Your SlideShare is downloading. ×
Fall 2007 RFID – Technical Issues
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5

Thanks for flagging this SlideShare!

Oops! An error has occurred.

Saving this for later? Get the SlideShare app to save on your phone or tablet. Read anywhere, anytime – even offline.
Text the download link to your phone
Standard text messaging rates apply

Fall 2007 RFID – Technical Issues


Published on

Published in: Business, Technology

  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Total Views
On Slideshare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds
Embeds 0
No embeds

Report content
Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

No notes for slide


  • 1. RFID Technical Issues Operations & Decision Technologies Department Kelley School of Business Indiana University
  • 2. What is RFID?
    • RFID stands for Radio Frequency Identification
    • It is a technology that permits contact-free transfer of data using a radio frequency transmission
    • The heart of RFID technology is a transponder, which is a silicon chip attached to an antenna. It is called a tag. The tag can be attached to items that are to be tracked
    • A numeric code is stored on the chip. This code is called the electronic product code (EPC)
    • The code is read when communication takes place between a reader (interrogator) and the tag
  • 3. RFID Technology is Not New!!
    • Tracking livestock (Approximately 15 years)
    • Contactless payments (Approximately 5 years)
      • ExxonMobil Speedpass
      • Tollbooth lanes
    • Event access (Ticketing)
    • Building access control
    • Has been used in manufacturing to track large components such as engines and chassis
    • Has been used for the international postal system for monitoring the quality of service
  • 4. Why Now?
    • The creation of the Electronic Product Code (EPC)
    • Technology changes
    • EPCGlobal Generation 2 standard (Gen 2)
    • The price of the tags has been coming down. However, price is still an issue
    • Mandates by various organizations (European Parliament, DOD, Wal-Mart, Target, etc.)
  • 5. The Wal-Mart Mandate
    • Wal-Mart required its top 100 suppliers to be RFID-enabled at the case and pallet level by January 2005
    • The rest of its suppliers had to be compliant by December 2006
    • Wal-Mart did not endorse specific RFID hardware or software
    • Expected suppliers to perform their own tests of RFID technologies
    • Will impact 10,000+ Suppliers
  • 6. Advantages of RFID
    • Provides non-contact, non-line-of-sight operation
    • Is difficult to counterfeit
    • Is a highly capable and proven technology for a wide range of applications
    • Provides an instantaneous read of code
  • 7. RFID Technology is Maturing
    • Technology has improved significantly
    • Standards are being adopted and agreed upon
    • Some markets are maturing
    • Other markets being identified for possible applications
    • Significant impact expected in SCM
  • 8. RFID Systems
    • Tags are attached to objects
    • Each tag has a certain amount of internal memory in which it stores information about the object
    • This information could be unique ID numbers, details about manufacture date and product composition
  • 9. RFID Systems
    • When the tags pass through a field generated by a reader, they transmit information back to the reader, identifying the object.
    • Until recently the tags and readers were used in systems with low volumes but the objective is to use them in high volume situations
  • 10. Possible Roadblocks
    • Tag reading efficiencies and prices
    • Standards - Applications are global but the basis of radio regulations are national and even regional
    • Interoperability of the technologies through the supply chain
    • Who bears the cost of the RFID system in the supply chain?
  • 11. Possible Roadblocks
    • The barrier points for tags are 2 meters for range and 3GHz for frequency. Below these points, it is possible to make a low cost tag system. Beyond these points, technologies get more expensive
    • IT Infrastructure to handle the large amounts of data
    • Change of work and labor practices
    • Privacy and ethical issues
    • Security issues
  • 12. Improvements in RFID Technology
    • From read-only tags to read-write
    • From no memory in tags to 2K, 8K and in some cases 16K bits
    • Better authentication between tag and reader
    • Anti-collision algorithms for multiple tag reads in the field
    • More sophisticated security algorithms
  • 13. An RFID System Host Computer Control Module Broadcast Interface Transponder Reader Data Transmitted Request Transmitted Data Requested Data Received Command to Retrieve Data Data sent to Host Internet / Intranet
  • 14. RFID Tags
    • Tags can be either active (powered by a battery) or passive (powered by the reader field)
    • Tags can also be semi-active or semi-passive (same type of tag). Such tags have batteries but are only activated by a reader’s electromagnetic field
    • Tags come in various forms including smart cards, tags, labels, watches, and even embedded in cell phones
  • 15. Structure of a Tag
    • Chip + Antennae + Substrate = Tag
    Chip or Integrated Circuit (IC) Antenna
  • 16. An RFID Tag
  • 17. RFID Operating Frequencies
    • Low Frequency (125-134kHz) Used in access control, livestock, race timing, pallet tracking, wireless commerce
    • High Frequency (13.56 mHz) Smart labels – Used in supply chain, wireless commerce, ticketing, product authentication
