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Fall 2007 RFID – Technical Issues
 

Fall 2007 RFID – Technical Issues

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    Fall 2007 RFID – Technical Issues Fall 2007 RFID – Technical Issues Presentation Transcript

    • RFID Technical Issues Operations & Decision Technologies Department Kelley School of Business Indiana University
    • What is RFID?
      • RFID stands for Radio Frequency Identification
      • It is a technology that permits contact-free transfer of data using a radio frequency transmission
      • The heart of RFID technology is a transponder, which is a silicon chip attached to an antenna. It is called a tag. The tag can be attached to items that are to be tracked
      • A numeric code is stored on the chip. This code is called the electronic product code (EPC)
      • The code is read when communication takes place between a reader (interrogator) and the tag
    • RFID Technology is Not New!!
      • Tracking livestock (Approximately 15 years)
      • Contactless payments (Approximately 5 years)
        • ExxonMobil Speedpass
        • Tollbooth lanes
      • Event access (Ticketing)
      • Building access control
      • Has been used in manufacturing to track large components such as engines and chassis
      • Has been used for the international postal system for monitoring the quality of service
    • Why Now?
      • The creation of the Electronic Product Code (EPC)
      • Technology changes
      • EPCGlobal Generation 2 standard (Gen 2)
      • The price of the tags has been coming down. However, price is still an issue
      • Mandates by various organizations (European Parliament, DOD, Wal-Mart, Target, etc.)
    • The Wal-Mart Mandate
      • Wal-Mart required its top 100 suppliers to be RFID-enabled at the case and pallet level by January 2005
      • The rest of its suppliers had to be compliant by December 2006
      • Wal-Mart did not endorse specific RFID hardware or software
      • Expected suppliers to perform their own tests of RFID technologies
      • Will impact 10,000+ Suppliers
    • Advantages of RFID
      • Provides non-contact, non-line-of-sight operation
      • Is difficult to counterfeit
      • Is a highly capable and proven technology for a wide range of applications
      • Provides an instantaneous read of code
    • RFID Technology is Maturing
      • Technology has improved significantly
      • Standards are being adopted and agreed upon
      • Some markets are maturing
      • Other markets being identified for possible applications
      • Significant impact expected in SCM
    • RFID Systems
      • Tags are attached to objects
      • Each tag has a certain amount of internal memory in which it stores information about the object
      • This information could be unique ID numbers, details about manufacture date and product composition
    • RFID Systems
      • When the tags pass through a field generated by a reader, they transmit information back to the reader, identifying the object.
      • Until recently the tags and readers were used in systems with low volumes but the objective is to use them in high volume situations
    • Possible Roadblocks
      • Tag reading efficiencies and prices
      • Standards - Applications are global but the basis of radio regulations are national and even regional
      • Interoperability of the technologies through the supply chain
      • Who bears the cost of the RFID system in the supply chain?
    • Possible Roadblocks
      • The barrier points for tags are 2 meters for range and 3GHz for frequency. Below these points, it is possible to make a low cost tag system. Beyond these points, technologies get more expensive
      • IT Infrastructure to handle the large amounts of data
      • Change of work and labor practices
      • Privacy and ethical issues
      • Security issues
    • Improvements in RFID Technology
      • From read-only tags to read-write
      • From no memory in tags to 2K, 8K and in some cases 16K bits
      • Better authentication between tag and reader
      • Anti-collision algorithms for multiple tag reads in the field
      • More sophisticated security algorithms
    • An RFID System Host Computer Control Module Broadcast Interface Transponder Reader Data Transmitted Request Transmitted Data Requested Data Received Command to Retrieve Data Data sent to Host Internet / Intranet
    • RFID Tags
      • Tags can be either active (powered by a battery) or passive (powered by the reader field)
      • Tags can also be semi-active or semi-passive (same type of tag). Such tags have batteries but are only activated by a reader’s electromagnetic field
      • Tags come in various forms including smart cards, tags, labels, watches, and even embedded in cell phones
    • Structure of a Tag
      • Chip + Antennae + Substrate = Tag
      Chip or Integrated Circuit (IC) Antenna
    • An RFID Tag
    • RFID Operating Frequencies
      • Low Frequency (125-134kHz) Used in access control, livestock, race timing, pallet tracking, wireless commerce
      • High Frequency (13.56 mHz) Smart labels – Used in supply chain, wireless commerce, ticketing, product authentication
      • Ultra-High Frequency – UHF (900+mHz) Emerging technology
      • Microwave (2.45 gHz) Not widely deployed
    • RFID Transponder or Tags
      • It is a micro-chip with a unique ID code (UID) and memory
