 2.5 19 16 11 4 25 7 4 21 7 4 21 17 7 4 18 15 3 15 15 3 15 18 15 5 23 9 3.5 30 9 3.5 30 19 37 4 17 11 3 13 11 3 13 20 15 3 20 11 3 24 11 3 24 21 48 4 9 6 4 16 6 4 16 22 15 2 23 8 4.5 18 8 4.5 18 23 12 3 9 13 4 28 13 4 28 24 32 3 25 15 3 17 15 3 17 25 24 4 20 9 4 16 9 4 16 26 6 3 20 11 2 22 11 2 22 27 30 5 11 18 3 15 18 3 15 28 42 5 33 9 3 12 9 3 12 29 16 4 16 12 2 9 12 2 9 30 36 3 10 10 3 7 10 3 7 Average (secs) 18.467 3.433333 22.2666667 11.8 3.133333 18.2666667 11.8 3.133333 18.266667 Median 15 3 20 10.5 3 17 10.5 3 17 20
  21. 21. STD 11.53 0.935261 12.9133273 4.78792 0.76489 7.43678339 4.78792 0.76489 7.4367834 RUSH HOUR NON-RUSH HOUR Forest Hills from 6:30am to 8:30am Forest Hills from 3pm to 6pm Forest Hills from 8pm to 9:30pm Buying Buying Buying Token/CC Token/CC Token/CC Time To and Time To and Time To and Purchase Walk Through Walking Purchase Walk Through Walking Purchase Walk Through Walking Token Turnstile/Fare Through Token Turnstile/Fare Through Token Turnstile/Fare Through (secs) Gate (secs) (sec) (secs) Gate (secs) (sec) (secs) Gate (secs) (sec) 1 34 3 40 54 4 68 57 5 62 2 184 4 45 41 5 56 24 4 58 3 66 4 300 44 5 68 41 3 60 4 86 5 150 20 6 37 25 6 40 5 170 7 160 35 6 50 30 4 48 6 38 3 120 50 4 80 24 5 51 7 91 3 110 25 4 38 34 4 49 8 68 4 50 55 4 73 25 7 64 9 71 6 79 41 5 56 50 5 55 10 104 5 68 28 4 52 28 5 85 11 600 4 45 18 5 30 35 6 70 12 34 4 67 30 5 51 40 3 67 13 34 3 89 70 4 115 32 4 75 14 77 3 55 74 4 91 55 6 50 15 74 4 66 23 3 60 53 8 42 16 64 4 36 30 3 92 40 7 60 17 39 5 34 42 4 97 37 5 53 18 47 5 89 31 3 42 55 4 70 19 49 5 45 50 4 54 44 3 59 20 45 4 58 70 4 93 46 3 60 21 70 3 67 34 4 52 58 2.5 63 22 78 3 78 22 5 38 34 3 66 23 140 6 88 65 4 87 55 5 60 24 57 4 66 75 5 91 50 7 57 25 31 4 111 23 6 53 35 6 56 26 30 8 120 32 5 43 40 5 55 27 162 3 68 21 5 36 57 5 62 28 59 5 112 27 4 42 3 29 145 3 78 23 4 41 4 30 38 5 128 23 4 39 3 21
  22. 22. Average (secs) 92.833 4.3 87.4 39.2 4.4 60.8333333 40.8889 4.683333 59.148148 Median 67 4 73 33 4 53.5 40 5 60 STD 105.24 1.263547 52.2049013 17.713 0.813676 22.7218311 11.3995 1.465013 9.702116 22
  23. 23. Sporting Event (After RedSox Game) Kenmore Buying Token/CC Time To and Purchase Walk Through Walking Token Turnstile/Fare Through (secs) Gate (secs) (sec) 65 3 55 10 8 20 15 5 45 10 11 30 18 20 45 20 43 70 18 17 18 25 12 15 24 12 63 55 15 88 46 26 40 13 25 19 20 11 60 9 63 32 10 19 30 17 19 25 6 8 63 10 13 60 17 12 57 25 9 44 18 10 46 5 8 28 8 8 43 13 15 13 40 25 15 15 36 49 26 32 63 30 45 37 6 18 12 21.43333 18.266667 42.07407407 18 12.5 44 23
  24. 24. 14.41188 13.688488 19.72683827 24
  25. 25. Appendix D Test Data Collected over the Spring 25
  26. 26. Rush Hour Non-Rush Hour Ruggles from 6:30am to 7:30 am Ruggles from 4:00pm to 6:00pm Ruggles from 7:00pm to 8:00pm Purchase Purchase Fare and Fare and Time to Walk Purchase Fare Time to Walk Walk Walk Walk Purchase Throught and Walk Purchase Throught Throught Time to Throught Throught Fare turnstile Throught Fare turnstile Turnstile Purchase turnstile Turnstile (sec) (sec) Turnstile (sec) (sec) (sec) (sec) Fare (sec) (sec) (sec) 1 39 8 81 33 2 95 44.52 4.084 45 2 57 5 71 29 2 18 24 5.7 75 3 55 3 65 23 4 29 30 4.24 63 4 47 5 54 98 2 57 58 3.004 118 5 39 3 51 86 4 98 56 1.26 37 6 45 4 67 23 4 33 46 1.993 37 7 58 6 48 