    • Ultra-High Frequency – UHF (900+mHz) Emerging technology
    • Microwave (2.45 gHz) Not widely deployed
  • 18. RFID Transponder or Tags
    • It is a micro-chip with a unique ID code (UID) and memory
    • It also has an antenna which is usually copper or aluminum
    • Active tags versus passive tags
    • Some chipless tags – very low cost, short read range tags
  • 19. Readability Issues
    • Dead Tags – Unreadable
    • Quiet Tags – Readable but only at a short distance
    • Quality of tags is an issue
    • Readability rates of higher quality tags are at about 97% to 98%. That translates to about 2 Sigma
  • 20. Electronic Product Code
    • Header: Identifies the EPC’s Version Number
    • EPC Manager: Indicates the enterprise using the EPC number
    • Object Class: Refers to the class or category of a product (similar to a Stock Keeping Unit – SKU)
    • Serial Number: Identifies a unique item being tagged
    647.37000.123456.100000000 Header 8 Bits EPC Manager 34 Bits Object Class 20 Bits Serial Number 34 Bits
  • 21. Some Passive Tags
  • 22. Some Active Tags
  • 23. Tag Packaging Formats
    • Weather-proof or environment-proof enclosures
    • Pressure sensitive labels
    • Credit card size flexible labels
    • Tokens and coins
    • Embedded tags
    • Paper tags
  • 24. Transponder/Tag Classes
    • Read Only
    • Write Once Read Only
    • Read/Write
    • Read/Write with On-Board Sensors (for recording parameters such as temperature, pressure, etc.)
    • Read/Write with Integrated Transmitters – Can communicate with other tags and devices without the presence of a reader
  • 25. Low Frequency Tags
    • Typical Maximum Read Range - <0.5 m
    • Relatively expensive even at high volumes. Low frequency requires a longer more expensive copper antenna. Least susceptible to performance degradations from metal and liquids
    • Generally passive tags
    • Applications include access control, animal tracking, POS applications including SpeedPass
    • Data rate slower than other frequencies
    • Passive tag size is larger than other frequencies
  • 26. High Frequency Tags
    • Typical Maximum Read Range – Approx 1m
    • Less expensive than low frequency tags. Best suited for applications that do not require long range reading of multiple tags
    • Generally passive tags
    • Applications include item-level tracking such as baggage handling (non-US)
    • Data rate slower than other ultra high frequencies (UHF)
    • Passive tag size is larger than UHF
  • 27. Ultra High Frequency Tags
    • Typical Maximum Read Range – Approx 3m
    • In large volumes, UHF tags have the potential to be cheaper than either LF or HF tags. Offer balance between range and performance
    • Active tags with integral battery or passive tags
    • Applications include pallet tracking and item-level tracking such as baggage handling (US)
    • Data rate faster than other LF or HF tags
    • Passive tag size is smaller than LF or HF tags
  • 28. Microwave Tags
    • Typical Maximum Read Range – Approx 1m
    • Very similar to UHF tags but with faster read rates. Most susceptible to performance degradations from metal and liquids, particularly metal
    • Active tags with integral battery or passive tags
    • Applications include SCM And toll collection
    • Data rate faster than other ultra high frequencies (UHF)
    • Passive tag size is smaller than UHF tags
  • 29. RFID Readers
    • Readers are radio frequency devices that:
      • Transmit and receive RF signals
      • Contain a control unit to execute commands
      • Incorporate an interface to transfer data
      • Receives commands from a Host computer
      • Responds to software commands from Host
  • 30. A Passive and an Active Reader
  • 31. Reader Characteristics
    • Stationary or Hand-held
    • Multi-protocol?
    • Weather-proof?
    • Read ranges vary from a few centimeters to a few meters
    • Read range is dependent upon broadcast signal strength, size of broadcast antenna, size of transponder antenna, and the environment
  • 32. Antenna Characteristics
    • Transmits and receives RF signals
    • Typically made of copper or aluminum, new technologies emerging for printed antennas
    • Stationary or Hand-held
    • Weather-proof?
    • Fixed or Turnable
  • 33. An Antenna Tunnel Verification tunnel reads Antennas
  • 34. RFID System Issues
    • Read Distance Requirements
      • Long read range
      • Short read range
    • Frequency
      • All frequencies have their pros and cons
    • ISO Standards
      • Proprietary or Standards-based
  • 35. RFID System Issues
    • Government Regulations
      • Varies from country to country
    • Multiple Tag Reading in Same Field
      • Anti-collision algorithms
    • Hardware set-up
      • Environment can affect performance
    • Transponders
  • 36. RFID Players – Hardware
    • Alien Technology
    • Intermec Technology
    • Matrics, Inc.
    • Savi Technology
    • SAMSys Technologies
    • Symbol Technologies
    • Texas Instruments
  • 37. RFID Players - Software
    • Manhattan Associates
    • SAP
    • RedPrairie
    • JDA Software
    • Manugistics
    • EXE Technologies
  • 38. RFID - Middleware
    • TIBCO Software
    • Sun Microsystems
    • webMethods
    • GlobeRanger
    • ConnecTerra
  • 39. RFID – Systems Integrators
    • IBM Global Services
    • Accenture
    • Cap Gemini Ernst and Young
    • Sapient
    • Kurt Salmon Associates
    • The ePC Group