      • It also has an antenna which is usually copper or aluminum
      • Active tags versus passive tags
      • Some chipless tags – very low cost, short read range tags
    • Readability Issues
      • Dead Tags – Unreadable
      • Quiet Tags – Readable but only at a short distance
      • Quality of tags is an issue
      • Readability rates of higher quality tags are at about 97% to 98%. That translates to about 2 Sigma
    • Electronic Product Code
      • Header: Identifies the EPC’s Version Number
      • EPC Manager: Indicates the enterprise using the EPC number
      • Object Class: Refers to the class or category of a product (similar to a Stock Keeping Unit – SKU)
      • Serial Number: Identifies a unique item being tagged
      647.37000.123456.100000000 Header 8 Bits EPC Manager 34 Bits Object Class 20 Bits Serial Number 34 Bits
    • Some Passive Tags
    • Some Active Tags
    • Tag Packaging Formats
      • Weather-proof or environment-proof enclosures
      • Pressure sensitive labels
      • Credit card size flexible labels
      • Tokens and coins
      • Embedded tags
      • Paper tags
    • Transponder/Tag Classes
      • Read Only
      • Write Once Read Only
      • Read/Write
      • Read/Write with On-Board Sensors (for recording parameters such as temperature, pressure, etc.)
      • Read/Write with Integrated Transmitters – Can communicate with other tags and devices without the presence of a reader
    • Low Frequency Tags
      • Typical Maximum Read Range - <0.5 m
      • Relatively expensive even at high volumes. Low frequency requires a longer more expensive copper antenna. Least susceptible to performance degradations from metal and liquids
      • Generally passive tags
      • Applications include access control, animal tracking, POS applications including SpeedPass
      • Data rate slower than other frequencies
      • Passive tag size is larger than other frequencies
    • High Frequency Tags
      • Typical Maximum Read Range – Approx 1m
      • Less expensive than low frequency tags. Best suited for applications that do not require long range reading of multiple tags
      • Generally passive tags
      • Applications include item-level tracking such as baggage handling (non-US)
      • Data rate slower than other ultra high frequencies (UHF)
      • Passive tag size is larger than UHF
    • Ultra High Frequency Tags
      • Typical Maximum Read Range – Approx 3m
      • In large volumes, UHF tags have the potential to be cheaper than either LF or HF tags. Offer balance between range and performance
      • Active tags with integral battery or passive tags
      • Applications include pallet tracking and item-level tracking such as baggage handling (US)
      • Data rate faster than other LF or HF tags
      • Passive tag size is smaller than LF or HF tags
    • Microwave Tags
      • Typical Maximum Read Range – Approx 1m
      • Very similar to UHF tags but with faster read rates. Most susceptible to performance degradations from metal and liquids, particularly metal
      • Active tags with integral battery or passive tags
      • Applications include SCM And toll collection
      • Data rate faster than other ultra high frequencies (UHF)
      • Passive tag size is smaller than UHF tags
    • RFID Readers
      • Readers are radio frequency devices that:
        • Transmit and receive RF signals
        • Contain a control unit to execute commands
        • Incorporate an interface to transfer data
        • Receives commands from a Host computer
        • Responds to software commands from Host
    • A Passive and an Active Reader
    • Reader Characteristics
      • Stationary or Hand-held
      • Multi-protocol?
      • Weather-proof?
      • Read ranges vary from a few centimeters to a few meters
      • Read range is dependent upon broadcast signal strength, size of broadcast antenna, size of transponder antenna, and the environment
    • Antenna Characteristics
      • Transmits and receives RF signals
      • Typically made of copper or aluminum, new technologies emerging for printed antennas
      • Stationary or Hand-held
      • Weather-proof?
      • Fixed or Turnable
    • An Antenna Tunnel Verification tunnel reads Antennas
    • RFID System Issues
      • Read Distance Requirements
        • Long read range
        • Short read range
      • Frequency
        • All frequencies have their pros and cons
      • ISO Standards
        • Proprietary or Standards-based
    • RFID System Issues
      • Government Regulations
        • Varies from country to country
      • Multiple Tag Reading in Same Field
        • Anti-collision algorithms
      • Hardware set-up
        • Environment can affect performance
      • Transponders
    • RFID Players – Hardware
      • Alien Technology
      • Intermec Technology
      • Matrics, Inc.
      • Savi Technology
      • SAMSys Technologies
      • Symbol Technologies
      • Texas Instruments
    • RFID Players - Software
      • Manhattan Associates
      • SAP
      • RedPrairie
      • JDA Software
      • Manugistics
      • EXE Technologies
    • RFID - Middleware
      • TIBCO Software
      • Sun Microsystems
      • webMethods
      • GlobeRanger
      • ConnecTerra
    • RFID – Systems Integrators
      • IBM Global Services
      • Accenture
      • Cap Gemini Ernst and Young
      • Sapient
      • Kurt Salmon Associates
      • The ePC Group