67 3 34 45 1.463 41 8 33 5 69 92 3 25 15 3.683 94 9 42 9 59 39 4 86 26 2.021 59 10 30 3 78 26 3 58 27 4.103 45 11 47 2 69 27 8 35 40 10.587 65 12 41 4 81 2 38 24 2.483 72 13 38 3 63 53 4 77 76 4.933 42 14 52 3 58 57 3 77 35 2.589 40 15 47 4 75 46 3 63 30 2.995 67 16 58 5 79 28 3 37 52 1.56 48 17 50 2 66 88 4 105 43 3.821 46 18 56 3 62 62 4 92 32 5.496 58 19 65 4 57 32 7 53 24 2.15 59 20 51 7 59 35 3 71 53 2.016 64 21 42 5 78 32 4 61 31 2.326 73 22 48 4 72 51 4 68 24 4.158 39 23 39 3 55 83 3 100 26 3.31. 45 24 46 3 88 66 8 78 40 2.293 56 25 37 6 77 45 2 61 37 3.923 61 26 49 3 82 45 2 64 30 3.807 63 27 58 4 69 30 2 45 42 3.078 49 28 52 3 59 34 5 77 80 3.826 52 29 41 3 57 40 2 79 51 2.113 73 26
  27. 27. 30 55 4 72 42 2 53 121 1.587 52 Average (sec) 47.2333 4.2 67.36666667 48.68966 3.5333333 62.23333333 42.084 3.354896552 57.93333 Median 47 4 68 42 3 62 38.5 3.004 57 STD 8.4269 1.669193 10.39059035 22.56119 1.655364 24.16706698 21.27337556 1.842642752 17.69265 27
  28. 28. Appendix E FASTPASS Data Collection Timje to Walk Throught Turnstile Using FASTPASS 1 2.47 2 1.8 3 2.79 4 2.79 5 2.92 6 2.65 7 2.97 8 2.38 9 3.15 10 2.38 11 2.02 12 2.79 13 2.07 14 3.1 15 1.89 16 2.43 17 2.38 18 2.25 19 2.25 20 2.7 21 2.56 22 2.16 23 2.07 24 2.29 25 1.93 26 2.16 27 1.98 28 2.42 29 2.38 30 2.64 Averag e (Sec) 2.425667 Median 2.38 STD 0.369952
  29. 29. Appendix D Letter to Director of Fast Lane Denny Drewry Director of Fast Line 115 Woodland Road Southborough Ma, 01772 Hello Mr. Drewry I am a Senior engineering student at Northeastern University. As part of the curriculum, Seniors must complete the Capstone Project. For our Capstone Project, my team and I have selected to develop a simulation sized system that is similar to Fast Lane. The difference will be that instead of using an RFID tag to pay for a toll, the consumer will use an RFID tag to pay for their train fare at stations where turnstiles are in use. Like Fast Lane, we plan to develop a system that will allow for the consumer to walk up to the turnstile with an RFID tag without stopping to insert a coin or swipe a Charlie card. It will be one smooth motion since the consumer walking towards the turnstile will not have to slow down or stop, which is similar to how it works for a vehicle approaching a toll. My group would like to set up meetings and interviews to ask questions with key personnel within the Engineering department and/or other related departments and possibly obtain a behind the scenes view of how the Fast Lane systems works. Attached you will find a list of some of the questions we have in regards to the Fast Lane system and an official letter from my team’s advisor describing the details of the Capstone Project course. I can be contacted at DalexDiaz@gmail.com or 978-804-2635. Thank you for your time. I hope to hear from you soon. Sincerely, Diogenes Alex Diaz 29
  30. 30. Questions What is the average time for a car to pass through the Fast lane system? Is there a difference in time between rush hour and non rush hours? Once the RFID reader obtains a security code from the RFID tag, how does that information transfer to the computer/database? What is the format in which the security is received by the computer? How is the information sent from the database back to the toll gate and signaling the driver to “go”? What type of RFID tags are used in the Fast Lane system? Who is the manufacturer of them? How are the directions of the readable zones controlled in the Fast Lane System? 30
  31. 31. Appendix E Minutes from Meetings Minutes from meeting are Forest Hills 6/2/06 11:00 am - Observed that new turnstiles has a 3 ft. rule - Need to find out what Card ticket black box is - There is and sensor on the out side (mostly likely for exit sensor) Tried to speak to Elroy and was a not very friendly!!!!!!!!!! Minutes form meeting with Professor Rappaport 6/2/06 12:30 pm We should possible think about implementing our system on non-turnstile systems also (for example bus door way) - Possibly track when a person comes into a station and then track when they leave station (will be good in tracking safe of people coming in and out, but down fall will be that it can not be used by one card can not be used by multi people at one entrance. Possible solution it to have outside sensor shut system down when people are exiting) - Need to think of constructive and destructive areas (emag) for antennas situation. Prof. Rappaport mentioned that easy way to fix distance detection problem is to adjust power. - Should use wire at easy antenna - The higher that freq. The easier to direct the bean of reader Possible limitations of RFID tags to consider - The more conducive that worst it is for RFID - Air = 1 - Blood = 60 - Water =80 - Need to be mindful of body and water (but also keep in mind that signal will eventually wrap around body) - Body = 50 - Fatty tissue = 6 – 7 Action items - Should go to train station and observe how people are getting pass turnstile Possible other people to contact - Engineering Tech 31
  32. 32. - Prof. Mousallei - Mike McNeil Meeting with MBTA Automatic Fare Collection Division 6/9/2006 2:00pm Q: What traffic monitoring systems are currently in place? A: The fare gates have 9 sensors. They work off different algorithms to determine the number of people along with successful payments. Each fare gate has a unique identifier. It tracks cards with no money and how many people are in the station Q: Is there any additional features that you would like? A: More flexible reporting capabilities. Statistical queries Q: Is data transmitted in real time? A: Yes data is transmitted in real time on the subway using a secure WAN. - Amount of Debit/Credit transactions on machines is important - Payment options should be monitored - Would like some fare evasion system, the fare evasion system should be self monitoring and the stations with bad levels of fare evasion would have added security. - Charlie cards have a chip inside them that stores account info. - They did a cost benefit analysis to determine if system should be implemented. $200 million system. - They believe the new system will increase rider-ship and decrease fare evasion. - GENPLUS (Smart card producers) - S&B located in Burlington - Aggregate info – any info that doesn’t identify you as a person - Privacy policy on website - Just serial number is stored on the chip inside the smart card. - Smart card should be implemented by January 2007 - Smart card has a security encryption key. 32
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